Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1449
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Hardy K G - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Airway narrowing causes alterations in the shape of an exhaled aerosol bolus that can serve as indexes of airway changes during bronchoprovocation. We compared the sensitivities of aerosol bolus behavior and specific airway conductance (SGaw) during bronchoprovocation in normal subjects. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen normal, nonsmoking subjects were ...
Cazzola M - - 1998
The assessment of reversibility is recognized as being an essential part of the management of airways obstruction, but testing for reversibility of airways obstruction may not be useful for identifying patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are likely to benefit from bronchodilator treatment. We studied 100 patients with ...
Gutiérrez V - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although some non-asthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis exhibit airway hyperresponsiveness and increased diurnal peak expiratory flow (PEF) variation, little is known about the critical features that determine these physiologic alterations. OBJECTIVE: In subjects with allergic rhinitis and methacholine hyperresponsiveness but no asthma symptoms, we examined whether there were features ...
Cockcroft D W - - 1998
The understanding of how inhaled allergens affect the asthmatic patient has changed significantly over the years. Allergen inhalation was first recognized as a cause of asthma in 1873, and the clinically important late asthmatic response (LAR) was demonstrated, albeit crudely, in 1952. Immunopathogenesis of the LAR was controversial until the ...
Putensen C - - 1998
Ten patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) received in random order nitric oxide (NO) inhalation, aerosolized prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), infusion of PGE1, or no intervention. Inhalation of either aerosolized PGE1 (10 +/- 1 ng/kg/min) or NO (7 +/- 1 ppm) reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) from 158 +/- 14 ...
Helenius I J - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: To study factors affecting the occurrence of exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) in elite runners. METHODS: Fifty eight elite runners, 79% of them belonging to Finnish national teams, volunteered. The athletes answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Skin prick tests were used to investigate atopy, and spirometry to examine lung ...
Dahl R - - 1998
The main differences in the anatomies of the upper and lower airways are the vascular characteristics and bony surroundings of the upper airways compared with the smooth muscle component and the loose-lying situation of the lower airways. Both allergic asthma and rhinitis involve a similar process of mucosal inflammation in ...
Hare J E - - 1998
Horses are known to acquire small airway disease (SAD), an allergen-induced naturally occurring syndrome of reversible obstructive lung disease accompanied by airway hyperresponsiveness and increased inflammatory cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). This disorder has received scant attention in young racehorses. The purpose of the present report was to examine ...
Takahashi Y - - 1998
In some COPD patients, in contrast to those with ARDS, inhaled NO reportedly worsens hypoxemia. The issue examined in this study was whether inhaled NO improves or worsens hypoxemia in humans during bronchoconstriction induced by methacholine (MCh) nebulization. Five healthy subjects and six asthma patients were recruited, and during 80 ...
Beyaert C A - - 1998
Airway dilation is one of the many autonomic responses to exercise. Two neural mechanisms are believed to evoke these responses: central command and the muscle reflex. Previously, we found that activation of central command, evoked by electrical and chemical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region, constricted the airways rather than ...
Sapienza M A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important part in the regulation of many physiological functions and may also be involved in several pulmonary diseases. Endogenous NO is synthesised by different isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. METHODS: The effect of inhaled L-arginine 0.75 g (six normal and six asthmatic ...
Lehnigk B - - 1998
The novel 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor, ABT-761, was investigated for its effect on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. The relationship between 5-LO inhibition and effects on the response of the airways to exercise was examined. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover clinical trial, 10 patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma (who ...
Suga K K Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, New York 10032, - - 1998
To establish the effect of an aerosolized synthetic surfactant (Exosurf) on pulmonary 99mTc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol deposition and clearance, radioaerosol studies were performed at varying times and under varying conditions after surfactant inhalation in canine lungs. Twenty-three dogs had a baseline 99mTc-DTPA study; 2 days later the study was ...
Sjöstedt L - - 1998
Lung function, studied with spirometry, nitrogen washout technique, and methacholine responsiveness, was prospectively investigated in a seven-year follow-up study of 35 laboratory animal workers (19 women and 16 men) of whom 11 were skin prick test (SPT) positive to laboratory animal allergens; five had asthma and six had rhinitis symptoms. ...
Hoffman A M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To correlate indices of airway reactivity to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytologic features in horses with a recent decline in exercise tolerance. ANIMALS: 20 actively working horses from 2 to 24 years old. PROCEDURE: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were obtained and analyzed. Forced oscillatory mechanics (1-7 Hz) technique was ...
Holz O - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Sputnum induction is a non-invasive method for obtaining cellular and biochemical material from the airways and appears to be particularly suited for repeated testing. However, it has not been clarified whether repeated inductions lead to a change in sputum composition. The aim of this study was to compare induced ...
Tan K S - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Previously it has been shown that there is abnormal hormonal control of beta2-adrenoceptors in asthmatic women. Exogenous progesterone but not estradiol produces paradoxic downregulation and desensitization of beta2-adrenoceptors in asthmatic women when compared with nonasthmatic subjects. This study investigates the effect of the oral combined contraceptive pill (OCP) ...
Vargas L - - 1998
The respiratory burst of phagocytes plays an important role in the tissue damage that accompanies the inflammatory response. One of these conditions is allergic bronchial asthma, therefore, to evaluate the activation state of peripheral granulocytes the generation of reactive oxygen metabolites was evaluated using Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL) and reduction of ...
Templeton A G - - 1998
A range of stimuli have been used to determine the effect of S-salbutamol on contractile responses of human isolated bronchus. Significant augmentation of contraction was evident during responses to histamine or LTC4 but responses to EFS, methacholine, bradykinin and capsaicin were not influenced and allergic bronchospasm was significantly impaired by ...
Kelly H W - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To review the comparative studies evaluating both efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids in the management of asthma. Specifically, comparative clinical trials are evaluated that allow clinicians to determine relative potencies of the various inhaled corticosteroids. METHODS: A critical review was performed of the published clinical trials, either as ...
Chhabra S K - - 1998
Vital capacity can be measured as forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and inspiratory vital capacity (IVC). Although it is well known that the latter two are generally greater, a systematic comparison of the three in subjects with different degrees of airways obstruction has not been made. Sixty ...
Tan R A - - 1998
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is characterised by transient airway obstruction occurring after strenuous exertion. A fall of 10% or more in the FEV1 after exercise is diagnostic. Inhalation of large volumes of dry, cold air during exercise leads to loss of heat and water from the bronchial mucosa and airway cooling ...
Zhang X D - - 1998
Organic acid anhydrides (OAAs) are industrial chemicals that may cause induction of specific IgE and airway symptoms in exposed workers. They are a good model for studies of relationships between chemical structure and the sensitizing potential of reactive low-molecular-weight compounds. Hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) is such a compound. This study aimed ...
Matheson M - - 1998
This study was designed to examine the relationship among microvascular leakage, edema, and baseline airway function. Microvascular leakage was induced in the airways of anesthetized, tracheostomized New Zealand White rabbits (n = 22) by using nebulized N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (10 mg) and was measured in the trachea by using the Evans blue ...
Martin J - - 1997
We have compared the performance of a new oxygen enrichment device, the 'T-bag', with a T-piece during emergence from spontaneous breathing anaesthesia with the laryngeal mask airway. Thirty patients were randomly allocated to each group. Inspired and end-tidal gases were sampled from the proximal end of the laryngeal mask airway. ...
Reiss T F - - 1997
BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to determine whether montelukast, a new potent cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. The relationship between the urinary excretion of LTE4 and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was also investigated. METHODS: Nineteen non-smoking asthmatic patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > or ...
Verbanck S - - 1997
We investigated ventilation inhomogeneity during provocation with inhaled histamine in 20 asymptomatic nonsmoking subjects. We used N2 multiple-breath washout (MBW) to derive parameters Scond and Sacin as a measurement of ventilation inhomogeneity in conductive and acinar zones of the lungs, respectively. A 20% decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 ...
Sekerel B E - - 1997
Although several tests are available to assess the presence and severity of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), there is no agreement on the most appropriate stimulus. The most commonly used stimuli are methacholine, histamine, and exercise. Daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) variation has been reported to correlate with the severity of BHR, ...
Bronsky E A - - 1997
The dose-related protective effects of montelukast, a potent and selective cysteinyl leukotriene-receptor antagonist, against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction were investigated in a five-period, randomized, incomplete-block, crossover study with montelukast (0.4, 2, 10, 50 mg) and placebo. The study subjects were 27 nonsmoking, healthy stable patients with asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in ...
Derks M G - - 1997
The kinetics of inhaled racemic formoterol and its effects on the size of the early cutaneous reaction to intradermal injection of an allergen, eosinopenia and hypokalemia were assessed by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. After inhalation of either 120 microg of formoterol or placebo, blood samples were taken and skin tests were performed ...
Baba R - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To document the characteristics of the ventilatory response to exercise in patients with exercise-induced bronchial obstruction (EIB). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Comparative study during the period between December 1993 and March 1994. SETTING: Ambulatory care in Ohgaki Municipal Hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We evaluated 11 children with EIB. Each subject under ...
Rylander R - - 1997
Changes in symptoms and airway responsiveness among persons who worked in a day-care center that had microbial growth problems were assessed before and after renovation. Before and after the building renovation, the investigators used the Limulus assay with (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan-specific lysate to measure airborne levels of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, a cell-wall component of ...
Minshall E - - 1997
Several lines of evidence suggest that the responsiveness of the airways is heterogeneous, although the magnitude of this heterogeneity has not been quantified. We have developed a videomicroscopic method that allows the measurements of the responsiveness of individual explanted airways to contractile agonists such as methacholine. Liquid agarose at 37 ...
Dockhorn R J - - 1997
INTRODUCTION: During the 1970s, scientists suggested that the growing use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was contributing to depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer with potentially harmful results. A committee on the ozone layer organized the preparation of the Montreal Protocol. This protocol mandated the cessation of production and use of CFCs ...
Bassiri A G - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential utility of specific airway conductance (sGaw) in detecting small airways dysfunction, the postlung-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) was used as a model of small airways dysfunction. BOS is defined as an otherwise unexplained 20% reduction in FEV1. We hypothesized that if sGaw is sensitive ...
Antczak A - - 1997
Symptoms of bronchial asthma are a manifestation of airway inflammation. Circulatory leucocytes (predominantly eosinophils, mast cells and neutrophils), release inflammatory mediators, including reactive oxygen species, i.e. superoxide anion which is dismutated to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Neutrophils from asthmatics generate greater amounts of these species than those of healthy subjects. Some ...
Brusasco V - - 1997
The aim of this study was to investigate whether measurements of vital capacity (VC) are affected by the direction of the manoeuvre (inspiratory vs expiratory) and by the rate of expiratory flow. The study was performed on 25 individuals with chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and a forced expiratory volume in ...
Kaczka D W - - 1997
The contribution of airway resistance (Raw) and tissue resistance (Rti) to total lung resistance (RL) during breathing in humans is poorly understood. We have recently developed a method for separating Raw and Rti from measurements of RL and lung elastance (EL) alone. In nine healthy, awake subjects, we applied a ...
Diamant Z - - 1997
The cysteinyl leukotriene LTE4 has been shown to induce airway eosinophilia in asthmatics in vivo. This phenomenon has not yet been reported for LTD4. Hence, we examined the effect of inhaled LTD4 and a control bronchoconstrictor agent, methacholine, on cell differentials in hypertonic saline-induced whole sputum samples of 12 nonsmoking ...
Teran L M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Although neutrophils have been implicated in bronchial asthma, the mechanism(s) which bring these cells into the airways is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence and identity of neutrophil chemotactic factors in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from atopic asthmatic subjects. METHOD: BAL fluid was obtained from 13 subjects (seven ...
Kawano O - - 1997
To investigate the role of autonomic regulation on airway reactivity, we performed bronchial inhalation tests of methacholine (MCh) and histamine (Hist) in Japanese patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) and autonomic neuropathy. First we examined the FEV1 and Raw in seven patients with FAP and in six normal subjects, then ...
Larramendi C H - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Certain diuretics such as furosemide, when inhaled, have been found to be useful in preventing Exercise-Induced Asthma (EIA). STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the possible preventive effect of inhaled amiloride in EIA. DESIGN: A double blind, randomized, cross-over study comparing the effect of inhaled amiloride, inhaled furosemide and placebo in ...
Van Schoor J - - 1997
Leukotrienes have been implicated in the bronchoconstriction caused by indirect stimuli. In the present study we examined the effect of oral ABT-761, a novel 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor, on exercise- and adenosine (AMP)-induced bronchoconstriction in nine asthmatics. At the four 1-d, single-dose treatment periods, ABT-761 (200 mg) or placebo (P) was ...
Strand V - - 1997
We investigated whether exposure to a low level (490 micrograms/m3) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) affects bronchial responsiveness to allergen and enhances allergen-induced increase in airway responsiveness to histamine. Eighteen subjects with asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed at rest to either purified air or NO2 for 30 min followed ...
Grünberg K - - 1997
Disturbance of the balance between excitatory and inhibitory activity of the airway sensory nerves has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis, particularly during exacerbations of the disease. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of experimental rhinovirus 16 (RV16) infection on airway responsiveness to bradykinin, a potent sensory ...
Gelfand A S - - 1997
We studied the effects of recurrent aspiration of milk on neural control of airways in young developing rabbits. Beginning at 1 week of age, rabbits received 0.5 ml/kg of whole milk or sterile physiologic saline intranasally while under light methoxyflourane anesthesia 5 days a week for a period of 3 ...
Knight D - - 1997
1. In neural tissue, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an important trophic cytokine. In this investigation, we determined if LIF was present in human and guinea-pig airways and examined the role of this cytokine in modulating airway responses to endogenous and exogenous tachykinins as well as muscarinic receptor and beta-adrenoceptor ...
Pennings H J - - 1997
Isocapnic hyperventilation with cold air (IHCA) is a reliable technique for assessing indirect bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma. Impedance measurement of the respiratory system by the forced pseudorandom noise oscillation technique is a sensitive technique to assess changes in bronchial tone after IHCA. The aim of this study was ...
Okudaira H - - 1997
The leukotriene receptor antagonist pranlukast (SB 205312, ONO-1078) has demonstrated clinical activity as an antiasthma drug in traditional challenge models, including exercise-induced asthma and inhaled bronchoprovocations with sulpyrine (an aspirin analogue), antigen, methacholine, leukotriene C4, and leukotriene D4. This article reviews the results of a published sulpyrine-challenge study and two ...
Leinonen L - - 1997
Susceptibility to voice reactions during a histamine provocation test was studied in 21 asthmatics and 21 healthy subjects. Speech samples were recorded before, and 5 and 15 min after histamine inhalation, and the samples were rated by six speech pathologists. Deterioration of voice quality occurred in 2/12 asthmatic men and ...
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