Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1448
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Efthimiadis A - - 2002
One of the limitations in the use of induced sputum to measure indices of airway inflammation is the perceived need to process the sample within 2 h. Therefore, the authors investigated whether the processing of induced sputum could be delayed. Induced sputum samples obtained from asthmatic subjects (n=30) were examined. ...
Yavaşcaoğlu B - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the application of the cuffed oropharyngeal airway and the laryngeal mask airway on anaesthetized adult patients undergoing minor outpatient surgery. METHODS: One hundred patients received intravenous fentanyl, propofol and N20 for the induction and maintenance of anaesthesia. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: ...
Joo Jae Hak - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic inflammation of the airway is usually associated with airway hyper-responsiveness in bronchial asthma. However, there is a small group of patients which has the eosinophilic inflammation in the bronchial tree with normal spirometry and no evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness, which was named eosinophilic bronchitis. The objectives of this ...
James Alan L - - 2002
The peripheral, or small, airways are usually defined as conducting airways that are less than 2 mm in internal diameter and extend from the noncartilaginous bronchioles to the alveolar ducts. Noninvasively measuring the function of the small airways in isolation is difficult since they make up only about 10% of ...
Koh Y I - - 2002
It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts ...
Foster W Michael - - 2002
The mucus lining of the respiratory tract originates from products of secretory cells interspersed among mucosal cells or within submucosal glands and protects the underlying mucosa from dehydration. Current understanding is that the lining is a two-fluid model in which the upper layer is a viscoelastic gel (mucus, cross-linked glycoproteins) ...
Daviskas Evangelia - - 2002
Mucociliary dysfunction results in mucus accumulation, airway obstruction, bacterial colonization, recurrent infective exacerbations, and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Studies in patients with cystic fibrosis, established that inhalation of hypertonic saline (HS) increases clearance of mucus acutely in a dose-dependent manner. Clearance over 90 min was 23.8 +/- 4.0% ...
Harmanci Emel - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The structural changes in the airways of asthmatics are also referred to as remodeling and can be identified using high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT). OBJECTIVES: To find out whether there are any abnormal HRCT features which can be attributed to asthma and their clinical correlates, and any differences of abnormal ...
Minowa Y - - 2002
We previously showed that inhaled furosemide improves experimentally induced dyspnea. In order to test the possibility that inhaled furosemide may alter the CO(2) chemosensitivity and thereby reduce the dyspneic sensation, the effect of inhaled furosemide on CO(2) chemosensitivity was evaluated with a double-blinded, randomized crossover design in 10 healthy subjects. ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2002
The term exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) describes the acute transient airway narrowing that occurs during and most often after exercise in 10 to 50% of elite athletes, depending upon the sport examined. Although multiple factors are unquestionably involved in the EIB response, airway drying caused by a high exercise-ventilation rate is ...
Davis Michael S - - 2002
A canine model of exercise-induced asthma was used to test the hypothesis that the development of a late phase response to hyperventilation depends on the acute production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Peripheral airway resistance, reactivity to hypocapnia and aerosol histamine, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell and eicosanoid content were measured ...
Maniscalco M - - 2002
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is increasingly used as a marker of disease activity in asthma. Inhaled hypertonic saline has been shown to induce bronchoconstriction and to decrease eNO in asthmatic subjects, whereas the effects of hypotonic solutions on eNO in these patients have not been studied. To evaluate the effect ...
Koh Youngil I - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Most studies on the effects of temperature and humidity on exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in asthmatics have been carried out under indoor conditions. However, any asthmatic patient is exposed to varying climatic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether temperature or relative humidity plays a more important role in determining the degree ...
Gotshall Robert W - - 2002
Exercise-induced asthma, or more appropriately, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), occurs in 80 to 90% of individuals with asthma and in approximately 11% of the general population without asthma. EIB is characterised by post-exercise airways obstruction resulting in reductions in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of greater than 10% compared ...
Ferrari Marcello - - 2002
Salmeterol and formoterol, two long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonists, have been shown to be effective against exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) several hours after inhalation, but no study has yet compared their protective effect immediately after administration. To compare the protective effect of inhaled formoterol and salmeterol against EIB immediately and 4 h after ...
Spooner C H - - 2002
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) following strenuous physical exertion afflicts many people. It can be the cause of sub-optimal performance, symptoms such as cough, dyspnea, wheeze and chest tightness, and can lead people to avoid physical activity. Management of EIB focuses on prevention through pharmaco-therapy and alternate strategies. Single use, pre-exercise, beta-agonists ...
Prieto L - - 2002
Inhaled acetaldehyde and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) cause bronchoconstriction in asthmatics by a mechanism believed to involve histamine release from airway mast cells. This study investigates the repeatability of the acetaldehyde challenge and the relationship between airway responsiveness to acetaldehyde and AMP. To this end, we examined the effect of inhaled ...
Terada A - - 2001
Nitric oxide (NO) produced in the airways can be either detrimental or protective to the host. To investigate the role of NO in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), we measured exhaled NO (ENO) after exercise challenge in 39 asthmatic and six normal children. FEV(1) and ENO were measured before ...
Dörges V - - 2001
Insufficient oxygenation, ventilation and gastric inflation with subsequent regurgitation of stomach contents is a major hazard of bag-valve-face mask ventilation during the basic life support phase of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The European Resuscitation Council has recommended smaller tidal volumes of approximately 500 ml as an effort to reduce gastric inflation; ...
Duguet A - - 2001
Methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo produces greater maximal increases in pulmonary and airway resistances in immature than in mature rabbits. Our recent findings of lower shear modulus and greater airway distensibility suggest a lower elastic load limiting airway smooth muscle (ASM) shortening in immature rabbit lungs. We hypothesized that a ...
Bonsignore M R - - 2001
Elite athletes show a high prevalence of symptoms and signs of asthma, but no study has assessed the acute effects of endurance exercise on airway cells in nonasthmatic athletes. We measured exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and collected samples of induced sputum after 3% NaCl aerosol administration for 20 min in ...
Ahluwalia P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Nedocromil sodium and levocabastine are widely used for the treatment of ocular allergy, but their mechanisms of action are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the efficacy and mechanisms of action of nedocromil sodium and levocabastine in reducing conjunctival symptoms after ocular allergen challenge. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, ...
Davis M S - - 2001
Winter athletes have an increased incidence of asthma, suggesting that repetitive hyperventilation with cold air may predispose individuals to airways disease. We used a canine model of exercise-induced hyperpnea to examine the effects of repeated hyperventilation with cool, dry air (i.e., dry air challenge [DAC]) on peripheral airway resistance (Rp), ...
Hirai T - - 2001
It is important to understand the mechanisms by which a deep inspiration (DI) affects bronchoconstriction in rodents so that their relevance as animal models of asthma can be assessed. We investigated the effect of DI on respiratory input impedance after methacholine inhalation in four groups of rats: a control group, ...
Leuppi J D - - 2001
In steroid-naive asthmatics, airway hyperresponsiveness correlates with noninvasive markers of airway inflammation. Whether this is also true in steroid-treated asthmatics, is unknown. In 31 stable asthmatics (mean age 45.4 yrs, range 22-69; 17 females) taking a median dose of 1,000 microg inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) per day (range 100-3,600 microg x ...
Que C L - - 2001
We hypothesized that short-term variation in airway caliber could be quantified by frequency distributions of respiratory impedance (Zrs) measured at high frequency. We measured Zrs at 6 Hz by forced oscillations during quiet breathing for 15 min in 10 seated asthmatic patients and 6 normal subjects in upright and supine ...
Ganas K - - 2001
Production of nitric oxide (NO) is generally increased during inflammatory diseases including asthma. The eventual fate of NO is oxidation to nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3), both of which are end-products of NO metabolism. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is increased in exhaled breath condensate of asthmatic subjects and may be used ...
Ricciardolo F L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Endogenous nitric oxide protects against airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to bradykinin in mild asthma, whereas AHR to bradykinin is enhanced by inhaled allergens. OBJECTIVE: Hypothesizing that allergen exposure impairs bronchoprotective nitric oxide within the airways, we studied the effect of the inhaled nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) on ...
Kotaru C - - 2001
To determine whether the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis attenuates thermally induced obstruction, we had 10 asthmatic volunteers perform isocapnic hyperventilation with frigid air after inhaling 1 mg of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) or isotonic saline in a blinded fashion. The challenges were identical in all respects, and there were no ...
Lutchen K R - - 2001
Measurements of lung resistance and elastance (RL and EL) from 0.1 to 8 Hz reflect both the mean level and pattern of lung constriction. The goal of this study was to establish a relation between a deep inspiration (DI) and the heterogeneity of constriction in healthy versus asthmatic subjects. Constriction ...
Carlsen K H - - 2001
Inhaled beta2-agonists have been subject to restrictions in relationship to sports due to fear of possible improvement in endurance performance. According to the international doping regulations only inhaled salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol are allowed for use in sports. Formoterol is a recently introduced rapid onset-long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist. The main aim ...
Jensen A - - 2001
In 9 healthy and 14 asthmatic subjects before and after a standard bronchial challenge and a modified [deep inspiration (DI), inhibited] bronchial challenge and after albuterol, we tracked airway caliber by synthesizing a method to measure airway resistance (Raw; i.e., lung resistance at 8 Hz) in real time. We determined ...
Koh Y I - - 2001
It is not clear whether airway responsiveness is directly related to the perception of bronchoconstriction in asthma. The purpose of this study is to directly compare the perception of induced bronchoconstriction among the groups classified according to the degree of airway responsiveness. Two hundred and twenty-seven patients with the definitive ...
Vilsvik J - - 2001
This study aimed to compare the duration of protection against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) after inhalation of formoterol (Oxis) Turbuhaler with that of terbutaline Turbuhaler and placebo Turbuhaler in asthmatic patients treated regularly with formoterol Turbuhaler 9 microg b.i.d. and inhaled steroids. The study. performed at three centres (Göteborg and Lund, ...
Lin L C - - 2001
Airway obstruction is a prominent feature in coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). However, many patients with CWP have even demonstrated a normal forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ventilatory defect by spirometry and search for parameters, other ...
White S W - - 2001
1. We have an incomplete understanding of integrative cardiopulmonary control during exercise and particularly during the postexercise period, when symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia and exercise-induced asthma not present during exercise may appear. 2. The hypothesis is advanced that baroreflex de-resetting during exercise recovery is normally associated with (i) ...
Pirie R S - - 2001
To investigate whether inhaled endotoxin contributes to airway inflammation and dysfunction in stabled horses, control (n = 6) and asymptomatic heaves (previously termed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)-susceptible (n = 7) horses were given inhalation challenges with 20, 200 and 2,000 microg of soluble Salmonella typhimurium Ra60 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS inhalation ...
Nordenhäll C - - 2001
Particulate matter (PM) pollution has been associated with negative health effects, including exacerbations of asthma following exposure to PM peaks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in asthmatics, by specifically addressing the effects on airway hyperresponsiveness, lung function ...
Dahlén B - - 2001
Dry air exercise challenges are frequently used to screen medications that have potential utility in the management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of three outcome measurements made using such challenges, and sample size requirements for drug evaluation studies based on these ...
Bosquillon C - - 2001
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of formulation excipients and physical characteristics of inhalation particles on their in vitro aerosolization performance, and thereby to maximize their respirable fraction. Dry powders were produced by spray-drying using excipients that are FDA-approved for inhalation as lactose, materials that are ...
Gong H H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) gas may induce acute asthmatic responses when inhaled by individuals in the setting of community or occupational air pollution during exercise. Some asthma medications mitigate the SO(2) response, which is not fully understood but appears to involve multiple mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that pretreatment ...
Kotaru C - - 2001
The purpose of the present study was to determine if nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathogenesis of thermally induced asthma. To provide data on this issue, 10 normal and 13 asthmatic subjects performed isocapnic hyperventilation with frigid air while the fractional concentration of NO in the expirate air ...
Koga K - - 2001
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare two different types of oropharyngeal airway: the Guedel-type oral airway and the Cuffed Oropharyngeal Airway (COPA), with respect to the effectiveness of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) through a face mask in patients with in-line stabilization of the head and neck. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, crossover study. SETTING: University ...
De Gouw H W - - 2001
A role of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested in the airway response to exercise. However, it is unclear whether NO may act as a protective or a stimulatory factor. Therefore, we examined the role of NO in the airway response to exercise by using N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, an NO synthase ...
Högman M - - 2001
We investigated if healthy subjects could release NO upon hyperosmolar challenge as a defence mechanism, and whether asthmatics with atopy showed an altered response. A plot of NO output versus flow rate was used to calculate the alveolar level and the NO-flux from the airways. The asthmatics had a higher ...
Mattheyse F J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a process of chronic allergic inflammation that may be worsened by the activation of neutrophils during acute exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: We investigated our hypothesis that changes in cellular activation may be detectable in peripheral blood (PB) during late-phase asthma and during clinical exacerbations. METHODS: Twenty-one stable asthmatics (9 ...
Kohlhäufl M - - 2001
The clinical application of respiratory impedance measurements by oscillation techniques for monitoring bronchial challenge testing is hampered by the fact that data in healthy nonsmokers and asymptomatic smokers are very limited. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in impedance to a methacholine provocation test in healthy ...
Blyth D I - - 2001
This article argues in favour of the hypothesis that the homeostatic rôles of bronchoconstriction are to retract the airway tree during expiration, and to assist in the expulsion of mucus from peripheral airways by increasing the velocity of outgoing air. In asthma, this function may be dangerously exaggerated because of ...
Leddy J J - - 2001
Immersion induces air trapping in the lungs, as does asthma. Consequently, when using diving apparatus, asthmatics may face greater risk than non-asthmatics of pulmonary barotrauma (PBT) during ascent. We studied the pulmonary airflows and closing capacities (CC = closing volume + residual volume) in subjects with exercise-induced asthma (A, n ...
Scichilone N - - 2001
Lung inflation has a beneficial effect on the airways of healthy subjects. It acts as a bronchoprotector, that is to prevent bronchoconstriction, and as a bronchodilator, in that it reverses bronchial obstruction. The bronchoprotective effect of deep inspiration is more potent than the bronchodilatory one, and the two phenomena appear ...
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