Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1142
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Ozkaya Y G - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mild chronic exercise on visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control (C) and Exercise (E) groups. Exercise was performed on a motor-driven treadmill for 8 weeks. After 5 min of exercise, ...
Price Michael J - - 2003
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the level of spinal cord injury upon the thermoregulatory responses of wheelchair athletes during prolonged wheelchair exercise in warm conditions. METHODS: Eight tetraplegic (TP), 10 high-level paraplegic (HP), and 10 low-level paraplegic (LP) athletes exercised for 60 min at 60% [OV0312]O(2peak) in a ...
Babyranidevi S - - 2003
During composting limited degradation of organic matter occurs due to the influence of various factors such as presence of lignin, resistant nature of cellulose, high temperature, etc. During windrow composting, temperature within the waste mass rises and limitation in degradability of organic matter, studies on composting in temperature range of ...
Gordon Christopher J - - 2003
Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., nonexercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2003
The vasomotor response to cold may compromise the capacity for microclimate cooling (MCC) to reduce thermoregulatory strain. This study examined the hypothesis that intermittent, regional MCC (IRC) would abate this response and improve heat loss when compared with constant MCC (CC) during exercise heat stress. In addition, the relative effectiveness ...
Pacheco-Cobos L - - 2003
Newborn rabbits, like other altricial mammals, demonstrate thermotaxis and when placed on a thermal gradient locate and come to rest at physiologically appropriate temperatures. Little is known, however, about the sensory-motor components contributing to the in energetic terms important decision of the young to cease locomotion and come to rest. ...
Doufas Anthony G - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypothermia might prove to be therapeutically beneficial in stroke victims; however, even mild hypothermia provokes vigorous shivering. Meperidine and dexmedetomidine each linearly reduce the shivering threshold (triggering core temperature) with minimal sedation. We tested the hypothesis that meperidine and dexmedetomidine synergistically reduce the shivering threshold without producing ...
Bridge Mathew W - - 2003
We have studied 12 recreationally active men to measure their responses to exercise in the heat and relate these to measures of hypothalamic function explored with a buspirone [5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A)) agonist, dopaminergic D(2) antagonist] neuroendocrine challenge, with and without pretreatment with pindolol (5-HT(1A) antagonist). Pindolol treatment allowed the serotonergic ...
Duffield R - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of cooling the skin with an ice jacket before and between exercise bouts (to simulate quarter and half time breaks) on prolonged repeat sprint exercise performance in warm/humid conditions. METHODS: After an initial familiarisation session, seven trained male hockey players performed two testing sessions (seven ...
Niess A M - - 2003
To date, there has been little research examining how elevated ambient temperatures exert an additional effect on the acute immune response to endurance exercise. Seven endurance-trained, non-heat-acclimated men [mean (95% confidence interval): 29.7 (25.9-33.5) years, .VO(2max) 66.3 (61.3-71.3) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] performed two 60-min treadmill runs (75% .VO(2max)) in two different environments ...
Gavhed Desiree - - 2003
The effects of low to moderate wind speeds on face temperature, thermal and pain sensations while subjects walked on a treadmill during cold exposure were studied in eight healthy men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate further the risk of frostbite at different activity levels. The walking speed ...
Preest Marion R - - 2003
Temperature and humidity are dominant environmental variables affecting performance of nocturnal, terrestrial amphibians. Toads are frequently active at body temperatures (T(b)) and hydration states (HS) that yield suboptimal performance. We investigated the combined effects of T(b) and HS on feeding, locomotion, and metabolism of Bufo americanus. More toads responded to ...
Jackson Dwayne N - - 2003
We evaluated postexercise venous pooling as a factor leading to previously reported increases in the postexercise esophageal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation (ThVD) and sweating (ThSW). Six subjects were randomly exposed to lower body positive pressure (LBPP) and to no LBPP after an exercise and no-exercise treatment protocol. The exercise ...
Kenny G P - - 2003
Seven subjects (1 woman) performed an incremental isotonic test on a Kin-Com isokinetic apparatus to determine their maximal oxygen consumption during bilateral knee extensions (Vo(2 sp)). A multisensor thermal probe was inserted into the left vastus medialis (middiaphysis) under ultrasound guidance. The deepest sensor (tip) was located approximately 10 mm ...
Mitchell J B - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pre-exercise cooling on high intensity, moderate duration running performance and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment (38 degrees C, 40 %RH). On separate days, 11 male subjects completed two treadmill runs to exhaustion at 100% of maximal aerobic power ...
Ladd Byron S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To develop and characterize an infusion cannula that reduces the intraocular jet forces created during fluid-air exchange. METHODS: A new infusion cannula was manufactured by adding a baffle 1.0 mm perpendicular to the distal opening of a 20-gauge infusion. The forces generated by the modified and standard cannulas were ...
Kondo Narihiko - - 2003
Given differences in sympathetic innervation to glabrous and nonglabrous skin, we tested the hypothesis that muscle metaboreceptor regulation of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) differs between these skin regions. Subjects (n = 21) performed isometric handgrip exercise (IHG; 50% maximal voluntary contraction for 60 s), followed by 2 min of postexercise ...
Kasap Ismail - - 2003
Development duration and reproduction rate of hawthorn spider mite Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher) were carried out on five different apple cultivars (Amasya (local cultivar), Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Starking Delicious and Starkrimson Delicious) at 25 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% RH and 16:8 L:D. In addition, the same parameters were determined ...
Ebenholtz Sheldon M - - 2003
Subjects viewed luminescent targets placed at an equidistance (ED) locus or on a comparable equiconvergence locus, the Vieth-Müller circle (VMC). In darkness, subjects moved the index finger to the apparent distance of the visible target. This was repeated at leftward eccentricities of 0 degrees (straight ahead), 15 degrees, 22.5 degrees, ...
Tokajian S - - 2003
A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water ...
Austin K G - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of patients with burns on 30 to 40% and 60% or greater of their BSA to thermoregulate their core temperature during exercise in the heat. Two groups (n = 3 in each) of subjects with healed third-degree burns (34.0 +/- ...
Rodrigues L O C - - 2003
Thermal environmental stress can anticipate acute fatigue during exercise at a fixed intensity (%VO2max). Controversy exists about whether this anticipation is caused by the absolute internal temperature (Tint, degrees C), by the heat storage rate (HSR, cal/min) or by both mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to study ...
Sabaté J-M - - 2002
Hypersensitivity during rectal distension has been demonstrated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Studies performed in animals and indirect data in humans suggest that cholecystokinin (CCK) could modulate visceral sensations. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of i.v. infused sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP) on rectal sensitivity in ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2002
This study was designed to evaluate the role of non-active tissue in the retention and dissipation of heat during and following intense isolated muscle activity. Six subjects performed an incremental isotonic test (constant angular velocity, increases in force output) on a KIN-COM isokinetic apparatus to determine their maximal oxygen consumption ...
McLellan T M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological findings show a continued presence of exertional heat injury during military basic recruit training. Current guidelines do not consider the carry-over effects of prior exercise or exposure to high ambient temperatures on the risk of succumbing to heat illness. HYPOTHESIS: From the epidemiological evidence we hypothesized that both ...
White Andrea T - - 2003
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic, and perceptual effects of lower body (LBI) and whole body (WBI) immersion precooling techniques during submaximal exercise. Eleven healthy men completed two 30-min cycling bouts at 60% of maximal O(2) uptake preceded by immersion to the suprailiac crest (LBI) ...
McLellan Tom M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have revealed that modafinil elevates resting core temperature during periods of sustained wakefulness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of modafinil on core temperature during rest and exercise throughout 40 h of sustained wakefulness in a warm environment. METHODS: Ten males performed a ...
Schreiber S J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Head-down tilt is often used to assist cannulation of the internal jugular vein (IJV). However, the optimal duration of tilt before cannulation is not well defined. METHODS: Fifteen healthy volunteers were studied by B-mode duplex sonography to assess changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right IJV during 10 ...
O'Brien Catherine - - 2003
This study was conducted to determine whether hypohydration (Hy) alters blood flow, skin temperature, or cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) during peripheral cooling. Fourteen subjects sat in a thermoneutral environment (27 degrees C) during 15-min warm-water (42 degrees C) and 30-min cold-water (4 degrees C) finger immersion (FI) while euhydrated (Eu) and, ...
Ayhan Z - - 2002
The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on microorganisms in orange juice and on the flavor and color of the juice during storage for 112 days at 4 and 22 degrees C were investigated. Single-strength orange juice was PEF processed at an electric field strength of 35 kV/cm for ...
Domanskii Vladimir - - 2003
The esterification kinetics of chlorophyllide, obtained by a single flash of light, were investigated in etiolated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and oat ( Avena sativa L.) leaves. A rapid phase, leading to esterification of 15% of total chlorophyllide within 15-30 s, was followed by a lag-phase of nearly 2 ...
Edwards B - - 2002
Seventeen healthy adults exercised for 30 min (70% VO2max), at different times of the day and night throughout a 24 h period. The effect on the phase of core temperature rhythm was assessed by comparing the rhythms on the day immediately before and immediately after the day of exercise with ...
McConaghy F F - - 2002
Cardiac output (Q) and tissue blood flows (BF) were measured in four ponies at rest, after 30 min of moderate exercise (ME) (approximately 30% VO2max) and following moderately intense exercise (M-IE) (approximately 65%) until fatigue, in a mildly hot (MH) environment (dry bulb temperature = 41 degrees C, wet bulb ...
Silverman S C - - 2002
This study examined the accuracy and precision of a hand-held, chemical analyser, i-STAT, in measuring selected blood constituents which may be of use in the diagnosis and management of metabolic disorders found in exercising horses. Venous blood samples were taken from 3 Thoroughbred geldings, fit and trained to exercise on ...
Gass E M - - 2002
To compare thermoregulatory responses of highly trained men who are tetraplegic during 40 min exercise at 65% [Vdot]O(2) peak and 60 min immersion in 39 degrees C water. Four physically trained men who are tetraplegic participated in three laboratory visits. The first visit involved familiarisation and then determination of [Vdot]O(2) ...
Wilson Thad E - - 2002
This study compared the effects of pre-exercise cooling with control water immersions on exercise-induced thermal loads derived from steady-state submaximal exercise. Eight healthy male participants [mean (SEM) age 29 (1) years, maximal oxygen uptake 3.81 (0.74) l x min(-1), and body surface area 1.85 (0.11) m(2)] took part in experiments ...
Hunter A M - - 2002
This study analysed the effect of hot (35 degrees C) and cold (15 degrees C) environments on electromyographic (EMG) signal characteristics, skin and rectal temperatures and heart rate during progressive endurance exercise. Eight healthy subjects performed three successive 15-min rides at 30%, 50% and 70% of their peak sustained power ...
Klein Wilfried - - 2002
In most reptiles, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia consists of large increases in tidal volume (V(T)), whereas the effects on breathing frequency (f(R)) are more variable. The increased V(T) seems to arise from direct inhibition of pulmonary stretch receptors. Most reptiles also exhibit a transitory increase in ventilation upon removal ...
Newsham Katherine R - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Heat-related deaths are among the most preventable injuries in athletics. We sought to examine two methods of monitoring body temperature during exercise as a means of preventing heat-related illnesses. METHODS: Ten adult subjects exercised in hot, humid conditions while body temperature was monitored by rectal (Tre) and tympanic (Tty) ...
Fukuoka Yoshiyuki - - 2002
We investigated the influence of altering exercise intensity (150, 300, and 450 kpm/min) on the resetting of the core temperature threshold for the onset of the sweating rate (M(sw)) and the alteration of sweating sensitivity during the menstrual cycle in women. Five women underwent cycling exercise for 30 min in ...
Kondo N - - 2002
The purpose of this project was to test the hypothesis that internal temperature modulates the sweating response to sustained handgrip exercise. Ten healthy male subjects immersed their legs in 43 degrees C water for 30-40 min at an ambient temperatures of 30 degrees C and a relative humidity of 50%. ...
Froget G - - 2002
This study investigated whether exposure to low ambient temperature could be used as an alternative to exercise for calibrating heart rate (fH) against rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) for subsequent use of fH to estimate (O(2)) in free-ranging animals. Using the relationship between the oxygen pulse (OP, the amount of ...
Nybo Lars - - 2002
Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which has a variety of physiological roles including functions within the central nervous system. Circulating IL-6 increases markedly during exercise, partly due to the release of IL-6 from the contracting skeletal muscles, and exercise-induced IL-6 may be linked with central fatigue, which is enhanced ...
Mitchell Christopher R - - 2002
This study determined the role of body temperature during exercise on cytochrome-c oxidase (CytOx) activity, a marker of mitochondrial content, and mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHSP70), which is required for import of nuclear-coded preproteins. Male, 10-wk-old, Sprague-Dawley rats exercised identically for 9 wk in ambient temperatures of 23 degrees ...
Yoshida Tetsuya - - 2002
To analyse the critical level of water deficit which causes a decrease in aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, a step test score (STS) and 10 s maximal anaerobic power (MAP) output during cycling exercise were measured in two experiments (Ex-1, n=7, and Ex-2, n=9), before and after baseball practice, using ...
Price M J - - 2002
The thermoregulatory responses of upper-body trained athletes were examined at rest, during prolonged arm crank exercise and recovery in cool (21.5 +/- 0.9 degrees C, 43.9 +/- 10.1% relative humidity; mean +/- s) and warm (31.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 48.9 +/- 8.4% relative humidity) conditions. Aural temperature increased from ...
Larcombe Alexander - - 2002
The effects of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from 10 degrees to 35 degrees C on metabolism, ventilation, and oxygen extraction were examined for the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus). Oxygen consumption (VO2) followed the pattern typical for endotherms, decreasing with increasing T(a) from 10 degrees to 25 degrees C. It did ...
Blank Jason M - - 2002
Tuna are endothermic fish with high metabolic rates, cardiac outputs and aerobic capacities. While tuna warm their skeletal muscle, viscera, brain and eyes, their hearts remain near ambient temperature, raising the possibility that cardiac performance may limit their thermal niches. We used an in situ perfused heart preparation to investigate ...
Butler Patrick J - - 2002
To enable the use of heart rate (fH) for estimating field metabolic rate (FMR) in free-ranging Galapagos marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus, we determined the relationships between fH and mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption (sVO2) in seven iguanas before and during exercise on a treadmill and during the post-exercise period. The ...
Nybo Lars - - 2002
The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral ...
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