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Results 201 - 250 of 1142
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Dennis J - - 2008
The European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group (EPAG) has undertaken investigations with the aim of developing robust methods for the droplet size analysis of nebuliser-produced aerosols in support of the proposed European Pharmacopeia general chapter 2.9.44 covering preparations for nebulisation. A multi-centre study was designed to investigate the effects of cooling the ...
Coso J D - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare tympanic (measured by infrared thermometry; Tty- (IRED)) with rectal and esophageal temperatures (T(REC) and T(ES)) during exercise in the heat. During Experiment 1, nine subjects pedaled for 55 min in a hot-dry environment (37 degrees C; 27% humidity) in still-air (<0.2 m/s) ...
Kinney Elissa - - 2008
The trapezius muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining proper shoulder mechanics and is often considered a source of weakness and dysfunction in patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation patterns of the middle and lower trapezius during four prone horizontal abduction exercises of the ...
Fujii Ronaldo Kenzou - - 2008
Envisioning a cooling method and aiming at maximum feasibility and simplicity, we designed an experimental intervention-control study based on non-refrigerated water usage, consisting of pouring 2 l of 23.0 degrees C water simultaneously on head and hands for one minute, after every 20 min of exertion. The subjects were 11 ...
Saur Joachim - - 2008
The aim of the present study was the comparison of calculated and measured values of the energy expenditure of critically ill patients during the different phases of therapeutic mild hypothermia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients (mean age 40.6 years, range 23 to 68 years, 2 females) suffering from severe acute ...
Hashim Nur Aida - - 2008
Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort ...
Sangole A P - - 2008
Current classification systems of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are limited because they are based on visual assessments of two-dimensional (2D) clinical indices (e.g. Cobb angle, central sacral vertebral line) calculated from calibrated radiographs. This study presents a cluster analysis using three-dimensional characteristics of 172 pre-operative Lenke 1 thoracic curve cases ...
Andrade Michele R - - 2008
Water supplemented with 10% or 20% (v/v) of Zarrouk medium was used to cultivate Spirulina platensis in closed and open bioreactors under controlled conditions (30 degrees C, 32.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1), 12 h light/dark photoperiod) and in a greenhouse (9.4 to 46 degrees C, up to 2800 micromol m(-2) s(-1), ...
Houghton Laurence A - - 2009
Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal ...
Racinais Sébastien - - 2009
Seven male subjects volunteered to participate in an investigation of whether the diurnal increase in core temperature influences the effects of pre-cooling or passive warm-up on muscular power. Morning (07:00-09:00h) and afternoon (17:00-19:00h) evaluation of maximal power output during a cycling sprint was performed on different days in a control ...
Palomero J - - 2008
AIM: The present study investigated whether increased activation of heat shock factors (HSF) following exercise relates primarily to the increased muscle temperature or to exercise in general. METHODS: Six subjects completed 40 min of intermittent cycling (15s:15s exercise:recovery at 300 +/- 22 W) at an ambient temperature of either 20.0 ...
Cain Sean W - - 2007
In rodents, increased activity due to running-wheel access is associated with a change in observed circadian period. In humans, exposure to exercise has failed to demonstrate similar effects on period. Methodological issues with prior studies such as light exposure during exercise, length of study, and method of measuring period confounded ...
Ansley L - - 2008
The present study investigated the effects of head cooling during endurance cycling on performance and the serotonergic neuroendocrine response to exercise in the heat. Subjects exercised at 75 % VO(2max) to volitional fatigue on a cycle ergometer at an ambient temperature of 29+/-1.0 degrees C, with a relative humidity of ...
Laager Frédéric - - 2008
Using two photomultiplier tubes (PMT), we measured the biophoton emission of the left and right wrists simultaneously. The subjects performed hand-grip exercises with both hands, during the measurements. We found a slow increase of the emission rates during the exercises, rising in average from 51.6 cps (counts per second) to ...
Zhou W - - 2008
AIMS: To optimize the production condition of chitosanases of Gongronella sp. JG and to characterize the major chitosanase. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the optimized medium and culturing condition, strain JG produced 800 micromol min(-1) l(-1) chitosanase activity at 72 h. The major chitosanase - csn1 was purified through three chromatography ...
Green J Matt - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study examined effects of heat gain, circulatory adjustment to temperature regulation (HR), and [La] consequent to interval (INT) and constant-load (CON) cycling on session RPE (S-RPE). METHODS: Male volunteers (N = 10) completed a cycle ergometer VO2peak test and then, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, four cycling bouts, ...
Sattler Melanie - - 2007
Two competing meteorological factors influence atmospheric concentrations of pollutants from open liquid area sources such as wastewater treatment plant units: temperature and stability. High temperatures in summer produce greater emissions from liquid area sources because of increased compound volatility; however, these emissions tend to disperse more readily because of frequent ...
Peake Jonathan - - 2008
We investigated the influence of rectal temperature on the immune system during and after exercise. Ten well-trained male cyclists completed exercise trials (90 min cycling at 60% VO(2max) + 16.1 - km time trial) on three separate occasions: once in 18 degrees C and twice in 32 degrees C. Twenty ...
Wang Y-H - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate the influence of environmental parameters on the production of antibiotics (xenocoumacins and nematophin) by Xenorhabdus nematophila and enhance the antibiotic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of five parameters (the initial pH, medium volume in flask, rotary speed, temperature ...
Zhang Lifei - - 2008
A method of decomposing hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gamma-alumina was investigated at low temperature of 300 degrees C. It was found that HCB was rather quickly decomposed under such a condition. Decomposition efficiency (DE) increases with increasing the surface area of gamma-alumina. Pretreated gamma-alumina has a better performance for the decomposition ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of an acute injection of a dual dopamine (DA)/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor (bupropion) on exercise performance, thermoregulation and neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH) of the rat during exercise in the heat. Body core temperature (T(core)), ...
Northington William E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: As the likelihood of terrorist acts increases, prehospital personnel have been forced to train in the proper use of chemical-resistant personal protective equipment (PPE). This protective ensemble has been reported to be physiologically taxing for the wearer, imposing an additional thermal load resulting in hypohydration, hyperthermia, and reduced work ...
Laing Stewart J - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise with and without a thermal clamp on neutrophil trafficking, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, stress hormones, and cytokine responses. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (means +/- SE: age 21 +/- 1 yr; mass 74.9 +/- 2.1 kg; maximal oxygen uptake ...
Atkinson G - - 2008
The thermoregulatory responses to morning exercise after exposure to different schedules of bright light were examined. At 07:00 h, six males ran on two occasions in an environmental chamber (temperature = 31.4 +/- 1.0 degrees C, humidity = 66 +/- 6 %) for 40 min at 60 % of maximal ...
Oztürk Levent - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess how anaerobic exercise affects auditory brainstem response (ABR) parameters, and whether one night of sleep deprivation could alter these possible exercise-induced changes in ABRs. METHODS: Seven healthy, audiologically normal male students (mean age 22.4 +/- 1.0 years) participated in the study. All ...
Sinclair Wade H - - 2008
This study investigated the influence of protective clothing worn to prevent marine stinger envenomation on the thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubescent surf lifesavers exercising in situ under hot and humid conditions (27 degrees C, 78% relative humidity). Participants performed beach and water activities typically associated with junior surf lifesaving competition in ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2007
We evaluated the hypothesis that females would show a greater postexercise hypotension and concurrently a greater increase in the onset threshold for sweating. Fourteen subjects (7 males and 7 females) of similar age, body composition, and fitness status participated in the study. Esophageal temperature was monitored as an index of ...
Munn Adam J - - 2007
Juvenile mortalities in large mammals are usually associated with environmental extremes, but the basis for this vulnerability is often unclear. Because of their high surface area to volume ratio, juveniles are expected to suffer greater thermal stresses relative to adults. Coping with thermal stress requires the ventilatory system to accommodate ...
Taylor Polly M - - 2007
This study evaluated thermal threshold (TT) testing for investigation into NSAID analgesia in cats. Seven cats participated in two crossover studies. TTs were measured on thoracic skin using a device developed specifically for cats. Skin temperature was recorded, then the heater activated. At the behavioural end point heating was stopped ...
Hettinga Florentina J - - 2007
Time-trial performance deteriorates in the heat. This might potentially be the result of a temperature-induced decrease in gross-efficiency (GE). The effect of high ambient temperature on GE during cycling will be studied, with the intent of determining if a heat-induced change in GE could account for the performance decrements in ...
Buono Michael J - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of non-contact infrared thermometry to measure mean skin temperature in resting and exercising subjects in cold, thermo-neutral and hot environments. The subjects for the study were six healthy volunteers. Skin temperature was measured at three sites: the forearm, chest and ...
Kelechi Teresa J - - 2007
Chronic inflammation and microcirculatory disturbances of the skin have been implicated as causative factors of complications associated with chronic venous disease (CVD). The purpose of this study is to describe the mean differences between and correlations among three measures of microcirculation: skin temperature (Tsk), tissue perfusion/blood flow (BF), and tissue ...
Lee Jason K W - - 2007
Nine males cycled at 53% (s = 2) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.4 degrees C, s = 0.2; relative humidity: 61%, s = 3). One litre of flavoured water at 10 (cold), 37 (warm) or 50 degrees C (hot) was ingested 30 ...
Giesbrecht Gordon G - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Firefighters experience significant heat stress while working with heavy gear in a hot, humid environment. This study compared the cooling effectiveness of immersing the forearms and hands in 10 and 20 degrees C water. METHODS: Six men (33 +/- 10 yr; 180 +/- 4 cm; 78 +/- 9 kg; ...
Duffield Rob - - 2007
The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-cooling procedures improve both maximal sprint and sub-maximal work during intermittent-sprint exercise. Nine male rugby players performed a familiarisation session and three testing sessions of a 2 x 30-min intermittent sprint protocol, which consisted of a 15-m sprint every min separated ...
Payne Kimberley - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Research, theory, and popular belief all suggest that penile sensation is greater in the uncircumcised as compared with the circumcised man. However, research involving direct measurement of penile sensation has been undertaken only in sexually functional and dysfunctional groups, and as a correlate of sexual behavior. There are no ...
Stephenson Lou A - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: A novel pulsed cooling paradigm (PCskin) integrating mean skin temperature (Tsk) feedback was compared with constant cooling (CC) or time-activated pulsed cooling (PC). METHODS: Eight males exercised while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) in a warm, dry environment (dry bulb temperature: 30 degrees C; dew-point temperature: 11 degrees C) ...
Podlaski RafaƂ - - 2007
Tree damage, gauged by the amount of defoliation, is one of the basic criteria used to determine treatments for protected and economic forests. Monitoring should include an assessment of the degree of tree damage in different spatial scales. Therefore, in addition to the commonly applied large-area methods, small-area methods should ...
Pires W - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the stimulation of central cholinergic synapses in the regulation of heat loss in untrained rats during exercise. The animals were separated into two groups (exercise or rest) and tail skin temperature (T(tail)), core temperature and blood pressure were measured ...
Hiebert Sara M - - 2007
This investigative laboratory exercise uses the different relations between ambient temperature and metabolic rate in endotherms and ectotherms as a core concept to answer the following question: What thermoregulatory mode is employed by chicken embryos? Emphasis is placed on the physiological concepts that can be taught with this exercise, including ...
Green J M - - 2007
AIM: The potential influence of a hotter vs cooler environment on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) estimations during longer duration exercise is not well-understood. This study compared overall and differentiated RPEs during cycling in 18 degrees C vs 30 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). METHODS: Male volunteers (n=16) ...
La Shell Mark S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The development of pruritus and papules with increased body temperature is a common clinical scenario seen in allergy practice, often leading to a diagnosis of cholinergic urticaria. OBJECTIVE: To describe an unusual case of miliaria and its significance in the evaluation of patients with pruritic papular eruptions that occur ...
Firth Alison Y - - 2007
PURPOSE: To measure the effect of head tilt on reading rate and to determine whether a difference existed between the body or the text being tilted. METHODS: The Wilkins Rate of Reading Test was used to measure rate of reading in a population of normal readers. In the first part ...
Branch J David - - 2007
In order to examine thermoregulatory response to creatine (CR) supplementation, competitive male cyclists and triathletes (n = 7, VO2max = 50.6 +/- 0.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed three 1-hour hyperthermic (ambient temperature = 38.7 +/- 1.0 degrees C, relative humidity = 33 +/- 4%) exercise sessions at 181 ...
Rissanen Sirkka - - 2007
The objective of this study was to quantify the thermal strain of soldiers wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing during short-term field training in cold conditions. Eleven male subjects performed marching exercises at moderate and heavy activity levels for 60 minutes. Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperatures, and heart rate ...
Fukuda-Matsuda Eri - - 2007
Hypothermia and frostbite are frequently seen in accidents in remote wilderness environment, especially in hypobaric hypoxic conditions. The aim of this study was to clarify how hypobaric hypoxic conditions affects peripheral circulation. Peripheral skin temperature and autonomic nervous functions were assessed in two 1000-m ascent exercises. Subjects (n = 15) ...
Uckert Sandra - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of different thermoregulatory preparation procedures (warm-up (WU), precooling (PC), control (C)) on endurance performance in the heat. METHODS: 20 male subjects completed three treadmill runs to exhaustion (5 days apart). In each session, all subjects performed an incremental running test after WU (20 min at ...
Mohan Shyam - - 2007
In single crystals of 2H-NbSe2, we identify for the first time a crossover from a weak collective to a strong pinning regime in the vortex state which is not associated with the peak effect phenomenon. Instead, we find the crossover is associated with an anomalous history dependent magnetization response. In ...
Shafik A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: It has been claimed that recognizable organized sensory nerve endings could not be detected in the rectal wall. Hence the identification of cold receptors sensitive to cold temperature in the rectal wall has so far not been reported in the literature. We investigated the hypothesis that rectal cooling effected ...
O'Shea Robert P - - 2007
When one looks up a hill from below, its peak appears lower than it is; when one looks at a hill across a valley from another peak, the peak of that hill appears higher than it is. These illusions have sometimes been explained by assuming that the subjective horizontal is ...
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