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Results 351 - 400 of 1143
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Layden Joseph D - - 2004
The main aim of this study was to investigate if whole body fat oxidation, after acipimox administration, during submaximal exercise in the cold, is different from that at temperate environments. Seven healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled at 70% Vo(2peak) for 60 minutes; once at 0 degrees C and once ...
Chan Lung-Sang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging ...
Shave Robert - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of cold exposure coupled with prolonged exercise upon postexercise left ventricular (LV) function and markers of myocardial damage. METHODS: colon; Eight highly trained male athletes (mean +/- SD; age: 28.2 +/- 8.8 yr; height: 1.78 +/- 0.07 m; ...
Wilkins Brad W - - 2004
After an acute bout of exercise, there is an unexplained elevation in systemic vascular conductance that is not completely offset by an increase in cardiac output, resulting in a postexercise hypotension. The contributions of the splanchnic and renal circulations are examined in a companion paper (Pricher MP, Holowatz LA, Williams ...
Fogarty Alison - - 2004
We have undertaken a laboratory-based examination of the cardiovascular and thermal impact of wearing thermal (heat) protective clothing during fatiguing exercise in the heat. Seven males completed semi-recumbent, intermittent cycling (39.6 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) wearing either protective clothing or shorts (control). Mean core and skin temperatures, cardiac frequency ...
Temme Christian - - 2004
Different aspects and techniques of time series analysis were used to investigate long-term data sets of atmospheric mercury in the Northern Hemisphere. Two perennial time series from different latitudes with different seasonal behaviour were chosen: first, Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland (53 degrees 20'N, 9 degrees 54'W), ...
Arngrímsson Sigurbjörn A - - 2004
To compare the effect of hyperthermia on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in men and women, VO2max was measured in 11 male and 11 female runners under seven conditions involving various ambient temperatures (Ta at 50% RH) and preheating designed to manipulate the esophageal (Tes) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures at ...
Rhind S G - - 2004
The immunomodulatory effects of physiological temperature change remain poorly understood and inter-relationships between changes in core temperature, stress hormones and cytokines during exertional hyperthermia are not well established. This experimental study was designed to examine how cytokine (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and IL-1ra (receptor antagonist)) and hormone ...
Selkirk G A - - 2004
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) ...
Hansen Lise Stengård - - 2004
Life table studies for the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), a pest on stored maize, Zea mays L., in West Africa, were conducted as part of the expansion of a mathematical simulation model that has been developed for two pests of stored maize. The effects of four temperatures (20, ...
Al-Senani Fahmi M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest causes devastating neurological morbidity and mortality. Mild/moderate hypothermia is neuroprotective after global cerebral ischemia. More rapid controlled attainment of the target temperature may increase efficacy. METHODS: We assessed the safety and feasibility of endovascular cooling in a single arm study of comatose patients who had been successfully ...
Linnane D M - - 2004
In this study, we investigated the metabolic and performance responses to hyperthermia during high-intensity exercise. Seven males completed two 30-s cycle sprints (SpI and SpII) at an environmental temperature of 20.6 (0.3) degrees C [mean (SD)] with 4 min recovery between sprints. A hot or control treatment preceded the sprint ...
Eiken O - - 2004
AIM: The purpose was to examine whether graded ischaemia in the working muscles affects the rate of sweating and the control of exercise core temperature. METHODS: Eight subjects performed cycle ergometry exercise in the supine position with (ischaemic exercise) and without (control exercise) restriction of blood flow in the contracting ...
Cheung Stephen - - 2004
In this study, we examined the effects of upper-body pre-cooling before intermittent sprinting exercise in a moderate environment. Seven male and three female trained cyclists (age 26.8+/-5.5 years, body mass 68.5+/-9.5 kg, height 1.76+/-0.13 m, V O2peak 59.0+/-11.4 mL. kg(-1). min(-1); mean+/-s) performed 30 min of cycling at 50% V ...
Shipp Nicholas J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) occurs in an uncertain proportion of endurance trained athletes. Whereas blood gas measurements must be corrected for core temperature at the time of sampling, the commonly used rectal temperature readings may not be the most appropriate. METHODS: Ten males [mean peak oxygen uptake, (.-)VO(2peak), 65.4 +/- ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2004
It has been proposed that a critical body temperature exists at which muscle activation is impaired through a direct effect of high brain temperature decreasing the central drive to exercise, but other factors may also inhibit performance in the heat. An integrative physiological model is presented to stimulate research into ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2004
In order to improve the efficiency of heat moisture exchangers (HMEs), new hybrid humidifiers (active HMEs) that add water and heat to HMEs have been developed. In this study we evaluated the efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo, of a new active HME (the Performer; StarMed, Mirandola, Italy) as ...
Hayashi Keiji - - 2004
We investigated the effects of brief leg cooling after moderate exercise on the cardiorespiratory responses to subsequent exercise in the heat. Following 40 min of ergometer cycling [65% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] at 35 degrees C (Ex. 1), seven male subjects [21.9 (1.1) years of age; 170.9 (1.9) cm height; ...
Soares D D - - 2004
The role of increased hypothalamic tryptophan (TRP) availability on thermoregulation and rates of core temperature increase and heat storage (HS) during exercise was studied in normal untrained rats running until fatigue. The rats were each anesthetized with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1.0 ml kg(-1) ip) and fitted with a chronic guiding cannula ...
Lee Patrick - - 2004
This article defends the following argument: what makes you and I valuable so that it is wrong to kill us now is what we are (essentially). But we are essentially physical organisms, who, embryology reveals, came to be at conception/fertilisation. I reply to the objection to this argument (as found ...
Leiper John B - - 2004
Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did ...
Tucker Ross - - 2004
Exercise in the heat causes "central fatigue", associated with reduced skeletal muscle recruitment during sustained isometric contractions. A similar mechanism may cause fatigue during prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine whether centrally regulated skeletal muscle recruitment was altered during dynamic exercise in ...
Jorissen Mark - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Ciliary orientation (COR) is an important parameter of mucociliary clearance and ciliary disorientation has been reported in cases of acquired abnormalities [secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD)] and in a very few cases as the single abnormality in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and relevance of ciliary (dis)orientation ...
Eglin Clare M - - 2004
Thirteen male instructors were monitored during a total of 44 live fire training exercises (ambient temperature 74+/-42 degrees C). Exposure time during the 'Hot Fire' (HF), 'Fire Behaviour' and 'Fire Attack' exercises was 33.0+/-7.9 min (n=30); 26.3+/-5.5 min (n=6); and 7.3+/-2.6 min (n=8) respectively. At the end of the exercises, ...
Green J M - - 2004
Sweat lactate reflects eccrine gland metabolism. However, the metabolic tendencies of eccrine glands in a hot versus thermoneutral environment are not well understood. Sixteen male volunteers completed a maximal cycling trial and two 60-min cycling trials [30 degrees C = 30 +/- 1 degrees C and 18 degrees C = ...
Rodrigues Alex G - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of central cholinergic transmission in the regulation of metabolic rate, core temperature, and heat storage in untrained rats submitted to exercise on a treadmill (20 m/min, 5% inclination) until fatigue. The animals were separated into eight experimental groups, and core ...
Morrison Shawnda - - 2004
It has been suggested that a critically high body core temperature may impair central neuromuscular activation and cause fatigue. We investigated the effects of passive hyperthermia on maximal isometric force production (MVC) and voluntary activation (VA) to determine the relative roles of skin (T(sk)) and body core temperature ( T(c)) ...
Price Michael J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Studies examining cooling strategies and exercise have generally employed lower-body exercise despite the fact that arm exercise is an important mode for many industrial tasks and disabled populations. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two cooling strategies during arm exercise in the heat. METHODS: ...
Hagobian Todd A - - 2004
The number of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) participating in sports at recreational and elite levels is on the rise. However, loss of autonomic nervous system function below the lesion can compromise thermoregulatory capacity and increase the risk of heat stress relative to able-bodied (AB) individuals. PURPOSE: To test ...
Waterhouse James - - 2004
Eight healthy subjects exercised at 90watts on a cycle ergometer on four occasions, at times close to the minimum, maximum rate of rise, maximum, and maximum rate of fall of their resting core temperature. The duration of exercise was determined by the time taken for the core (rectal) temperature to ...
Hue O - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the acclimation process elicited by exposure to a tropical climate. METHODS: Nine triathletes performed 3 outdoor indirect continuous running multistage tests in both thermoneutral and tropical conditions. Before travelling to the tropical area (Martinique Island, FWI), the triathletes performed the thermoneutral test (TN) ...
Steiss J - - 2004
Ten healthy Labrador Retrievers (4 females and 6 males aged 3-6.5 years [mean, 4.5 years]) training with a professional trainer were studied. The dogs were in training during the entire study. Dogs were monitored within 5 minutes after retrieving birds on land and in water on 2 consecutive days during ...
Rosene John M. - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of creatine supplementation on thermoregulation in males and females during exercise in a thermoneutral environment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female subjects participated in 30 minutes of cycle ergometry in nonsupplemented (NS) and creatine-supplemented (Cr) conditions at 70% to 75% of predetermined peak oxygen consumption. ...
Maltais Désirée - - 2004
PURPOSE: In response to passive heating, adults with hemispheric brain infarction demonstrate lower skin temperatures (Tsk) and higher sweating rates (SR) on the affected side. It is unknown whether children with similar conditions demonstrate a similar response and whether this response is advantageous to defending body temperature during exercise in ...
Melodelima David - - 2004
In the high-intensity focused ultrasound (US), or HIFU, field, it is well-known that the cavitation effect can be used to induce lesions of larger volume. The principle is based on the increase in the equivalent attenuation coefficient of the tissue in the presence of the bubbles created by cavitation. The ...
Smolander Juhani - - 2004
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of wearing an ice-vest (ca 1 kg) on physiological and subjective responses in fire fighters. The experiments were carried out on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment. The physical cooling effect of the ice-vest was measured with a thermal manikin. ...
Okishige Kaoru - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RF-CA) of common atrial flutter (AFL) requires the creation of a transmural incision to create a bidirectional conduction block in the cavotricuspid isthmus (ITH). METHODS AND RESULTS: RF-CA of the ITH using a cooled-tip system was carried out in 40 patients. In the 'conventional' mode (CONV) ...
Leon Gloria R - - 2004
The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically ...
Butudom Prawit - - 2004
To determine whether temperature of rehydration fluid influences voluntary rehydration by horses, six 2-3-year-old horses were dehydrated (4-5% body weight loss) by a combination of furosemide administration and 30 km of treadmill exercise. For the initial 5 min following exercise, horses were offered a 0.9% NaCl solution at 10, 20, ...
Grissom Colin K - - 2004
Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature ...
Southwood Amanda L - - 2003
We measured activity levels, oxygen consumption, metabolic enzyme activity, breathing frequency, heart rate and blood chemistry variables of juvenile green turtles exposed to a laboratory simulation of subtropical winter and summer temperatures (17-26 degrees C) and photoperiod (10.25 h:13.75 h to 14 h:10 h light:dark). The activity level of turtles ...
Armada-da-Silva P A S - - 2004
Increased body temperature is thought to be an important component of the higher perception of exertion that is a feature of fatigue during exercise in the heat but a causal relationship has yet to be demonstrated. We have investigated the effect of passive heating on the perception of exertion during ...
Valtorta Silvia E - - 2004
Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk ...
Knight Derek A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate active rewarming using continuous arteriovenous rewarming (CAVR) and continuous venovenous rewarming (CVVR) methods during severe hypothermia using an electromagnetic fluid warmer. Rapid rewarming using these techniques is superior to passive rewarming and is possible with commercially available equipment. METHODS: Eighteen swine ...
Voltaire B - - 2003
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a hot/wet climate on thermoregulation and cardiac responses during a prolonged effort in natives to tropical climate. METHODS: Experimental design: 22 healthy trained subjects volunteered to perform 3 trials of submaximal cycling of 1 hour each. Two of ...
Bridge M W - - 2003
Pituitary hormones have an important role during exercise yet relatively little is known about the stimulus for their release. Body temperature progressively increases during prolonged steady-state exercise in the heat and we have investigated the role that this may play in the release of prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol (as ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2003
The hypothesis that the magnitude of the postexercise onset threshold for sweating is increased by the intensity of exercise was tested in eight subjects. Esophageal temperature was monitored as an index of core temperature while sweat rate was measured by using a ventilated capsule placed on the upper back. Subjects ...
Baker P J - - 2003
We conducted a 3-year field and laboratory study of winter biology in hatchlings of the northern map turtle ( Graptemys geographica). At our study area in northern Indiana, hatchlings routinely overwintered in their natal nests, emerging after the weather warmed in spring. Winter survival was excellent despite the fact that ...
Osorio R A L - - 2003
We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups ...
Ricklefs Robert E - - 2003
We developed a protocol for determining the maximum rate of oxygen consumption of shorebird chicks (Scolopacidae and Charadriidae) in response to cold challenge. We first subjected the chicks to gradually decreasing temperatures until their metabolism peaked and began to decrease. We ended the cooling phase of a trial when a ...
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