Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 619
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Schaeffer P J - - 2001
We inadvertently subjected a group of goats to 5 mo of cold exposure (mean minimum temperature less than -13 degrees C) during an experiment designed to examine the effects of training by daily running on one member of each sibling pair. During the three coldest months, the sedentary but cold-exposed ...
Fang J Y - - 2001
The study was conducted in vitro to investigate the changes of indomethacin transdermal permeation pretreated by capsaicin and nonivamide, two compounds chemically similar to Azone. The combined effect of low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) and enhancers on the indomethacin permeation was also evaluated. The experimental data demonstrated that capsaicin and ...
Moran D S - - 2001
Many recreational and elite athletes participate in sporting events every year. However, when these events are conducted under hostile environmental conditions, whether in cold or hot climates, the risk for environmental illnesses increases. The higher the stress, the greater is the potential for performance decrements, injuries and illnesses. The most ...
Riordan B - - 2001
Dermatology has quantified skin color for monitoring progress of treatments. The most common and effective means of erythema detection is visual inspection of the skin. However, for people with darkly pigmented skin, erythema can be masked by melanin. Tissue Reflectance Spectroscopy (TRS) is a noninvasive method of quantifying skin color. ...
Zeng Y - - 2001
This study investigated the changes in biorheological characteristics of skin after expansion. Expanders were implanted into the back of eight adult dogs, and after an eight-week expansion the expanded and the non-expanded control skins were transferred to an adjacent site. The expanded specimens and their controls were obtained at 3, ...
Stöllberger C - - 2001
Typical symptoms of hypothyroidism are lethargy, cold intolerance, slowing of intellectual and motor activity, declining appetite, increasing weight, and dry skin. A 43-year-old man with hypothyroidism presented with dysarthria as the leading symptom. Further symptoms were cramps in the legs after exercise, dizziness, and stunned feeling. He suffered from severe ...
Sakoda S - - 2000
An essential factor involved in distortion of bitemarks on the skin is the dynamics of biting related to the location on the body. This study describes the comparison between the identification of bitemarks left on different regions of the victims' bodies in two homicide cases. The findings indicated that a ...
Kadar T - - 2000
Sulfur mustard (HD) is a potent cutaneous vesicant that penetrates rapidly through the skin, causing prolonged injuries and leading to severe incapacitation. Although there has been long and intensive efforts to find a treatment for HD skin lesions, no effective treatment is available for HD-induced skin injuries. Recently, ointments containing ...
Johansson A - - 2000
Provocation with cold air in the nose causes broncho-obstruction while warm air causes bronchodilation in patients with asthma, but not in healthy subjects. These findings have suggested the existence of a nasobronchial reflex. The present study aimed to block this effect and evaluate the mechanisms underlying the effect on lung ...
Parikh R S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Leaking abdominal wounds (LAW) are associated with high patient morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a self-adhesive drape (Opsite) with suction drains for the management of LAW. METHODS: Twenty patients with LAW (14 intestinal fistula, 4 biliary fistula, 2 ascites leak) were subjected to the use of a ...
Johansson B - - 2000
As part of a comprehensive program, including an exercise test, a long-term ECG recording, a psychic stress test, and administration of nitrogylcerin, 268 patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMT) were submitted to a cold pressor test, holding the right hand in ice water for 10 minutes. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood ...
John S M - - 2000
There is conflicting evidence concerning predictors of individual susceptibility to develop irritant contact dermatitis in wet work. A cohort of initially 92 hairdresser apprentices was prospectively followed for 3 years. The association between anamnestic and clinical findings, and multiparametric skin bioengineering data (transepidermal water loss [TEWL], microcirculation, capacitance, pH, sebum, ...
Hälinen A I - - 2000
Previous studies in asthmatic subjects and guinea pigs have demonstrated attenuation of bronchoconstriction in repeated exposures to clean cold dry air. In the present animal study, we have simulated short-lasting human exposures to subfreezing urban air containing sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). The anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated ...
Lindblom L - - 2000
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been demonstrated to lack inherent effects on capillary permeability, but also to potentiate the oedema promoting actions of other inflammatory mediators or even to strongly reduce organ damage and subsequent oedema in ischemic models of the lung and heart. This study investigated the role of VIP ...
Walia L - - 2000
Influence of stress (cold) on visual reaction time (VRT) for red, green and yellow colours and auditory reaction time (ART) for high and low pitched sounds was studied in 60 healthy subjects (17-19 years) by digital display response time apparatus. Pain threshold and pain tolerance time were 23.02 +/- 8.11 ...
Millqvist E - - 2000
In this study, we aimed to test the effect of combining a P2-agonist with a heat- and moisture-exchanging cellulose face mask in patients with bronchoconstriction induced by exercise in cold air. Nine allergic, asthmatic patients with a history of adverse reaction to exercise were tested on an ergometric bicycle at ...
Cameron Y L - - 2000
We hypothesized that the inter-breath variability of the breathing pattern in newborn rats varied with temperature and oxygenation. Breathing pattern was recorded in 4-day-old rats by airflow plethysmography, during normoxia in warm (control) and cold conditions, or during hypoxia (inspired O2 = 10%) in warm or cold conditions, each lasting ...
Choi J M - - 2000
Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common skin disease, especially in the workplace, but determining the recovery time of chronic ICD is not easy. To measure the recovery time of chronic ICD, we examined the skin reactivity to a model surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on previous chronic ICD ...
Hilz M J - - 2000
In Fabry disease, an X-linked alpha-galactosidase A deficiency, painful crises and limb paresthesias are possibly linked to thermal exposure. Small nerve fiber function has not yet been tested after cold challenge. In two Fabry patients (15 and 17 years old), their heterozygote mother, their healthy sister, and eight controls, we ...
Biering-Sørensen F - - 2000
To evaluate the bacterial contamination of the water from the microflora of pressure ulcers in para- and tetraplegic patients, when they were exercising in water at 36 degrees C for half an hour. Twelve spinal cord lesioned (SCL) patients with ulcers participated, and six of the 12 SCL patients with ...
Young A J - - 2000
This report considers how thermal balance of soldiers wearing nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protective clothing in combination with the Extreme Cold Weather Clothing System (ECWCS) is affected during work in cold weather. A review of published reports concerning physiological consequences of wearing NBC protective clothing during cold exposure was ...
Rissanen S - - 2000
The suitability of the IREQ (insulation required) index for predicting the thermal responses of 6 participants wearing chemical protective clothing was tested during exercise at -20 and -25 degrees C. IREQ was used to calculate duration limited exposure (DLE). Measured DLE correlated (r =0.899, p <0.001) with the predicted DLE. ...
Glickman-Weiss E - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of gender and menstrual cycle on the percent of carbohydrate (CHO) utilized during cold water immersion (20 degrees C). Previous research has suggested that males and females utilize CHO differently during submaximal exercise. This study examined whether this differential ...
House C M - - 2000
Eleven volunteer submariners were exposed to simulated disabled submarine conditions for a maximum of 7 days to determine if the limited clothing and rations provided in escape compartments would compromise survival prospects. Daily rations were 0.568 liters of water (none on Day 1) and 100 g of barley sugar. The ...
Zhao K - - 1999
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) of percutaneous absorption enhancement of propranolol hydrochloride (PHCL) across porcine epidermis by terpenes (e.g. menthone and limonene) in combination with ethanol. The in vitro percutaneous absorption experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells. The solubility of PHCL in control and ...
Morelli M - - 1999
Massage is known to produce a reduction in spinal reflex excitability. However, the mechanisms subserving this phenomenon have yet to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to determine the role of superficial cutaneoreceptors overlying the triceps surae during the application of a massage. Twelve neurologically healthy volunteers were subjected to ...
Acero C O CO - - 1999
The aim was to compare haemodynamic responses in trapezius muscles to cold pressor stimulation in individuals with localized trapezius myalgia and asymptomatic controls. Nine males with chronic localized pain in the trapezius (mean age, 23.2 years) and nine male controls (mean age, 24.6 years) who had no medical history of ...
Tinnikov A A - - 1999
Responses of serum corticosterone (B) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) to ether anesthesia (a "classic" acute stress) and to a number of stressors influencing metabolic homeostasis--fasting, physical exercise, cold exposure, and water deprivation--were studied in male and female rats. Metabolic stressors included placing in an ice bath, physical exercise (swimming), fasting ...
Leopold C S - - 1999
Local anesthetics do not penetrate readily through human skin if applied in their salt form; however, if applied in their base form various effects may be observed, such as a decrease in pricking pain and a change in burning, itch, and thermal sensations. These effects occur after skin penetration and ...
Piérard-Franchimont C - - 1999
Modulation of the rheological characteristics of sebum at the surface of the skin might represent a valuable strategy for the treatment of seborrhea. In this field, only a small number of studies have addressed sebum diffusion within the stratum corneum. In an open, split-face study conducted on 20 men, we ...
Moran D S - - 1999
A cold strain index (CSI) based on core (T(core)) and mean skin temperatures (T(sk)) and capable of indicating cold strain in real time and analyzing existing databases has been developed. This index rates cold strain on a universal scale of 0-10 and is as follows: CSI = 6.67(T(core t) - ...
Brenner I K - - 1999
This study examined the immunological responses to cold exposure together with the effects of pretreatment with either passive heating or exercise (with and without a thermal clamp). On four separate occasions, seven healthy men [mean age 24.0 +/- 1.9 (SE) yr, peak oxygen consumption = 45.7 +/- 2.0 ml. kg(-1). ...
Maekawa K - - 1999
Eight healthy non-smoking males (mean age: 24.1 +/- 1.1 years) without any history of chronic muscle pain and migraine participated in this study. Haemoglobin (Hb) and oxygen (O2) saturation in the right masseter muscle were continuously recorded with a non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopic device. Heart rate and blood pressure were also ...
Holliday T W - - 1999
Among recent humans brachial and crural indices are positively correlated with mean annual temperature, such that high indices are found in tropical groups. However, despite inhabiting glacial Europe, the Upper Paleolithic Europeans possessed high indices, prompting Trinkaus (1981) to argue for gene flow from warmer regions associated with modern human ...
Benfeldt E - - 1999
We have used microdialysis in the dermis for assessing penetration kinetics of salicylic acid (SA) in healthy volunteers (n = 18), following application on the volar aspect of the left forearm. Penetration was monitored at four locations: in normal (unmodified) skin and in skin with perturbed barrier function from (i) ...
Tikuisis P - - 1999
Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response ...
Cui J - - 1999
We previously showed that caloric vestibular stimulation elicits increases in sympathetic outflow to muscle (MSNA) in humans. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of this stimulation on sympathetic outflow to skin (SSNA). The SSNA in the tibial and peroneal nerves and nystagmus was recorded in nine subjects ...
Barratt M D - - 1999
The DEREK knowledge-based computer system contains a subset of approximately 50 rules describing chemical substructures (toxophores) responsible for skin sensitization. This rulebase, based originally on Unilever historical in-house guinea pig maximization test data, has been subject to extensive validation and is undergoing refinement as the next stage of its development. ...
Brinkeborn R M - - 1999
The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of different doses and preparations of Echinacea purpurea in the treatment of common cold. 246 of 559 recruited healthy, adult volunteers caught a common cold and took 3 times daily 2 tablets of either ...
Hahn M - - 1999
Local cold exposure tests are used to diagnose cold-induced vasospastic disorders and to evaluate therapeutic success. We investigated the pulsatile signal detected with a newly developed arterial photoplethysmography (APPG) method and the signal change induced by local cold exposure using a temperature-controlled finger holder, comparing it with laser Doppler flux ...
Meffert J J - - 1999
The environmental extremes in which soldiers exercise and fight, like the environmental extremes in which many civilians encounter occupationally and recreationally, can prove to be a significant cause for morbidity and decreased effectiveness. A variety of skin diseases are related to occupational exposure to dusts and ultraviolet radiation as a ...
Vallerand A L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: To characterize the important changes in the selection and mobilization of metabolic fuel during cold stress, six males rested for 3 h at 29 degrees C and at 5 degrees C dressed only in shorts while 2H5 glycerol, 1-13C palmitate and 6,6 2H2 glucose were continuously infused for 3 ...
Mäkinen T M - - 1998
To test the effect of low ambient temperature on muscular strain and possible development of muscle injuries, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 35) were exercised at a speed of 15 m min-1 on a treadmill at a 6 degrees inclination for 1.5 h in a warm (22 degrees C) or ...
Meling T R - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Alterations in mouth temperature may lead to changes in the force exerted by an activated superelastic wire. It has been assumed that variations in archwire stiffness associated with short-term cooling or heating are transient. This investigation studied the effect of short-term cooling or heating on the bending force exerted ...
Therminarias A - - 1998
This study examines whether exhausting exercise in cold air induces bronchial obstruction and changes in exhaled [NO] and in exhaled NO output (V'NO). Thus, eight well-trained males performed two incremental exercise tests until exhaustion, followed by 5 min of recovery in temperate (22 degrees C) and cold (-10 degrees C) ...
Griffiths C E - - 1998
A randomized, investigator masked, intra individual comparative study was conducted in 30 healthy volunteers to compare the cutaneous effects of adapalene 0.1% gel and adapalene 0.1% cream with their respective vehicles, using tretinoin 0.05% cream (n = 21) or tretinoin 0.1% cream (n = 9) and a tretinoin cream vehicle ...
Shefer V I - - 1998
To understand the mechanisms of improvement of cold-induced heat production in aged mice following exercise training, the relative contributions of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis to cold-induced metabolic responses were assessed in adult and aged C57BL/6J male mice, which inhabited sedentarily at room temperature, or were subjected either to a regimen ...
Ramsey M L - - 1998
Sometimes, exercise and outdoor activities in the summer are no picnic for your skin. Here are some of the most common summer skin ailments, and how to avoid and treat them.
Salafsky B - - 1998
The effect of skin application of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) on the penetration and migration behavior of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. These studies showed that DEET at concentrations of 7.5% or higher was 100% effective in immobilizing and killing cercariae of ...
Koskela H - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To clarify the effect of cold air on exercise capacity in COPD. DESIGN: Cycle ergometer tests under different environmental conditions. SETTING: Pulmonary function laboratory and an environmental chamber at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen patients with stable COPD; 14 completed the study. INTERVENTIONS: A preliminary cycle ergometer test ...
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