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Results 401 - 450 of 621
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Spence D P - - 1993
Cold air may worsen asthmatic bronchoconstriction but can lessen breathlessness in normal individuals. Patients with COPD sometimes report improvement in their dyspnea in cold weather. We examined the effect of breathing cold air on exercise tolerance and the perception of breathlessness in 19 patients with stable COPD (age [+/- SD], ...
Morita T - - 1993
1. Effects of moderate hypercapnia (10% CO2) on rectal temperature, oxygen consumption and body weight loss were examined during and after acute hypothermia induced by cold and helium-oxygen. 2. Hypothermia induction time was reduced significantly by hypercapnia. Rewarming tended to be faster in hypercapnic animals than in normocapnic animals. 3. ...
Bandopadhyay P - - 1993
Effects of acute exposure and acclimatisation to cold stress on respiratory functions were investigated in healthy tropical Indian men (n = 10). Initial baseline recordings were carried out at Delhi and thereafter serially thrice at the arctic region and once on return to Delhi. For comparison the respiratory functions were ...
Zachariae R - - 1993
Cutaneous reactivity to challenge with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) was studied in 16 volunteers following hypnotic suggestions to increase and decrease response during sensitization. The immunoreactivity to DNCB and DCP was modulated by direct suggestions and guided imagery under hypnosis. The volunteers were highly susceptible subjects selected by means ...
Kano T - - 1993
In order to estimate the penetration depth of transdermal 3% GA MHPh 2Na-10% lidocaine gel mixture, the following physiological functions of the skin were examined before and after a 60 min occulusive application of the gel in 16 adult volunteers. Thermal sweat expulsins ceased completely on the gel-treated ventral surface ...
Jablonski N G - - 1993
Primate faunas in East Asia since the mid-Tertiary have undergone a series of major changes in response to a complex sequence of environmental changes. As a consequence of the Himalayan orogeny and the rapid, episodic uplift of the Tibetan plateau, the climate of East Asia during the late Tertiary became ...
Treiber F A - - 1993
Relationship among ethnicity, gender, grandparents' histories of early myocardial infarction, and hemodynamic responses to forehead cold and treadmill exercise were examined in 87 6-to-8-year-olds (57 White, 30 Black). Boys had greater increases in systemic vascular resistance and decreases in cardiac index to forehead cold. Girls had greater increases and quicker ...
Richardson D - - 1992
This study tested the hypothesis that the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to cold is reduced in elderly individuals. We measured laser Doppler flux (LDF) in the fingertip and blood cell velocity (CBV), via videodensitometry, in individual capillaries of the finger nailfold both before and during submersion of the contralateral arm in ...
Kakizoe E - - 1992
A reflectance spectrophotometric measurement was developed to analyze the microcirculation of the skin in real time. The relative absorption (RA) spectra were obtained from skin tissue 10 times per second using a spectro-multi-channel-photodetector system. In this system, white light was projected onto the skin of the back of the anesthetized ...
Therminarias A - - 1992
Acute exposure of the whole body to cold air activates thermoregulatory mechanisms which may influence the physiological responses to exercise. Interactions between cold stress and exercise greatly depend on the intensity of cold stimulation. During exposure to moderate cold (MC) peripheral vasoconstriction shifts part of the blood from the periphery ...
Tobin D - - 1992
The presence of immunologic markers for neurofilaments, neuropeptides of sensory nerve fibers (Calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P), for noradrenergic innervation (neuropeptide Y and Tyrosine hydroxylase), and Neuron-specific protein 9.5 was evaluated in frozen tissue sections from normal skin (n = 34) and from skin biopsies manifesting urticaria (n = ...
Therminarias A - - 1992
The influence of moderate cold exposure on the hormonal responses of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), catecholamines, and plasma renin activity (PRA) after exhaustive exercise was studied in 9 young and 10 middle-aged subjects. Exercise tests were randomly performed in temperate (30 degrees C) and cold (10 degrees ...
van Neste D - - 1992
The present trial was designed to evaluate clinical scores (single observer) of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced skin irritation in a group of subjects (n = 10) over a 10-day period along with various skin function parameters. In order to avoid significant variations due to secondary phenomena, the following parameters were ...
Klein G - - 1992
The effects of regular dish-washing on the stratum corneum barrier function, as determined by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and objective and subjective skin parameters, were investigated in a 'use test' performed by 18 healthy volunteers. Hands were soaked in a 0.05% solution of a commercial dish-washing product (three times/day, for ...
Nielsen J C - - 1992
The hypoalgesic effect of EMLA cream (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics) applied for 5, 15, and 30 min on facial skin was evaluated. Hypoalgesia was assessed by changes in pain thresholds to brief argon laser stimuli 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 min after removal ...
Horan R F - - 1992
Allergic responses that occur as a result of exposure to physical stimuli are discussed. Most of these conditions are mediated by vasoactive substances, resulting in urticaria and/or angioedema. Susceptible individuals who engage in athletic activities may place themselves at particular risk for these problems. The physical allergies include cholinergic urticaria, ...
Dykes P J - - 1992
A double-blind study has been carried out in 12 normal volunteer subjects in order to determine the relative irritancy of povidone-iodine solutions. Aqueous solutions of 10% povidone-iodine (PI), standardized 10% povidone-iodine (SPI) and reformulated standardized 10% povidone-iodine (RSPI) were applied to the backs and occluded using aluminium chambers. At 1, ...
Churchill T A - - 1992
Hatchling red-eared turtles Trachemys (= Pseudemys) scripta elegans (Wied) from a Louisiana population display a significant ability to withstand the freezing of extracellular body fluids. All animals survived at least 2 h of freezing at -2.5 or -4 degrees C. At -2.5 degrees C, survival declined to 50% after 6 ...
Shephard R J - - 1992
Whereas short-term cold exposure depletes glycogen reserves, repeated and prolonged moderate exercise in a cold environment creates an energy deficit that is satisfied by an increased metabolism of depot fat. Factors contributing to the fat loss include an exercise-induced hypertrophy of lean tissue, a loss of energy through a cold-induced ...
Saito M - - 1992
Sympathetic nerve activity leading to skin (SSA) and skeletal muscle (MSA) and heart rate were measured before and during two-minute static handgrip (SHG) in seven healthy volunteers. Two different situations were set before commencement of the exercise; one was that a preparation time of between 4 and 6 minutes was ...
Gasser P - - 1992
The aim of the present study was to investigate capillary blood flow and the reaction to cold provocation by means of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and measurement of skin temperature at the fingertip of 39 healthy subjects who had a history of cold hands and feet but were free of ...
Pandolf K B - - 1992
Thermoregulatory responses during cold-water immersion (water temperature 22 degrees C) were compared in 10 young men before as well as 24 h and 1 wk after twice the minimal erythemal dose of ultraviolet-B radiation that covered approximately 85% of the body surface area. After 10 min of seated rest in ...
Snodgrass H L - - 1992
Permethrin is an agricultural insecticide of great interest to the military because of its repellency toward disease-bearing insects when impregnated into uniforms. However, migration of the substance from clothing to the skin surface is of toxicological importance. To quantitate leaching from treated clothing, studies were performed in which swatches of ...
Ingersoll C D - - 1992
Many athletes are treated with hot and cold modalities prior to therapeutic exercise, but the effects of these treatments on sensory perception are not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hot and cold treatments on sensory perception. We recruited 21 volunteer subjects, who reported ...
Savourey G - - 1992
To clarify the origin of local cold adaptation and to define precisely its influence on muscle bio-energetics during local exercise, five subjects were subjected to repeated 5 degrees C cold water immersion of the right hand and forearm. The first aim of our investigation was therefore carried out by measuring ...
Purkayastha S S - - 1992
Peripheral vascular response to local cold stress was studied on 4 groups of volunteers by eliciting cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) response during immersion of right hand in cold water (4 degrees C) for 30 min, to examine whether tropical men can get acclimatized to local cold compared to temperate zone people, ...
Kim L B - - 1992
In order to find a criterion for human cold resistance and adaptability we studied the reaction of hematological indices to acute general cooling of the whole organism (12 degrees C, 1 h) in 60 male volunteers 19-25 years old living in Norilsk (69 degrees N) for about 2 1/2 years. ...
Tonkin A L - - 1991
1. To test the hypothesis that in apparently healthy elderly subjects with orthostatic hypotension there is afferent baroreflex dysfunction, cardiovascular and neurohumoral responses were measured after separate stimuli which activated baroreceptor (head-up tilt) and non-baroreceptor (cold stress, isometric exercise) afferent pathways. 2. In 15 healthy elderly control subjects blood pressure ...
Naveteur J - - 1991
To evaluate the reliability of electrodermal lateralization, skin conductance response (SCR) and skin potential response (SPR) amplitudes were recorded bilaterally in 11 right-handed male students during 4 identical experimental sessions each a week apart. After a rest period of 5 min, a set of auditory stimuli (1000 Hz, 100 dB, ...
Wilhelm D - - 1991
The effect on the skin of menstrual pads containing sodium bicarbonate as a fragrance substitute and of sodium bicarbonate alone was studied in 50 healthy women. Skin changes were monitored by transepidermal water loss, capacitance, laser Doppler flowmetry, skin surface pH and visual scoring. No clinical signs developed after the ...
Prusaczyk W K - - 1991
This study examined the effects of an oral 30-mg dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) on thermoregulatory and physiological responses of men undergoing cold stress. Six men were immersed in cold water (20 degrees C) for up to 180 min on two occasions, once each 2 h after ingestion of PYR ...
Hackney A C - - 1991
This study examined the effects of military field operations (MFO) under different environmental conditions on anaerobic performance. US Marines were tested in the field under the following conditions: 1) noncold environment (NC; n = 30, 10-32 degrees C) and 2) cold environment (CO; n = 32, -2 to -22 degrees ...
Doubt T J - - 1991
Recreational and job requirements have increased the incidence in which humans exercise in cold environment. Understanding the physiological responses while exposed to cold entails knowledge of how exercise and cold interact on metabolic, cardiopulmonary, muscle and thermal aspects of human performance. Where possible, distinction are made between responses in cold ...
Berge M A - - 1991
The metabolism of L-canavanine and L-canaline were investigated in larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens [Noctuidae]. H. virescens larvae were treated with L-[1,2,3,4-14C]canavanine or L-[U-14C]canaline with sufficient cold carrier to provide 5 mg g-1 canavanine or a molar equivalent of canaline (3.81 mg g-1). The preponderant catabolite in both ...
Van Neste D - - 1991
Appropriate monitoring of skin hydration during clinical and/or experimental trials needs devices with acceptable reproducibility and sensitivity under conditions ranging from increased, and normal to low hydration. The aim of this study was to compare the variation of electrometric data generated by 4 different instruments (Skicon Hygrometer, 2 CM420 and ...
Granberg P O - - 1991
Alcohol is a dominant cause of death in urban hypothermia. Drinking alcohol gives a pleasant feeling of warmth. However, experimental studies on humans during relatively short exposure to moderate cold have given inconsistent results concerning heat balance. Longer exposure to colder environmental situations has, particularly with addition of strenous exercise, ...
Holmér I - - 1991
Predictions of required clothing during work in the cold is often based on data obtained from thermal manikin measurements. These clothing basic insulation values are altered during exercise. In a series of experiments at our laboratory, resultant clothing insulation has been studied. In a cold climatic chamber subjects walked on ...
Shephard R J - - 1991
Findings from the recent Canadian/Soviet transpolar skitrek are reviewed. Comparison of field heart rate measurements with laboratory data suggests a high rate of energy expenditure over the trek; the 13 participants covered some 20 km/day at a speed of about 3.5 km/h, while carrying 37-45 kg packs. Strength increased and ...
Paalasmaa P - - 1991
The effect of dynamic cycle ergometer exercise and isometric leg exercise on skin sensitivity was studied in man. Exercise was performed at different loads. Cutaneous sensitivity to innocuous and noxious thermal stimuli was tested using a contact thermostimulator and sensitivity to tactile stimuli was tested using electrical stimuli. During isometric ...
Backman C - - 1991
An attempt has been made to characterize so-called "responders" to cold among patients with effort angina. Forty-nine such patients, unselected with regard to their history of reactions to cold, who showed ST depressions during and after exercise, were examined. They worked on a bicycle ergometer close to their maximum capacity, ...
Wahlgren C F - - 1991
In order to investigate whether any regional difference in itch perception exists in experimentally induced pruritus, various concentrations of histamine (1, 3.3, 10, 33 and 100 micrograms/ml) were injected intradermally in three different skin regions in 15 healthy subjects. The regions were 1) the volar aspect of the forearm, 2) ...
Jonderko G - - 1991
The effect of cold stress in the form of repeated hand immersion in ice cold water or repeated application to a hand of extremely cold - nitrogen gas, at a temperature of -180 degrees C (93 K), on the emptying of a meal-stimulated gallbladder was examined in seven healthy volunteers ...
Stroud M A - - 1991
Estimated energy expenditures for men during Arctic manhauling expeditions were 29-33 MJ day-1, higher than those documented for other hard-working groups and exceeding predicted energy costs for such activities. Although physiological effects from generalised cooling were unlikely, cold exposure of the face could have influenced exercise metabolism via autonomic stimulation. ...
Sakakibara H - - 1991
Circulatory disturbances of the foot in patients with vibration syndrome were studied by measuring the skin temperature of both index fingers and great toes through a 3-min immersion of the right foot in cold water at 10 degrees C. Subjects included 11 patients with vibration-induced white finger (VWF) [VWF(+) group], ...
Olsen N - - 1991
An overview of our recent studies is given. The following subjects were investigated: Women with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and their female controls (FC); vibration exposed workers without (HAV) and with vibration-induced white finger (VWF); men with chemotherapy-induced Raynaud's phenomenon (CRP) and men with similar treatment but without finger symptoms ...
Lockey R F - - 1990
One thousand four hundred ten (44%) of the 3236 subjects in the Hymenoptera venom study accepted venom immunotherapy (VIT). Time to maintenance averaged 95 days, and the largest number achieved maintenance (147 subjects, 10.4%) at day 56. Ninety-two percent of the treated subjects achieved maintenance, and 84% continued therapy, most ...
Kasting G B - - 1990
Samples of human allograft skin prepared without freezing ("fresh skin") were found to have electrical and sodium ion transport properties which differed only slightly from those of skin which had been similarly treated but stored frozen ("frozen skin"). The fresh skin samples were less permeable to sodium ions during passive ...
Blumberg M S - - 1990
Isolated rat pups respond to cold exposure physiologically by increasing metabolic heat production and behaviorally by emitting ultrasound. The relationship between these 2 responses was investigated by monitoring oxygen consumption, heat production by brown adipose tissue, respiratory rate, and ultrasound production during cold exposure in pups 10-12 days of age. ...
Sayre R M - - 1990
Reciprocity for sunscreen solar protection factors (SPFs) and for delayed erythema was examined using a solar simulator equipped with neutral density filters to vary the beam intensity. Similar SPFs were obtained over a 15-fold intensity difference, using a sunscreen with a low (SPF-4) and a high (SPF-15) protection factor. Reciprocity ...
Basner R C - - 1990
Experimental data suggest the presence of sensory receptors specific to the nasopharynx that may reflexly influence respiratory activity. To investigate the effects of inspired air temperature on upper airway dilator muscle activity during nose breathing, we compared phasic genioglossus electromyograms (EMGgg) in eight normal awake adults breathing cold dry or ...
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