Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1449
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St-Laurent Julie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages (AM) are the most numerous immune cells in the airways and are involved in the immunological homeostasis of the lung. Intriguingly, their role in asthma remains unclear probably, in part, because of their heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To characterize AM population from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and induced sputum (IS) ...
Bougault V - - 2009
Endurance athletes show an increased prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term effects of training on airway responsiveness, inflammation and epithelial damage in swimmers and cold-air athletes. In total, 64 elite athletes (32 swimmers and 32 cold-air athletes), 32 mild asthmatic subjects ...
Hallstrand Teal S - - 2009
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) refers to acute airflow obstruction that is triggered by a period of physical exertion. EIB occurs mainly in individuals with other features of asthma but is especially prominent in a subset of asthmatics with pronounced indirect airway hyperresponsiveness. Leukotrienes (LTs) play a critical role in the pathophysiology ...
Abanses Juan Carlos - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Vicks VapoRub (VVR) [Proctor and Gamble; Cincinnati, OH] is often used to relieve symptoms of chest congestion. We cared for a toddler in whom severe respiratory distress developed after VVR was applied directly under her nose. We hypothesized that VVR induced inflammation and adversely affected mucociliary function, and tested ...
Kemp James P - - 2009
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is very common in both patients with asthma and those who are otherwise thought to be normal. The intensity of exercise as well as the type of exercise is important in producing symptoms. This may make some types of exercise such as swimming more suitable and extended ...
Widdicombe John - - 2009
Twelve distinguished scientists attended the workshop, heard three presentations, and took part in the discussions. Fontana first described his unpublished studies on cough in exercise and during hyperventilation with healthy subjects. Both activities depressed cough induced by inhalation of distilled water aerosol (fog). The possible mechanisms were discussed. Gibson then ...
Bhowmik Angshu - - 2009
Patients with COPD usually experience mucus hypersecretion as a result of airway inflammation and response to noxious stimuli. These in turn lead to worsening airway resistance, impaired airflow, increased work of breathing, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Mucus hypersecretion may also lead to increased exacerbations and poor health related quality of ...
Mickleborough Timothy D TD Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47401, USA. - - 2008
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a condition in which vigorous physical activity triggers acute airway obstruction in asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals with hyperresponsive airways. Studies have shown that inflammatory mediators and contraction of airway smooth muscle are central components in the pathogenesis of EIB, and it has long been recognized that ...
Joad Jesse P JP Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine; University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 95616, USA. - - 2009
Infants exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) experience more problems with wheezing. This study was designed to determine if perinatal SHS exposure increases intrinsic and/or in vivo airway responsiveness to methacholine and whether potential structural/cellular alterations in the airway might explain the change in responsiveness. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were exposed ...
Komatsu R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: /st> Airway Scope is a new videolaryngoscope which requires less cervical movement during intubation than direct laryngoscopy. Thus, in patients wearing a rigid cervical collar, we compared the efficacy of the Airway Scope and the gum elastic bougie with Macintosh laryngoscope during tracheal intubation. METHODS: /st> Anaesthesia was induced ...
Billen A - - 2008
Exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise, and is prevalent in elite athletes. Prolonged hyperventilation of dry or cold air and increased inhalation of pollutants or allergens could account for the bronchoconstrictive reaction. The subsequent airway inflammation seems to ...
Allen Nathan D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: One of the characteristic features of the hyperresponsive airway smooth muscle in asthma is the loss of deep-inhalation bronchoprotection and bronchodilation. The airway of individuals with asthma is also characterized by inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the loss of deep-inhalation bronchoprotection is correlated with the degree of inflammation in ...
Ruiz Schütz Viviane C - - 2009
We investigated the effects of oral tolerance (OT) in controlling inflammatory response, hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling in guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Animals received seven inhalations of ovalbumin (1-5mg/mL-OVA group) or normal saline (NS group). OT was induced by offering ad libitum ovalbumin 2% in sterile drinking water ...
Williams A - - 2008
A 72 year-old man with an anticipated difficult airway secondary to a large, obstructing supraglottic tumour was scheduled for a panendoscopy. An elective pre-induction transtracheal catheter was placed to allow oxygenation if airway maintenance proved difficult. Following induction of anaesthesia, tracheal intubation was impossible and ventilation via both a facepiece ...
Dempsey Jerome A - - 2008
This review addresses three types of causes of respiratory system limitations to O(2) transport and exercise performance that are experienced by significant numbers of active, highly fit younger and older adults. First, flow limitation in intrathoracic airways may occur during exercise because of narrowed, hyperactive airways or secondary to excessive ...
Grob Natalia M - - 2008
Exhaled NO (FE(NO)) measurements have been utilized as a marker to diagnose asthma as well as a non-invasive tool for monitoring airway inflammation and the response to anti-inflammatory medications. One area where this non-invasive monitoring may be helpful is for asthmatic athletes as they train for competitive events. We hypothesized ...
Barreto Mario - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in the asthmatic child is associated with persistent airway inflammation and poor disease control. EIB could arise partly from airway oxidative stress. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) levels of 8-isoprostane (IsoP), which is a known marker of oxidative stress, might therefore be helpful for monitoring asthma noninvasively. ...
Zietkowski Z - - 2009
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation. In the pathogenesis of EIB the role of chemokines - responsible for promoting the migration and activation of inflammatory cells - as well as blood platelets, a potential source of those chemokines, remains unclear. METHODS: ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2008
The prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is reported to be high among recreational and elite athletes, yet diagnosis is often symptom-based. Indirect challenges such as the laboratory exercise challenge provide objective criteria for proper diagnosis and treatment. However, a standardized protocol using appropriate exercise intensity, duration, and dry air inhalation is ...
Hishinuma Shigeru - - 2008
1. We have reported previously that, in the smooth muscle of guinea-pig taenia caeci, the development of carbachol-induced desensitization to carbachol and histamine has a similar time-course whereas desensitization to high K(+) is interrupted by sustained resensitization. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the development of histamine-induced desensitization to ...
Chapman D G - - 2008
In order to investigate whether increased airway closure is a component of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway closure was compared during induced bronchoconstriction in 62 asthmatic, 41 nonasthmatic nonobese (control) and 20 nonasthmatic obese (obese) subjects. Airway closure and airway narrowing were measured by spirometry as percentage change in forced vital ...
Liu Audrey - - 2008
We characterized the passive structural and active neuromuscular control of pharyngeal collapsibility in mice and hypothesized that pharyngeal collapsibility, which is elevated by anatomic loads, is reduced by active neuromuscular responses to airflow obstruction. To address this hypothesis, we examined the dynamic control of upper airway function in the isolated ...
Park Chan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Muscarinic receptor agonists increase water secretion from the acinar cells of respiratory, sweat, salivary, and lacrimal glands. Mice lacking the gene for aqueous water channel aquaporin (Aqp) 5 exhibit methacholine-induced bronchiolar hyperreactivity when compared to normal mice. Individuals with asthma also have enhanced airway responsiveness to methacholine and diminished ...
Morris Norman R NR School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Qld 4222, Australia. - - 2008
This study examined the relationship between airway blood flow (Q(aw)), ventilation (V(E)) and cardiac output (Q(tot)) during exercise in healthy humans (n=12, mean age 34+/-11 yr). Q(aw) was estimated from the uptake of the soluble gas dimethyl ether while V(E) and Q(tot) were measured using open circuit spirometry. Measurements were ...
Kang Mi-Jin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: IL-13 is a pivotal cytokine in allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and is known to influence leukotriene levels. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether IL-13 polymorphisms may be associated with clinical phenotypes and drug responsiveness to the leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) in Korean asthmatic children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). METHODS: We ...
Lai-Fook Stephen J - - 2008
A single-projection X-ray technique showed an increase in functional residual capacity (FRC) in conscious mice in response to aerosolized methacholine (MCh) with little change in airway resistance (Raw) measured using barometric plethysmography (Lai-Fook SJ, Houtz PK, Lai Y-L. J Appl Physiol 104: 521-533, 2008). The increase in FRC presumably prevented ...
Pedersen Lars - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Whereas increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are well documented in adult elite athletes, it remains uncertain whether the same airway changes are present in adolescents involved in elite sport. OBJECTIVE: To investigate airway responsiveness and airway inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study ...
Anderson Sandra D - - 2008
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a consequence of evaporative water loss in conditioning the inspired air. The water loss causes cooling and dehydration of the airway surface. One acute effect of dehydration is the release of mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, that can stimulate smooth muscle, causing contraction and ...
Lee Lu-Yuan - - 2009
C-fibers represent the majority of vagal afferents innervating the airways and lung, and can be activated by inhaled chemical irritants and certain endogenous substances. Stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers with selective chemical activators by either inhalation or intravenous injection evokes irritation, burning and choking sensations in the throat, neck and upper ...
Ribeiro M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) can be studied by bronchoprovocation test (BPT) using direct (methacholine - MCh) or indirect (adenosine 5'-monophosphate - AMP) stimuli. These two substances have not been compared in cough variant asthma (CVA). OBJECTIVE: We designed a randomized, single-blind, cross-over study to compare AMP and MCh in the ...
Kim H J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) with the classic Macintosh laryngoscope in simulated airway scenarios of varying difficulty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, crossover and randomised study was performed. Four airway scenarios were simulated using the Airsim model as follows: normal; cervical spine immobilisation; tongue oedema and combined ...
Pradeep P V PV Department of Endocrine Surgery, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rae Bareilly Road, Lucknow - 226 014, - - 2008
A large number of patients in our country develop goiters which seem to be apparently asymptomatic. Conventional radiography does not address the abnormal air flow dynamics. Flow volume loop studies have shown characteristic dampening of both inspiratory and expiratory curves. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) can provide a simple noninvasive method ...
James Alan L - - 2008
The perimeter of the basement membrane (Pbm) of an airway viewed in cross section is used as a marker of airway size because in normal lungs it is relatively constant, despite variations in airway smooth muscle (ASM) shortening and airway collapse. In vitro studies (McParland BE, Pare PD, Johnson PR, ...
Boskabady Mohammad H - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Increased airway responsiveness to beta-agonists is noted in asthmatics and smokers. The lung may be exposed to chemical warfare agents such as mustard gas and pulmonary complications of exposure range from no effect to severe bronchial stenosis. There is little understanding of airway hyperresponsiveness to beta-agonist drugs ...
Kodali Bhavani-Shankar - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There are no prospective studies that evaluated airway changes during labor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate airway changes in women undergoing labor and delivery. METHODS: Two studies were undertaken to evaluate airway changes during labor. The first study used the conventional Samsoon modification of the Mallampati ...
Manrique H A - - 2008
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchoprovocation reproduces the lung function abnormalities that occur spontaneously during acute asthma and detects peripheral airway inflammation better than direct bronchoconstrictive agents. Pulmonary gas exchange disturbances may reflect changes in small airways related to airway inflammation rather than bronchoconstriction alone. The present authors investigated whether AMP induced ...
Snibson Ken - - 2008
The authors recently showed that preterm birth per se, in the absence of assisted ventilation or elevated inhaled oxygen levels, alters the structure of the airway walls in young lambs. The initial aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes persist into adulthood. Preterm (P; n = ...
Zietkowski Z - - 2008
The interactions between CD40 and its ligand, CD40L, control humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. CD40 ligation may promote asthma-associated inflammatory responses in the airways. Many reports confirm the inflammatory basis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthmatics. The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, ...
Barg W - - 2008
We present a case of anaphylactic shock induced by exercise following celery ingestion. The possible mechanism of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) and the laboratory tests for its diagnosis are discussed. We evaluated spontaneous, celery-allergen-induced, and anti-FcepsilonRI-antibody-induced histamine release from basophils obtained from the patient, 2 celery-allergic controls, and 3 healthy ...
Pearlman D S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) affects up to 90% of all patients with asthma. Objective. This study evaluated the ability of levalbuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 90 mug (two actuations of 45 microg) administered via metered dose inhaler (MDI) to protect against EIB in mild-to-moderate asthmatics. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ...
Morris Michael J - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Asthma is frequently diagnosed in military personnel despite strict guidelines that disqualify persons with active disease or a recent history of asthma. It is generally considered incompatible with military service, because of the regular physical training, outdoor training exercises, and deployments to remote locations. The objective of this study ...
Lavorini Federico - - 2008
For inhaled medications, bioequivalence testing is becoming increasingly important owing to the availability of many inhalation devices. We evaluated agreement between the Finney bioassay and the Emax model in the assessment of bioequivalence of salbutamol administered via a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer (pMDI+ Volumatic) or via a dry-powder inhaler ...
Marchal François - - 2008
The airways are thought to dilate during exercise in humans but the time course and mechanisms of the response are not fully described. The aim of the study was to document changes in airway calibre during electrically induced muscular contractions (MC) in spontaneously breathing rabbits. Experiments were also performed after ...
Stensrud Trine - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequently reported in endurance athletes, particularly in cross-country skiers. It has been reported that an exercise field test performed with the competitive type of exercise is the better for diagnosing asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in athletes than bronchial provocation with methacholine. OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to ...
Kempainen Robert R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) is commonly used by cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for airway clearance. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the use of a newer HFCWO device that generates oscillations with a triangular waveform results in greater sputum production than a commonly used ...
Connolly Maureen - - 2007
We present a 14-year-old girl with self-induced areas of hypo- and hyperpigmenation on her forearm as a result of applying 10 blasts of an asthmatic aerosol inhaler directly to her skin. We emphasize the importance of being aware of potential danger associated with the common metered-dose inhaler when it is ...
Fink James B - - 2007
In health, secretions produced in the respiratory tract are cleared by mucociliary transport, cephalad airflow bias, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce secretion clearance, leading to increased risk of infection. In obstructive lung disease these conditions are ...
Vieira Rodolfo P - - 2007
RATIONALE: Aerobic conditioning improves exercise capacity and decreases symptoms in patients with asthma. However, its benefits in the context of allergic airway inflammation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of two intensities of aerobic exercise on airway inflammation and remodeling in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation. ...
Lavorini Federico - - 2007
RATIONALE: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a genetic disorder mainly characterized by failure of automatic control of breathing, causing alveolar hypoventilation. Little is known regarding cough in CCHS. Parental reports indicate that patients cough normally during airway infections; however, previous studies have demonstrated no cough response to fog inhalation. ...
Nishio Ken - - 2007
The relationship between exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) should be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between eNO and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) by estimation of the each lung parameter in asthmatic children who performed a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Twenty children with ...
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