Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1444
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Winkler Tilo - - 2007
Heterogeneity of airway constriction and regional ventilation in asthma are commonly studied under the paradigm that each airway's response is independent from other airways. However, some paradoxical effects and contradictions in recent experimental and theoretical findings suggest that considering interactions among serial and parallel airways may be necessary. To examine ...
Mansournia Mohammad Ali - - 2007
Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a clinical syndrome that affects 8-20% of the general population and 11-50% of athletes. Although a variety of testing protocols for the diagnosis of EIB have been pursued, the optimal algorithm still is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EIB ...
Berdal J-E - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns and dynamics of the microbiota in the airways of ventilated patients. Seventy-four mechanically-ventilated patients were recruited consecutively, and oropharyngeal, tracheal and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid specimens were collected 48 h after intubation, and every 72 h thereafter until the patient was ...
Menzies Daniel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Valved holding chambers improve delivery of inhaled corticosteroids to the lung but are bulky in design. A novel compact vortex actuator device has therefore been developed. OBJECTIVES: To compare the in vitro and in vivo performance of a novel compact vortex actuator (the Neohaler [NH]) vs a conventional small-volume ...
Vos R - - 2007
Lower airway tract colonization may trigger neutrophil-mediated airway inflammation. We investigated whether transient airway colonization influences airway inflammation and pulmonary function after lung transplantation (LTx). In this retrospective study, stable LTx patients with consecutive broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL), the first colonized and the second noncolonized, were included to create a Pooled ...
Carlsten Chris - - 2007
The safety of sputum induction (SI) is well described in stable asthma, but the safety of SI in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been established. Our goals were to examine the relationship between the severity of EIB and bronchoconstriction during SI, and to determine if SI conducted after exercise challenge ...
Haverkamp Hans C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways that can lead to impaired arterial blood oxygenation during exercise. OBJECTIVE: We asked whether treatment of airway inflammation in asthmatic subjects would improve arterial blood gases during whole-body exercise. METHODS: By using a double-blind parallel-group design, 19 asthmatic subjects completed treadmill ...
Philip George - - 2007
The objective of this double-blind cross-over study was to evaluate montelukast for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Sixty-two patients with EIB (post-exercise decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) > or = 20% at pre-randomization) were randomized to montelukast 10 mg or placebo, followed by exercise-challenge 2, ...
Serisier David J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Inhaled, short-acting beta-adrenergic agonists (SAbetaAs) are widely prescribed in cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects, despite a lack of convincing data for efficacy and the potential for these agents to result in airway instability. We tested the hypothesis that inhaled albuterol would improve maximal exercise performance in CF subjects with airflow ...
Skloot Gwen S - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: Deep inspiration (DI) protects against methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that this bronchoprotective effect of DI depends upon the inspiratory flow rate. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled study. SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory within a large tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Ten healthy nonsmokers without asthma or rhinitis. ...
Wine Jeffrey J - - 2007
Airway submucosal glands produce the mucus that lines the upper airways to protect them against insults. This review summarizes evidence for two forms of gland secretion, and hypothesizes that each is mediated by different but partially overlapping neural pathways. Airway innate defense comprises low level gland secretion, mucociliary clearance and ...
Burki Nausherwan K - - 2008
We have recently shown that intravenous injection of adenosine causes dyspnea and hyperventilation in man, and we suggested that stimulation of vagal C-fibers in the airways and lungs is involved. To test this hypothesis further, the present study was performed in healthy subjects (n=12; age 32.4+/-10.2 yrs, 7 females) to ...
McIlwaine Maggie - - 2007
Chest physiotherapy in the form of airway clearance techniques and exercise has played an important role in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Until the 1990s the primary airway clearance technique used was postural drainage combined with percussion and vibration (PD&P). It was introduced into the treatment of CF with little ...
Hallstrand Teal S - - 2007
The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) involves the release of mediators from several airway cells in response to exercise challenge, but the mechanism leading to airflow obstruction during EIB is incompletely understood. To evaluate the role of secreted mucin in the pathogenesis of EIB. Induced sputum was collected at baseline ...
Rancourt Raymond C - - 2007
Thioredoxin (Trx) decreases viscosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum. In this study reduced Trx increased the solubility and decreased the size of MUC5B glycoprotein while reducing disulfide bonds in sputum. Because Trx used as a mucolytic would enter airways, this study determined the effects of intratracheal instillation of reduced recombinant ...
Lim Y - - 2007
We tested the hypothesis that the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is superior to laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation for gynaecological laparoscopy. One-hundred and eighty consecutive patients (ASA grade 1-2, aged 18-80 y) were divided into two equal-sized groups for airway management with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway or tracheal tube. Induction was ...
How Stephen C - - 2007
We assessed upper airway responses to acute and chronic inspiratory loading. In Experiment I, 11 healthy subjects underwent T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of upper airway dilator muscles (genioglossus and geniohyoid) before and up to 10 min after a single bout of pressure threshold inspiratory muscle training (IMT) at 60% ...
Valerio Giuseppe - - 2007
Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by airway inflammation and oedema. The oedema of the airway wall may contribute to airway narrowing and hyperresponsiveness by increasing airway wall thickness, by altering airway compliance, or by impairing the transmission of the lung elastic recoil to the airway ...
Fun W L L - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In this randomized clinical study, we compared the intubation success rates of the intubating laryngeal mask airway with the GlideScope in patients with normal airways. The primary hypothesis was that the intubating laryngeal mask airway was equally effective as the GlideScope in terms of successful intubation times. ...
Yang Shinhao - - 2007
This study was undertaken to determine the effects of using an electret filter on aerosol penetration. Various factors, including particle size (0.05 to 0.5 micro m), aerosol charge state (neutral and single charge), face velocity (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s), and relative humidity (RH 30% and RH 70%), were ...
Ishiura Yoshihisa - - 2007
Inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, but the role of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) remains obscure. This study was designed to investigate the role of PGI2 in cough reflex sensitivity of the asthmatic airway, which is characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The effect of beraprost, a ...
Zietkowski Ziemowit - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition whose pathogenesis and effect on airways remain unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelial-derived mediators following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. METHODS: The study was conducted in a group of 25 asthmatic patients (15 with ...
Raza A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea is caused by collapse of the upper airway. The presence of CO(2) in the upper airway lumen evokes a number of reflexes which favour upper airway re-opening, and we have proposed previously that CO(2) would build up in the upper airway following airway collapse and that ...
Chang Catherina L - - 2007
AIM: The effectiveness of the fully subsidised bronchodilator in New Zealand, Salamol, has recently been questioned. We compared the efficacy of Salamol and Ventolin inhalers in relieving acute bronchospasm. We also tested the efficacy of partially used Salamol inhalers because of concerns that the device may become blocked during use. ...
Zietkowski Ziemowit - - 2007
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels ...
Koh M S - - 2007
The pathogenesis of exercise induced bronchoconstriction is likely multifactorial and is not completely understood. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects but the evidence seems less strong in non-asthmatic subjects. The management of exercise induced bronchoconstriction focuses on prevention, through both pharmacologic ...
Lucero Pedro F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) has a prevalence of 6% to 7% in United States Army personnel and 3% to 13% in professional athletes. There are reported concerns that military personnel with EIB will have increased airway hyperreactivity or significant dyspnea while wearing the standard military M40 protective mask. The objective ...
Lee So-Yeon - - 2006
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) was associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), atopy and airway obstruction. To understand the pathogenesis of EIB, we determine whether eosinophil is more related to the mechanism of EIB than atopy, BHR and airway obstruction. This study comprised 268 asthmatic children who underwent lung function ...
Mickleborough T D - - 2007
Approximately half of all asthmatics become refractory to exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) with repeated challenges. Exercise refractoriness has been utilized by asthmatic athletes to reduce the bronchoconstrictor response to exercise prior to competition, and this has led to the observation that some asthmatic athletes can "run through" their asthma. The main ...
Nobata Kouichi - - 2006
Cough due to cough-variant asthma (CVA) responds well to bronchodilators such as beta 2 adrenergic agonists. The aim of this study was to assess longitudinal changes of pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness in CVA, which was treated with bronchodilators alone. Seventeen CVA patients recorded intensity and frequency of cough every ...
Prince Philippe - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) analysis is a noninvasive method for assessing lower airway inflammation. Various methods of collecting EBC have been described. However, they are often time-consuming or involve expensive equipment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficiency and repeatability of a simple, fast, and inexpensive method of EBC collection for ...
García-Río F - - 2006
Data on the relationship between exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in adult patients with asthma are controversial. It is unclear whether endogenous NO may act as either a protective or stimulatory factor in the airway response to exercise or whether changes in exhaled NO simply reflect acute ...
van der Vaart Hester - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Sputum induction is a tool to monitor airway inflammation, yet it may induce by itself a neutrophilic response when repeated within 24 to 48 h. This limits its repeated use in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the induction and resolution of inflammation generated by repeated sputum inductions. ...
Zeidler Michelle R - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear whether the small airways (diameter <2 microm) contribute significantly to late asthmatic reactions to inhaled allergen. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether naturalistic exposure to cat allergen induced late responses in the small airways as measured by pulmonary function testing and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) ...
Meinero Maurizio - - 2007
The effects of supine posture on airway responses to inhaled methacholine and deep inspiration (DI) were studied in seven male volunteers. On a control day, subjects were in a seated position during both methacholine inhalation and lung function measurements. On a second occasion, the whole procedure was repeated with the ...
Affonce Derek A - - 2006
We revisit the airway wall model of Lambert et. al. (Lambert RK, Wiggs BR, Kuwano K, Hogg JC, and Pare PD. J Appl Physiol 74: 2771-2781, 1993). We examine in detail the notion of a general airway bistability such that the airway lumen can suddenly decrease from a relatively open ...
Davis M S - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Inspired air is warmed to body temperature and fully humidified by the upper airway mucosa under normal resting conditions. This conditioning process may not be completed by the upper airways during conditions of increased minute ventilation or when the inspired air is unusually cold, resulting in ...
Johns David P - - 2006
Anatomical dead space measured by the Fowler method (VDF) is the sum of 2 serial volume compartments (VDF = VDp1 + VDp2). VDF has been shown to increase linearly with end-inspiratory lung volume (EILV) and the gradient of the relationship (DeltaVDF) has been used as an index of airway distensibility. ...
Shin Hye-Won - - 2006
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is altered in asthmatic subjects with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). However, the physiological interpretation of exhaled NO is limited because of its dependence on exhalation flow and the inability to distinguish completely proximal (large airway) from peripheral (small airway and alveolar) contributions. We estimated flow-independent NO exchange ...
Peták Ferenc - - 2006
Neuromuscular blocking drugs can induce intraoperative bronchospasm. We characterized the magnitude and the temporal profile of the constriction in normal or in hyperresponsive airways after injections of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Respiratory system impedance (Zrs) was measured continuously over a 90-s apneic period in naïve and rabbits sensitized to allergens by ...
Medelli J - - 2006
AIM: Asthma affecting elite athletes has been studied mainly in subjects practicing winter sports. The aim of our study was to test the pulmonary function in order to evaluate bronchial hyper-responsiveness prevalence in a team of 25 male professional cyclists (27.9+/-3.9 years old with a VO(2max) equal to 69.9+/-6.6 mL.min(-1) ...
Kanazawa Hiroshi - - 2006
This study was designed to examine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary endothelial cell injury by exercise in asthmatics. Post-exercise circulating thrombomodulin (TM) levels were significantly increased in asthmatics. Moreover, the increase in TM levels with exercise was significantly correlated with VEGF level in induced sputum ...
Subbarao Padmaja - - 2006
Inhaled corticosteroid therapy improves exercise symptoms in asthmatic subjects. We sought to evaluate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) as a method of determining the dose and time responses of inhaled corticosteroid therapy. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study with 2 parallel arms, 4 doses of inhaled ciclesonide (40 microg and 160 microg ...
Horvath Gabor - - 2007
Inhaled corticosteroids have both genomic and nongenomic actions on the tracheobronchial (airway) vasculature in patients with bronchial asthma. Genomic actions involve the activation or repression of target genes associated with inflammation, and reduce inflammatory hyperperfusion in the airway. In contrast, nongenomic actions are mediated by rapid cellular mechanisms, and induce ...
Tantisira Kelan G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Persistently low levels of lung function are associated with subsequent symptoms in patients with asthma as children. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that objective measures of baseline pulmonary function would be independently associated with future lung function in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and that these associations might vary with treatment. ...
Bishop R - - 2007
Exercise stimulus-response relationships for airway blood supply and dimensions have not been described in mammalian species. These relationships are vital for postulates concerning integrated reflex factors normally controlling the airways and which may underlie the asthma syndromes of exercise. This study defines airways stimulus-response relationships in exercising sheep. Ewes between ...
Laveneziana P - - 2006
This study hypothesises that regardless of the global score of dyspnoea intensity, different descriptors may be selected by asthmatic patients during short cardiopulmonary exercise test (sCPET) and methacholine (Mch) inhalation. It also examines whether different qualitative dyspnoea sensations can help explain the underlying mechanisms of the symptom. Minute ventilation (V'E), ...
Tirouvanziam Rabindra - - 2006
Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). As high oxidant producers, airway neutrophils contribute largely to the systemic redox imbalance seen in CF. In turn, this chronic and profound imbalance can impact circulating neutrophils before their migration into airways. Indeed, in 18 CF patients with stable disease, ...
Torchio Roberto - - 2006
We examined the effects of chest wall strapping (CWS) on the response to inhaled methacholine (MCh) and the effects of deep inspiration (DI). Eight subjects were studied on 1 day with MCh inhaled without CWS (CTRL), 1 day with MCh inhaled during CWS (CWSon/on), and 1 day with MCh inhaled ...
Brown Robert H - - 2006
We hypothesized that structural airway remodeling contributes to airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. Small, medium, and large airways were analyzed by computed tomography in 21 asthmatic volunteers under baseline conditions (FEV1 = 64% predicted) and after maximum response to albuterol (FEV1 = 76% predicted). The difference in pulmonary function between ...
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