Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1450
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Leddy J J - - 2001
Immersion induces air trapping in the lungs, as does asthma. Consequently, when using diving apparatus, asthmatics may face greater risk than non-asthmatics of pulmonary barotrauma (PBT) during ascent. We studied the pulmonary airflows and closing capacities (CC = closing volume + residual volume) in subjects with exercise-induced asthma (A, n ...
Scichilone N - - 2001
Lung inflation has a beneficial effect on the airways of healthy subjects. It acts as a bronchoprotector, that is to prevent bronchoconstriction, and as a bronchodilator, in that it reverses bronchial obstruction. The bronchoprotective effect of deep inspiration is more potent than the bronchodilatory one, and the two phenomena appear ...
García R - - 2001
Formoterol is a highly effective therapeutic agent in the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Regular use of beta-adrenergic drugs may result in a reduction in the protective effect afforded by these bronchodilators against bronchoconstrictor stimuli. It is unknown whether this effect extends to formoterol and exercise. We performed a randomized, ...
Keidan I - - 2000
Work of breathing (WOB) increases during general anesthesia in adults, but such information has been limited in pediatric patients. We studied WOB in 24 healthy children (mean age 2+/-1.9 yrs), during elective urogenital surgery under 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia with a caudal block while breathing spontaneously. ...
Kanazawa H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Increased amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in expired air and induced sputum have been found in asthmatic patients, and the role of excessively produced NO in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is under active investigation. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the involvement of endogenous NO in exercise-induced ...
Cockcroft D W - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction is associated with significant hypoxemia, which can be assessed noninvasively by transcutaneous oxygen tension and pulse oximetry. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of the monitoring of finger pulse oximetry during routine methacholine challenges in a clinical pulmonary function laboratory with regard to both safety and the possibility ...
Laube B L - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if aerosolized medications can be targeted to deposit in the smaller, peripheral airways or the larger, central airways of adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by varying particle size and inspiratory flow rate. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Outpatient research laboratory. PATIENTS: Nine adult patients with CF. ...
Gauvreau G M - - 2000
The cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) C(4), D(4), and E(4) may partially mediate eosinophilic airway inflammation in patients with asthma. High- intensity exercise by patients with asthma can result in exercise- induced bronchoconstriction, partly due to leukotriene production, but it is still debated whether this causes airway inflammation. Ten subjects completed a ...
Berlyne G S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) has been proposed as a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationships among ENO, eosinophilic airway inflammation as measured by induced sputum, and physiologic parameters of disease severity (spirometry and methacholine PC(20)). We also examined the effect of corticosteroid treatment ...
Storm van's Gravesande K - - 2000
This double-blind, randomised and cross-over study was designed to compare the preventive effect against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), defined as the percentage decrease in FEV1 > or = 15% after 6 min of exercise, of 2 mg and 10 mg of sodium cromoglycate (SCG), administered through a metered dose inhaler via ...
Shen X - - 2000
We previously demonstrated that airway responsiveness is greater in immature than in mature rabbits; however, it is not known whether there are maturational differences in the effect of transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on airway size and airway responsiveness. The relationship between Ptp and airway diameter was assessed in excised lungs insufflated ...
Kraft M - - 2000
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) affects between 70% and 80% of asthmatic patients. Shortly after strenuous exercise, several inflammatory mediators, including the cysteinyl leukotrienes, induce bronchoconstriction. Evidence of this phenomenon includes the increase in urinary leukotriene E4 excretion after exercise and the inhibition of EIB by the leukotriene synthesis inhibitor zileuton. Similarly, ...
Brimacombe J - - 2000
PURPOSE: We describe pharyngeal oximetry with the laryngeal mask airway in two patients with low perfusion states where finger oximetry failed. CLINICAL FEATURES: One patient was a 47-yr-old man with septic shock and the other a 64-yr-old man with multiorgan failure. In both patients, a # 4 laryngeal mask airway ...
Anderson S D - - 2000
Exercise-induced asthma, as recognized in asthmatic subjects, is an exaggerated airway response to airway dehydration in the presence of inflammatory cells and their mediators. The airway narrowing is primarily caused by contraction of bronchial smooth muscle. The milder airway narrowing documented in response to exercise in elite athletes and otherwise ...
Avital A - - 2000
Bronchial hyperreactivity is a characteristic feature of asthma and can be evaluated by different challenges. The aim of this study was to compare exercise, methacholine (MCH), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in 135 children and young adults (mean age +/- SD, 12.4+/-3.9 years) with asthma, and to examine the utility ...
Anderson S D - - 2000
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) refers to the transient narrowing of the airways that follows vigorous exercise. The mechanism whereby EIA occurs is thought to relate to the consequences of heating and humidifying large volumes of air during exercise. In 1978 airway cooling was identified as an important stimulus for EIA; however, ...
Kapsali T - - 2000
In the absence of deep inspirations, healthy individuals develop bronchoconstriction with methacholine inhalation. One hypothesis is that deep inspiration results in bronchodilation. In this study, we tested an alternative hypothesis, that deep inspiration acts as a bronchoprotector. Single-dose methacholine bronchoprovocations were performed after 20 min of deep breath inhibition, in ...
Huang W H - - 2000
Both exercise and ice water ingestion are known to be trigger factors for an asthma attack in ethnic Chinese asthmatic children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ice water ingestion further deteriorates pulmonary function of asthmatic children after exercise. Thirty Chinese asthmatic children underwent exercise challenge by ...
Jerde T J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine the anatomic distribution of select neuropeptides (neurokinin A [NKA], substance P [SP], and bradykinin [BK]), of inflammatory cells (leukocytes and mast cells), and the histamine content in the normal swine ureter and compare the findings with regions of increased ureteral contractility. METHODS: Ureters from 10 pigs were ...
Nurse B - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis that in atopic diseases the T-helper response is skewed toward a T(H)2-type cytokine response was based on studies with mitogen stimulation, T-cell clones, or both. OBJECTIVE: Using primary cultures, we investigated (1) whether atopic asthmatic patients have a T(H)2 response and nonatopic subjects have a T(H)1 response ...
Troyanov S - - 2000
The European Respiratory Society guidelines on bronchial provocation testing have proposed time-saving procedures, which may lead to unwanted exaggerated responses. The frequency and determinants of exaggerated bronchoconstriction in response to methacholine inhalation testing in clinical and epidemiological settings have not been assessed. The authors evaluated: 1) the prevalence of exaggerated ...
Karjalainen E M - - 2000
Asthma-like symptoms, methacholine hyperresponsiveness, and use of asthma medication are prevalent in elite cross-country skiers. We quantitated mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration and tenascin expression in the subepithelial basement membrane in endobronchial biopsy specimens of the proximal airways from 40 elite, competitive skiers (mean: 17.5; range: 16 to 20 yr) without ...
Suzuki R - - 2000
Inhalation of heparin, an anticoagulant, attenuates exercise- induced asthma (EIA) in human subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if heparin inhibits hyperventilation-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) in a canine model of EIA, and if its mode of action involves the inhibition of eicosanoid mediator production and release. We used ...
Mitzner W - - 2000
It has been known for many years that the response of asthmatic subjects to a deep inspiration differs from that observed in normal healthy subjects. A deep inspiration causes a decrease in airway resistance in normal subjects, whereas asthmatics demonstrate either no change or a slight increase in airway resistance. ...
Hawksworth G M - - 2000
Dose emission from a Turbohaler has been shown to be dependent on the rate of inhalation, with an optimal flow of 60 l min(-1) recommended. Some patients may need counselling to achieve this fast inhalation. Inhalation rate profiles of 24 asthmatics were measured when they inhaled through a placebo Turbohaler. ...
Hardie G E - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine if African-American and white patients with asthma (1) differ in the words they use to describe their breathlessness, and (2) differ in their perception of breathlessness. DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional design. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study setting was located in Northern California, an ethnically and economically diverse ...
Brown R H - - 2000
Normal subjects prevented from taking a deep breath show changes in airflow similar to those of asthmatics when challenged with methacholine (MCh). To confirm airway narrowing by MCh in this setting and to determine its location, we concurrently measured changes in airway lumenal area using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) ...
Silkoff P E - - 2000
If the nitric oxide (NO) diffusing capacity of the airways (DNO) is the quantity of NO diffusing per unit time into exhaled gas (q) divided by the difference between the concentration of NO in the airway wall (Cw) and lumen, then DNO and C(w) can be estimated from the relationship ...
Chitano P - - 2000
Juveniles of many species, including humans, display greater airway responsiveness than do adults. This may involve changes in airway smooth muscle function. In the present work we studied force production and shortening velocity in trachealis from 1-wk-old (1 wk), 3-wk-old (3 wk), and 3-mo-old (adult) guinea pigs. Strips were electrically ...
de la Hoz R E - - 2000
Frequency dependence of compliance (FDC) reflects non-homogeneous ventilatory distribution and, in the presence of a normal measured airway resistance, suggests peripheral airways dysfunction. This study evaluated peripheral airway function and bronchial reactivity in irritant exposed or non-exposed individuals with normal routine pulmonary function tests (PFTs) who had persistent unexplained lower ...
Tohda Y - - 2000
The authors have successfully developed an animal model of dual-phase bronchial responses and very high IgG titer by sensitizing Hartley-strain male guinea pigs. Specific airway resistance, which was determined in a two-chamber body plethysmograph, was elevated to sevenfold during immediate response, followed by a late phase response with a smaller ...
Hunt J F - - 2000
Airway concentrations of many reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are high in asthma. The stability and bioactivities of these species are pH-dependent; however, the pH of the airway during acute asthma has not previously been studied. As with gastric and urinary acidification, asthmatic airway acidification could be expected dramatically to ...
Aschenbach J R - - 2000
The significance of ruminal histamine for the induction of epithelial damage and systemic histaminosis during the ruminal lactic acidosis syndrome was investigated using the Ussing chamber technique. Histamine did not affect the electrophysiological characteristics of ovine ruminal epithelia under shortcircuit conditions. In contrast, mucosal acidification to pH 5.1 induced pronounced ...
Ichinose M - - 2000
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), in which airway inflammation has been reported to be a key factor, is an important component of asthma. However the precise role of inflammation in AHR is still unclear. In this report, airway inflammatory changes were assessed using hypertonic saline-induced sputum examination and exhaled nitric oxide analysis, ...
Sánchez-Toril F - - 2000
Inhaled acetaldehyde may induce bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects and provides a new method to investigate airway responsiveness. The objective of the study was to determine whether acetaldehyde was a more specific stimulus than methacholine in differentiating asthma from chronic bronchitis with or without airflow limitation. Bronchial provocation challenges with methacholine ...
Brown R H - - 2000
The noninvasive imaging method, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), has been developed in animal models and applied to humans with obstructive lung disease for assessing regional and individual airway responsiveness. The ability to directly view airway responses during provocations such as tracheal intubation in an asthmatic could greatly enhance our ...
Prieto L - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled acetaldehyde has been documented in Japanese patients with asthma, the response to this bronchoconstrictor agent has never been studied in Caucasians. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to determine differences in airway responsiveness to acetaldehyde between asthmatic and healthy subjects, and to examine ...
Smaldone G C - - 2000
Theoretical models are often used to predict fractional and regional deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract. The distribution of particle diameters in the aerosol, airway geometry, breathing pattern, and local flow profiles are major determinants of deposition in the lung. However, most models predicting deposition consider airway geometry ...
Ferrari M M Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Chirurgiche, Servizio di Fisiopatologia Respiratoria, Università di Verona, - - 2000
Although formoterol, a new long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, has a rapid bronchodilating action, no studies have previously examined whether it can provide equally rapid protection against exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inhaled formoterol against EIB 15 min and 4 h after administration ...
Colice G L - - 1999
Short-acting inhaled beta2-agonists used just prior to exercise are an effective method for preventing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in children. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover study that compared the effectiveness of albuterol formulated in hydrofluoroalkane-134a (HFA) to albuterol formulated in chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and to placebo in protecting asthmatic ...
Saito H - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The inhalation of hypoxic gas has been reported to enhance the airway responsiveness to methacholine in some animal models. However, the data on humans have so far been conflicting. We attempted to examine the effect of hypoxic gas inhalation on the airway responsiveness to methacholine. DESIGN: We evaluated ...
Thiadens H A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In general practice airway obstruction and the bronchodilator response are usually assessed using peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements. A study was carried out in patients presenting with persistent cough to investigate to what extent PEF measurements are reliable when compared with tests using forced expiratory volume in one second ...
Dessanges J F - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Single doses of zafirlukast attenuate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), but previous studies have not measured zafirlukast's effects after regular dosing or its duration of effect beyond 4 hours. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of zafirlukast 20 mg and 80 mg twice daily compared with ...
Le Brun P P - - 1999
The inhalation of tobramycin is part of current cystic fibrosis (CF) therapy. Local therapy with inhaled antibiotics has demonstrated improvements in pulmonary function. Current inhalation therapy is limited by the available drug formulations in combination with the nebulization time. The aim of this study is to develop a highly concentrated ...
Johnson B D - - 1999
This review examines emerging technologies that are of potential use in the routine clinical pulmonary laboratory. These technologies include the following: the measurement of exercise tidal flow-volume (FV) loops plotted within the maximal FV envelope for assessment of ventilatory constraint during exercise; the use of negative expiratory pressures to asses ...
Gautrin D - - 1999
This longitudinal study (1992-1994) was performed to determine the relation between accidental chlorine exposure and changes in lung function and airway responsiveness in 239 workers in a metal production plant. These workers had taken part in a cross-sectional survey in 1992. In both the initial and the follow-up surveys, history ...
Lönnqvist P A PA Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, Astrid Lindgrens Children's Hospital at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, - - 1999
To study the clinical efficacy as well as the cost-effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) compared with extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates with pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure accepted for ECMO treatment. Retrospective study of the first 10 consecutive neonatal patients treated with inhaled NO during 1992-94. Inhaled ...
Cecins N M - - 1999
The active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) in gravity-assisted drainage positions is an effective airway clearance regimen for individuals who produce excess bronchial secretions. This study compared the ACBT in positions with and without a head-down tilt. Nineteen subjects (11 men), mean age 37.1 years (range 18-76 years), with bronchiectasis ...
Mashito Y - - 1999
Because bradykinin has potent inflammatory actions, this molecule may be involved in the late allergic response (LAR). We investigated the role of the molecule in airway microvascular hyperpermeability during the LAR. Three weeks after ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, animals were pretreated with bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 or vehicle for ...
Godfrey S - - 1999
An analysis was undertaken to determine the optimal cut-off separating an asthmatic from a normal response to a bronchial provocation challenge by exercise and the inhalation of methacholine or histamine in children and young adults. Data were extracted, after appropriate correction, from published studies available in Medline of large random ...
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