Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1449
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Moran S E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that people who use gas for cooking have reduced lung function and experience more respiratory symptoms than those who use other fuels for cooking. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of the presence of a gas cooker in the home, during both childhood and adulthood, on respiratory ...
Charters P - - 1999
The term 'dedicated airway' was first used in connection with nasal fibreoptic intubations using the cuffed nasopharyngeal airway. Since that time, the concept has developed and the term has been extended to include fibreoptic intubation techniques involving both the laryngeal mask airway and cuffed oropharyngeal airway. 'Dedicated airway' can now ...
Akhtar S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: Intraparenchymal airways are involved in air flow regulation. Relaxation of intraparenchymal airways to volatile anesthetics varied by topographic location. This study was conducted to determine whether other bronchodilators (terbutaline, diltiazem, and aminophylline) relax bronchiolus to a greater degree than bronchus, as seen with volatile anesthetics. DESIGN: In vitro, controlled, ...
Huang J - - 1999
Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the airway wall contributes to the airway wall remodeling observed in asthmatics. Although alterations in collagen have been well described, less is known about changes in other components of the ECM, particularly proteoglycans (PGs). Endobronchial biopsies were obtained from seven patients with mild atopic ...
Chowdhary R - - 1999
Frictional stress from air flowing through narrowed airways may damage the airway mucosa and thereby increase airway inflammation and airway obstruction. To investigate the levels of frictional stress that might occur in the airway, we measured the frictional stress in three physical airway models (model 1: normal state; models 2 ...
Gauvreau G M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Allergen inhalation challenge is a useful clinical model to investigate the effects of asthma therapies on allergen-induced airway responses; however, the repeatability of allergen-induced airway inflammation is not known. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability of allergen-induced increases in sputum eosinophils. This information will ...
Jõgi R - - 1999
Two bronchial challenge protocols with breath-actuated dosimeters, Spira Elektro-2 and Mefar, with similar cumulative dose steps were compared in 28 patients with mild to moderate asthma. Methacholine challenges were performed after two different protocols at the same time of day in random order 3 or 4 days apart. The provocative ...
Inman M D - - 1999
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a common clinical manifestation of asthma, occurring in 70% to 80% of asthmatics. Evidence suggests that exercise and the ensuing bronchoconstriction do not contribute to a worsening of asthmatic inflammation. Asthmatics should not be discouraged from exercising, and, with adequate management, most patients should be able ...
Randell J T - - 1999
Simple validity controlled forced oscillatory respiratory resistance (Rrsfo) at 8 Hz frequency was compared with flow-volume spirometry in detection of bronchial changes during induced bronchoconstriction. The methacholine provocation test was performed in subjects with mild asthma (n = 18) and in non-asthmatic subjects (n = 61) of which 44 were ...
Knöpfli B H BH Children's Exercise and Nutrition Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, - - 1999
To determine whether the variability in the effect of ipratropium bromide on the bronchial response to exercise among endurance athletes depends on their vagal activity. The hypothesis was that this would be the case. Participants served as their own controls in a double-blind, repeated-measures investigation. Climatic chamber in an exercise ...
Gillis H L - - 1999
Although airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma can amplify the constriction response of a single airway, their influence on the structural changes in the whole airway network is unknown. We present a morphometric model of the human lung that incorporates cross-sectional wall areas corresponding to the adventitia, airway smooth muscle ...
Dicpinigaitis P V - - 1999
In patients with asthma, increased sensitivity of airway sensory nerves may be involved in producing bronchospasm and cough. To evaluate the effect of a leukotriene-modifying agent on cough reflex sensitivity, we measured the cough response to inhaled capsaicin before and after a 1 4-day course of therapy with zafirlukast, a ...
Mulder A - - 1999
Inhaled cysteinyl leukotrienes may cause recruitment of eosinophils into asthmatic airways. We compared the effects of inhaled leukotriene D4 (LTD4), methacholine, and allergen on airway eosinophils in 10 nonsmoking, atopic, mildly asthmatic subjects in a double-blind, diluent-controlled, randomized crossover study. Concentrations of LTD4, methacholine, and allergen resulting in a 30% ...
Politiek M J - - 1999
The onset of the bronchodilating effect of formoterol (12 microg by Turbuhaler) was compared with that of salbutamol (50 microg by Turbuhaler), salmeterol (50 microg by Diskhaler) and placebo in methacholine-induced severe bronchoconstriction. Seventeen subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma completed this randomized, double blind, cross-over, double-dummy study. On four study days, ...
Diaz V - - 1999
The present study was undertaken to gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the sustained active expiratory upper airway closure previously observed during high-permeability pulmonary edema in lambs. The experiments were conducted in nonsedated lambs, in which airflow and thyroarytenoid and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle electromyographic activity were recorded. ...
Irsigler G B - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Whether vanadium induces bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in previously normal subjects is unresolved: the two reported series addressing this question both have shortcomings. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of cough and breathlessness in vanadium plant workers after variable periods of exposure. DESIGN: Case series of employees presenting with persistent ...
O'Sullivan S - - 1999
Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is the major cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid released after stimulation of mast cells. Quantification of metabolites of PGD2 can be used as an objective indices of PGD2 production and hence mast cell activation in vivo. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the feasibility of ...
Grimm D R - - 1999
The majority of otherwise healthy subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) demonstrate airway hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine or histamine. The present study was performed to determine whether ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (UNDW) induces airway hyperresponsiveness and to further elucidate potential mechanisms in this population. Fifteen subjects with SCI, ...
Beck K C - - 1999
To evaluate methods used to document changes in airway function during and after exercise, we studied nine subjects with exercise-induced asthma and five subjects without asthma. Airway function was assessed from measurements of pulmonary resistance (RL) and forced expiratory vital capacity maneuvers. In the asthmatic subjects, forced expiratory volume in ...
Arends J J - - 1999
Two studies were performed to compare the persistent efficacy of doramectin and ivermectin in swine experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. In the Study 1, 84 pigs were treated with doramectin, ivermectin, or saline solution on Day 0. Pigs were then challenged with mites on Days 0, 7, 14, ...
Pauluhn J - - 1999
Published evidence demonstrates successful induction and elicitation of respiratory hypersensitivity in guinea pigs by the known human respiratory allergens trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI). From these data it is apparent that TMA-related respiratory hyperresponsiveness can be elicited readily in guinea pigs upon inhalation challenge with the free chemical. Despite ...
Mazan M R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare response of horses to histamine bronchoprovocation (HBP), using total respiratory resistance (Rrs) measured by forced oscillatory mechanics (FOM) with dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and pulmonary resistance (RL) measured by the esophageal balloon method. ANIMALS: 10 horses with various degrees of airway reactivity. PROCEDURE: The 2 methods for measuring ...
Patterson R - - 1999
Previously we observed and reported that immunoglobulin E-mediated (IgE-mediated) allergy in rhesus monkeys was decreased by the administration of substance P (SP) and an allergen. We extended these studies to human subjects, giving SP and 1 allergen to subjects with reactivity to more than 1 allergen, using reactivity to a ...
Blake K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a common problem in children with asthma. Pretreatment with the beta2 (beta 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist albuterol is effective for preventing EIB, but is recognized as providing only short-term (2 to 3 hour) protection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the 12-hour efficacy and safety of single doses of 25 ...
McFawn P K - - 1999
1. In rodent models, Sephadex produces pulmonary inflammation that may be associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. In the present study we examined whether Sephadex-induced inflammation altered airway narrowing in pigs. 2. Twenty millilitres of 10 mg/mL Sephadex suspension was instilled twice intratracheally into anaesthetized pigs (days 1 and 7 of a ...
Makker H K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of exercise-induced asthma is not well understood. Hypertonicity of the airway lining fluid resulting from loss of water due to hyperventilation is considered to play a role, but the precise mechanism by which hypertonicity can induce bronchoconstriction is unknown. Peptides of the endothelin (ET) family have potent ...
Bauer T T - - 1999
Forced expiratory wheezes (FEW) are common and the pathogenesis of this phenomenon might involve fluttering of the airways, but this theory has not been confirmed in patients. We report a case of a patient with FEW and a normal FEV1 that showed a bronchoscopically confirmed collapse of the trachea and ...
Kostianev S - - 1999
Application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in asthmatic patients decreases breathlessness (B). The effect of CPAP on induced bronchoconstriction was studied in healthy subjects. The changes in B were related to changes in lung function indices. In nine healthy volunteers, males aged 20-27 years, acute bronchoconstriction was induced by ...
Hashimoto T - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic airway inflammation is thought to be associated with airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness. METHODS: Spirometry, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement, histamine challenge test, and sputum induction with hypertonic saline inhalation were performed in 70 asymptomatic patients with asthma who were treated with bronchodilators or an inhaled corticosteroid (beclomethasone ...
Kaczka D W - - 1999
We examined the partitioning of total lung resistance (RL) into airway resistance (Raw) and tissue resistance (Rti) in patients with mild to moderate asthma (baseline FEV1, 54 to 91% of predicted) before and after albuterol inhalation. An optimal ventilator waveform was used to measure RL and lung elastance (EL) in ...
Kallings L V - - 1999
The bronchial response to cycling and running was compared in six adult asthmatic persons. The effects of different air conditions during cycling regarding the induction of bronchoconstriction was studied. The exercise consisted of 6 minutes' work at an intensity of 80-85% of maximal heart rate. Heart rate, oxygen consumption and ...
Tetzlaff K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Perception of dyspnea is poorly related to bronchoconstriction and may be influenced by distinct psychophysiologic stimuli. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the perceived psychophysiologic changes during histamine- and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction using verbal as well as nonverbal assessment techniques. METHODS: Perception of dyspnea was studied during induced bronchoconstriction in 40 atopic ...
Svartengren K - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Asthma tends to affect mucociliary clearance, as assessed from measurements in large airways. However, there is no knowledge about clearance in the smallest airways of the tracheobronchial region in acute exacerbation of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate clearance from the bronchiolar region in patients ...
Beck K C - - 1999
Control of airway function during and after exercise in asthmatics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 31, No. 1 (Suppl.), pp. S4-S11, 1999. In asthmatics, airway function can be quite variable during exercise depending on the level of exercise intensity, the duration of exercise, and whether the exercise is at constant ...
Lim S - - 1999
In a double-blind, cross-over study, we examined the effect of inhaled budesonide (800 microgram twice daily via Turbohaler) on lung function and various markers of airway inflammation including airway responsiveness to methacholine (PC20), exhaled nitric oxide (NO), eosinophils in induced sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and airway biopsies from 14 patients ...
Arias Irigoyen J - - 1999
We analyzed the bronchial response to free running in 48 mild to moderate extrinsic asthmatics and 36 nonasthmatics and also studied the relation between the methacholine hyperresponsiveness (expressed as PC20) and the changes in peak flow (PEF) post-exercise in an asthmatic group. The highest bronchial response to exercise was observed ...
Matthys D - - 1998
The present study examines the effect of salbutamol, a beta2-adrenoreceptor agonist, on blood ammonia levels during an incremental cycle exercise test in healthy non-asthmatic subjects. Blood ammonia levels were lower after inhalation of 400 mcg of salbutamol than after placebo during submaximal exercise: 33+/-2 micromol x l(-1) v.s. 48+/-9 micromol ...
Högman M - - 1998
Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) is known to dilate preconstricted airways. In asthmatics, there are large variations in the effect of NO on airway tone. One explanation of these variations may be different degrees of airway wall oedema. The effect of NO inhalation on methacholine (meth)-induced airway constriction was investigated ...
Brown R H - - 1998
A sine qua non of hyperresponsive airway disease in asthmatic subjects is the lack of a maximal response with increasing doses of aerosol agonist challenge. Normal subjects, however, often appear to exhibit an airway response plateau effect even when challenged with high concentrations of agonist. To investigate this question of ...
Hsu Y W YW Department of Anesthesiology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, - - 1998
The cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) is a modified Guedel airway with a cuff at its distal end and a standard 15 mm connector at its proximal end. This study was performed to determine if the COPA would offer any advantage over the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Eighty ASA class I ...
Garrett M H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Eighty households in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, were sampled for house-dust-mite allergen (Der p 1). Allergen levels vary greatly between houses within climate regions. The reasons for this are not well understood. METHODS: House-dust-mite allergen samples were collected on six occasions between March 1994 and February 1995. All ...
Sompradeekul S - - 1998
1. The thermal precipitants of asthma (exercise and hyperventilation) appear to have a unique pathogenesis that does not alter bronchial responsiveness. In the present work, we tested whether hyperpnoea interacts with other constrictor stimuli.2. To provide data on this issue, we exposed 17 subjects with asthma to isocapnic hyperventilation of ...
Guttmann J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: Acute obstruction of endotracheal tubes (ETT) increases airway pressure, decreases tidal volume, increases the risk of dynamic hyperinflation by prolonging the duration of passive expiration, and prevents reliable calculation of tracheal pressure. We propose a computer-assisted method for detecting ETT obstruction during controlled mechanical ventilation. The method only requires ...
Jónasson G - - 1998
The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of low-dose inhaled budesonide (BUD) administered via Turbuhaler once or twice daily on symptoms, lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity in children with mild asthma. One hundred and sixty-three children (mean age 9.9 yrs, 56 females/107 males) with mild asthma ...
Koh Y Y - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The determinants of late asthmatic responses to exercise remain unknown. It has been reported that they may develop in some adult subjects with asthma following a late asthmatic response to allergen. OBJECTIVE: We intended to corroborate this finding in children with asthma and to investigate which aspect of airway ...
Brannan J D - - 1998
We investigated airway responsiveness to mannitol, a new hyperosmolar challenge, in persons hyperresponsive to airway drying. We studied 36 asthmatic subjects, 18 to 40 yr of age, responsive to exercise (n = 23) and eucapnic hyperventilation (n = 28) defined by a 10% fall in FEV1. Fifteen subjects performed both ...
Yoshikawa T - - 1998
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is widely prevalent in asthmatic patients. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is considered to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the effects of eosinophilic airway inflammation on EIB have been elucidated insufficiently. To examine the relationship between the severity of EIB and eosinophilic inflammation, sputum ...
Jeffery P - - 1998
The structural and inflammatory changes occurring in the bronchi of asthmatics have been examined in specimens from subjects dying in status asthmaticus and from bronchial biopsies of subjects with mild asthma. Histological changes in the bronchi of asthmatics include shedding and damage of the airway surface epithelium and thickening of ...
Sommer B - - 1998
Increased circadian variability of airway caliber is a key feature of asthmatic patients, but it has not been addressed in animal models of asthma. Furthermore, animal studies on circadian rhythmicity of airway resistance are very scanty. We used a plethysmographic method for unrestrained guinea pigs to monitor a lung resistance ...
Moore B J - - 1998
Normal subjects develop plateaus on dose-response curves produced from inhalation challenge tests with bronchoconstricting agonists. These plateaus occur after only mild degrees of airway narrowing despite the fact that, if unloaded, maximally activated airway smooth muscle (ASM) should be able to cause airway closure. Plateaus may develop because, despite maximal ...
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