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Results 351 - 400 of 1164
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Strachan Arthur T - - 2005
PURPOSE: The effect of serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor blockade on the thermal response and exercise performance during exercise in a warm environment was examined. METHODS: Seven endurance-trained, but not heat-acclimatized, individuals (six males and one female) performed two 40-km time trials on a static cycle ergometer in a climatic chamber maintained ...
Smorawinski J J Department of Sport Medicine, Academy of Physical Education, Poznan, - - 2005
Bed rest (BR) deconditioning causes excessive increase of exercise core body tempera-ture, while aerobic training improves exercise thermoregulation. The study was designed to determine whether 3 days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR) affects body temperature and sweating dynamics during exercise and, if so, whether endurance training before HDBR ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of wearing a cooling jacket on thermoregulatory responses and endurance exercise performance in a warm environment. Nine untrained male subjects cycled for 60 minutes at 60% Vo(2)max (Ex1) and then immediately exercised to exhaustion at 80% Vo(2)max (Ex2) in ...
Zhang Y Z - - 2005
With the purpose of finding an ideal cryoprotectant or combination of cryoprotectants in a suitable concentration for flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) embryo cryopreservation, we tested the toxicities, at culture temperature (16 degrees C), of five most commonly used cryoprotectants-dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol, methanol (MeOH), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG) and ethylene glycol (EG). ...
Orlin J R - - 2005
The diagnosis of median nerve compression is generally based upon a prolonged nerve conduction velocity although this frequently is preceded by clinical symptoms for years. The present study was designed to identify indicators for early decompression of the median nerve in patients exhibiting symptoms compatible with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). ...
Hsu Andrew R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This two-part study tested the hypotheses that the use of a new cooling device, purported to extract heat from the body core through the palm of the hand, would (a) attenuate core temperature rise during submaximal exercise in the heat, thereby suppressing exercise-associated metabolic changes, and (b) facilitate a ...
Duarte José A - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. ...
Watson Phillip - - 2005
Seven active men were recruited to examine changes in the serum concentration of S100beta, a proposed peripheral marker of blood-brain barrier permeability, following prolonged exercise in temperate (T) and warm (W) conditions. Subjects were seated immersed to the neck in water at 35.0 (0.1) degrees C (T) or 39.0 (0.1) ...
Buono Michael J - - 2005
Serum iron levels have been shown to decline both with fever and with strenuous exercise, leading to the supposition that the decrease might be the result of a rise in core body temperature. To evaluate this hypothesis, the serum iron response to an exercise-induced 1.5 degrees C rise in core ...
Merla A A ITAB-Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, Foundation "University G. D'Annunzio", Chieti and Department of Clinical Sciences and Bioimaging, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy. (phone: +39 0871 3556901; fax: +39 0871 3556930; e-mail: - - 2005
Skin temperature was monitored during a graded exercise to verify whether trained individuals have different skin thermoregulation from untrained ones. Eighteen subjects (10 trained; 8 untrained) were studied recording thermal videos of their skin temperature during the exercise. Training level was assessed by maximal oxygen uptake measurements. Trained individuals have ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2005
We have previously demonstrated a functional role of the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH) in thermoregulation in freely moving rats at various temperature conditions by using microdialysis and biotelemetry methods. In the present study, we perfused tetrodotoxin (TTX) solution into the PO/AH to investigate whether this manipulation can modify ...
Purvis Alison J - - 2004
Many fabrics and clothing 'systems' have been designed to enhance heat balance and provide greater thermal comfort for the wearer. However, studies on the effects of socks have largely been ignored in clothing research. It has been suggested that the thermal state of the extremities may alter core temperature and ...
Marino Frank E - - 2004
Although evidence exists that a critical limiting temperature during exercise leads to premature fatigue secondary to a reduced central nervous system (CNS) drive to skeletal muscle, other thermoregulatory models may provide alternative explanations for limitations to exercise and heat stress in humans. This paper considers a number of mammalian species ...
Kagawa Sohei - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate an unexpectedly high initial skin CO2 pressure with a new small earlobe probe* heated to 42 degrees C containing both transcutaneous (tcPCO2) and pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) sensors. METHODS: The probe was mounted on the ear lobe of six patients during abdominal or thoracic surgery and on ...
Laing S J - - 2005
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged exercise in hot conditions on saliva IgA (s-IgA) responses in trained cyclists. On two occasions, in random order and separated by 1 week, 12 male cyclists cycled for 2 h on a stationary ergometer at 62 (3)% V(.)O(2 ...
Gant Nicholas - - 2004
The purpose of the present study was to re-examine the relationship between deep body temperature and relative exercise intensity, during running rather than cycling (Saltin and Hermansen, 1966). Twenty male competitive and recreational distance runners, aged 22 + 0.9 years (mean +/- sx), were selected to form two groups, one ...
Scott Chris G - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: We examined the effect of prior heating, by exercise and warm-water immersion, on core cooling rates in individuals rendered mildly hypothermic by immersion in cold water. METHODS: There were seven male subjects who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) seated rest for 15 min (control); 2) ...
Kim Kee-Bum - - 2004
A number of environmental and metabolic stimuli rapidly induce the expression of several highly conserved proteins such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) or stress proteins. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of submaximal exercise in varying ambient temperatures on cardiac and skeletal ...
Journeay W Shane - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of upright lower body positive and negative pressure (LBPP/LBNP) application on the post-exercise thermal response. It was hypothesized that the application of LBPP would decrease core temperature secondary to increases in skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweating, whereas the ...
Talawar M B - - 2004
Cobalt, nickel and zinc tris(carbohydrazide) perchlorates (CoCP, NiCP and ZnCP) as well as copper bis(carbohydrazide) perchlorate (CuCP) of desired morphology and bulk density (0.85-0.95 g/cm3) have been synthesized during this work. The synthesis was carried out by addition of the aqueous solution of cobalt/nickel/copper/zinc perchlorates to the aqueous solution of ...
Draviaraj Kingsley Paul - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional outcome after surgery for Dupuytren's contracture and the correlation between the change in the degree of deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) and the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) and the change in hand function. METHODS: Hand function in 30 ...
Layden Joseph D - - 2004
The main aim of this study was to investigate if whole body fat oxidation, after acipimox administration, during submaximal exercise in the cold, is different from that at temperate environments. Seven healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled at 70% Vo(2peak) for 60 minutes; once at 0 degrees C and once ...
Chan Lung-Sang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging ...
Shave Robert - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of cold exposure coupled with prolonged exercise upon postexercise left ventricular (LV) function and markers of myocardial damage. METHODS: colon; Eight highly trained male athletes (mean +/- SD; age: 28.2 +/- 8.8 yr; height: 1.78 +/- 0.07 m; ...
Wilkins Brad W - - 2004
After an acute bout of exercise, there is an unexplained elevation in systemic vascular conductance that is not completely offset by an increase in cardiac output, resulting in a postexercise hypotension. The contributions of the splanchnic and renal circulations are examined in a companion paper (Pricher MP, Holowatz LA, Williams ...
Fogarty Alison - - 2004
We have undertaken a laboratory-based examination of the cardiovascular and thermal impact of wearing thermal (heat) protective clothing during fatiguing exercise in the heat. Seven males completed semi-recumbent, intermittent cycling (39.6 degrees C, 45% relative humidity) wearing either protective clothing or shorts (control). Mean core and skin temperatures, cardiac frequency ...
Temme Christian - - 2004
Different aspects and techniques of time series analysis were used to investigate long-term data sets of atmospheric mercury in the Northern Hemisphere. Two perennial time series from different latitudes with different seasonal behaviour were chosen: first, Mace Head on the west coast of Ireland (53 degrees 20'N, 9 degrees 54'W), ...
Arngrímsson Sigurbjörn A - - 2004
To compare the effect of hyperthermia on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in men and women, VO2max was measured in 11 male and 11 female runners under seven conditions involving various ambient temperatures (Ta at 50% RH) and preheating designed to manipulate the esophageal (Tes) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures at ...
Rhind S G - - 2004
The immunomodulatory effects of physiological temperature change remain poorly understood and inter-relationships between changes in core temperature, stress hormones and cytokines during exertional hyperthermia are not well established. This experimental study was designed to examine how cytokine (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and IL-1ra (receptor antagonist)) and hormone ...
Selkirk G A - - 2004
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) ...
Hansen Lise Stengård - - 2004
Life table studies for the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), a pest on stored maize, Zea mays L., in West Africa, were conducted as part of the expansion of a mathematical simulation model that has been developed for two pests of stored maize. The effects of four temperatures (20, ...
Al-Senani Fahmi M - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest causes devastating neurological morbidity and mortality. Mild/moderate hypothermia is neuroprotective after global cerebral ischemia. More rapid controlled attainment of the target temperature may increase efficacy. METHODS: We assessed the safety and feasibility of endovascular cooling in a single arm study of comatose patients who had been successfully ...
Linnane D M - - 2004
In this study, we investigated the metabolic and performance responses to hyperthermia during high-intensity exercise. Seven males completed two 30-s cycle sprints (SpI and SpII) at an environmental temperature of 20.6 (0.3) degrees C [mean (SD)] with 4 min recovery between sprints. A hot or control treatment preceded the sprint ...
Eiken O - - 2004
AIM: The purpose was to examine whether graded ischaemia in the working muscles affects the rate of sweating and the control of exercise core temperature. METHODS: Eight subjects performed cycle ergometry exercise in the supine position with (ischaemic exercise) and without (control exercise) restriction of blood flow in the contracting ...
Cheung Stephen - - 2004
In this study, we examined the effects of upper-body pre-cooling before intermittent sprinting exercise in a moderate environment. Seven male and three female trained cyclists (age 26.8+/-5.5 years, body mass 68.5+/-9.5 kg, height 1.76+/-0.13 m, V O2peak 59.0+/-11.4 mL. kg(-1). min(-1); mean+/-s) performed 30 min of cycling at 50% V ...
Shipp Nicholas J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) occurs in an uncertain proportion of endurance trained athletes. Whereas blood gas measurements must be corrected for core temperature at the time of sampling, the commonly used rectal temperature readings may not be the most appropriate. METHODS: Ten males [mean peak oxygen uptake, (.-)VO(2peak), 65.4 +/- ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2004
It has been proposed that a critical body temperature exists at which muscle activation is impaired through a direct effect of high brain temperature decreasing the central drive to exercise, but other factors may also inhibit performance in the heat. An integrative physiological model is presented to stimulate research into ...
Chiumello Davide - - 2004
In order to improve the efficiency of heat moisture exchangers (HMEs), new hybrid humidifiers (active HMEs) that add water and heat to HMEs have been developed. In this study we evaluated the efficiency, both in vitro and in vivo, of a new active HME (the Performer; StarMed, Mirandola, Italy) as ...
Hayashi Keiji - - 2004
We investigated the effects of brief leg cooling after moderate exercise on the cardiorespiratory responses to subsequent exercise in the heat. Following 40 min of ergometer cycling [65% peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak))] at 35 degrees C (Ex. 1), seven male subjects [21.9 (1.1) years of age; 170.9 (1.9) cm height; ...
Soares D D - - 2004
The role of increased hypothalamic tryptophan (TRP) availability on thermoregulation and rates of core temperature increase and heat storage (HS) during exercise was studied in normal untrained rats running until fatigue. The rats were each anesthetized with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1.0 ml kg(-1) ip) and fitted with a chronic guiding cannula ...
Lee Patrick - - 2004
This article defends the following argument: what makes you and I valuable so that it is wrong to kill us now is what we are (essentially). But we are essentially physical organisms, who, embryology reveals, came to be at conception/fertilisation. I reply to the objection to this argument (as found ...
Leiper John B - - 2004
Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of 8 competitive swimmers (SW) and 6 age-matched non-training individuals (CON) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7-day study, individuals in the SW group trained 9 times, swimming on average 42.4 km, while the CON group did ...
Tucker Ross - - 2004
Exercise in the heat causes "central fatigue", associated with reduced skeletal muscle recruitment during sustained isometric contractions. A similar mechanism may cause fatigue during prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine whether centrally regulated skeletal muscle recruitment was altered during dynamic exercise in ...
Jorissen Mark - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Ciliary orientation (COR) is an important parameter of mucociliary clearance and ciliary disorientation has been reported in cases of acquired abnormalities [secondary ciliary dyskinesia (SCD)] and in a very few cases as the single abnormality in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and relevance of ciliary (dis)orientation ...
Eglin Clare M - - 2004
Thirteen male instructors were monitored during a total of 44 live fire training exercises (ambient temperature 74+/-42 degrees C). Exposure time during the 'Hot Fire' (HF), 'Fire Behaviour' and 'Fire Attack' exercises was 33.0+/-7.9 min (n=30); 26.3+/-5.5 min (n=6); and 7.3+/-2.6 min (n=8) respectively. At the end of the exercises, ...
Green J M - - 2004
Sweat lactate reflects eccrine gland metabolism. However, the metabolic tendencies of eccrine glands in a hot versus thermoneutral environment are not well understood. Sixteen male volunteers completed a maximal cycling trial and two 60-min cycling trials [30 degrees C = 30 +/- 1 degrees C and 18 degrees C = ...
Rodrigues Alex G - - 2004
The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of central cholinergic transmission in the regulation of metabolic rate, core temperature, and heat storage in untrained rats submitted to exercise on a treadmill (20 m/min, 5% inclination) until fatigue. The animals were separated into eight experimental groups, and core ...
Morrison Shawnda - - 2004
It has been suggested that a critically high body core temperature may impair central neuromuscular activation and cause fatigue. We investigated the effects of passive hyperthermia on maximal isometric force production (MVC) and voluntary activation (VA) to determine the relative roles of skin (T(sk)) and body core temperature ( T(c)) ...
Price Michael J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Studies examining cooling strategies and exercise have generally employed lower-body exercise despite the fact that arm exercise is an important mode for many industrial tasks and disabled populations. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two cooling strategies during arm exercise in the heat. METHODS: ...
Hagobian Todd A - - 2004
The number of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) participating in sports at recreational and elite levels is on the rise. However, loss of autonomic nervous system function below the lesion can compromise thermoregulatory capacity and increase the risk of heat stress relative to able-bodied (AB) individuals. PURPOSE: To test ...
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