Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1166
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Altareki N - - 2009
The aim of the present investigation was to examine the influence of environmental heat stress (35 degrees C) on 4-km cycling time trial performance using simulated environmental conditions and facing air velocities that closely reflect competitive situations. Nine competitive cyclists (age 34 +/- 5 years, maximal oxygen uptake 61.7 +/- ...
Rae Dale E - - 2008
PURPOSE: Five of 28,753 cyclists participating in an annual 109-km bicycle race died, four within 24 h of the race and the fifth 17 d later. All five deaths were reported to be the consequence of exertional heatstroke. One runner of 6874 participating in an annual 56-km ultramarathon developed heatstroke ...
Cochrane D J - - 2008
This study compared the rate of muscle temperature (Tm) increase during acute whole-body vibration (WBV), to that of stationary cycling and passive warm-up. Additionally we wanted to determine if the purported increase in counter-movement jump and peak power cycling from acute WBV could be explained by changes in muscle temperature. ...
Webborn N - - 2010
Precooling has been shown to enhance performance in repeated sprint exercise in able-bodied subjects in a hot environment. Spinal cord injury causes thermoregulatory impairment with a detrimental effect on performance. This study assessed whether cooling strategies before and during exercise in the heat enhances sprint performance in athletes with tetraplegia. ...
Lemire Bruno - - 2008
This study evaluated the effect of body adiposity on core cooling rates, as measured by decreases in rectal (T (re)), esophageal (T (es)) and aural canal (T (ac)) temperatures, of individuals rendered hyperthermic by dynamic exercise in the heat. Seventeen male participants were divided into two groups; low body fat ...
Spomer Neil A - - 2008
The effect of temperature on [14C]fipronil uptake and transfer from donor (D) to recipient (R) Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) workers was evaluated. Test chambers used in the fipronil uptake study were constructed from petri dishes containing autoclaved soil treated with 1 ppm [14C]fipronil (1.14 microCi of total radioactivity per ...
Chan K O W - - 2008
AIM: This study examined the effects of a hot environment on metabolic responses, thermoregulation, and performance during simulated cycling and running in triathletes. METHODS: Seven male triathletes completed two trials in moderate (22+/-0.2 degrees C, 76+/-2% relative humidity, M) and hot (31.2+/-0.2 degrees C, 76.4+/-1.6% relative humidity, H) environmental conditions ...
Champagne C P - - 2008
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 was inoculated in an apple-pear-raspberry juice blend at 4.5 x 10(9) CFU/250 mL portion, and viability was followed during storage in conditions simulating consumer use. Study parameters were age of the juice (2 or 4 wk), sampling size (one to three 250-mL portions), incubation temperature (between 2 ...
Lafrenz Andrew J - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of cardiovascular (CV) drift and decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (V[spacing dot above]O2max) would be greater at 35 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. METHODS: The increase in HR and decrease in stroke volume (SV) between 15 and 45 min ...
Anegawa E - - 2008
To clarify the relationship between head posture and pharyngeal airway space (PAS), the cephalometric parameters at different head postures were examined. Twelve normal Japanese adults (6 males and 6 females) were examined. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at five different head postures in each person. All radiographs were traced, and ...
Ferreira José J A - - 2008
This study aimed at evaluating the thermographic changes associated with localized exercise in young and elderly subjects. An exercise protocol using 1 kg load was applied during 3 min to the knee flexors of 14 elderly (67 +/- 5 years) and 15 young (23 +/- 2 years) healthy subjects. The ...
Crewe Helen - - 2008
This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in rating of perceived exertion (RPE) predicts the duration of exercise to exhaustion during exercise in hot conditions. Seven subjects performed five cycling trials in an environmental chamber at temperatures of 15 degrees C (C) and 35 degrees C (H). The cool ...
Tyler C - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a 90-min treadmill-based preloaded time-trial (TT (pre)) in hot (HOT) and moderate (MOD) temperatures. Nine well-trained males completed six 90-min TT (pre), three in HOT (30.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C) and three in MOD (14.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C) ...
Brown Peter I - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of previous warming on high-intensity intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry. Ten male soccer players completed a repeated sprint test (10 x 6-second sprints with 34-second recovery) on a nonmotorized treadmill preceded by an active warm-up (10 minutes of running: ...
Biglione Nicole - - 2008
This work investigated the kinetic parameters of atrazine mineralization by suspended cells of Pseudomonas sp. ADP in both shake flasks and spherical stirred tank batch reactors (SSTR). The degradation of atrazine and growth of Pseudomonas sp. ADP were studied. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and stirring speeds in both ...
Cravello Barbara - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Many authors have written about skin physiological parameters and their changes according to different environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the literature puts in evidence disagreement among different studies due to the great variability in these parameters and due to the difficulty in comparing the results obtained under different working conditions. Hence, ...
Stillitano Iane - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in ocular wavefront aberrations and contrast sensitivity during 1-year follow-up of overnight orthokeratology. METHODS: Prospective study of 26 eyes that underwent orthokeratology with the BE lens design. Wavefront measurements were analyzed at baseline and after 1, 8, 30, 90, 180, and 365 nights of orthokeratology for ...
Nespolo Roberto F - - 2008
Avian bioenergetic studies suggest that, compared with other vertebrates, birds are efficient thermoregulators. However, most avian physiological studies have been performed in species of small body masses (less than 1 kg). In contrast to what might be anticipated, thermoregulatory abilities of large, flying birds are scarcely studied, especially in temperate ...
Goosey-Tolfrey Victoria - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven ...
Hadid A - - 2008
The present study was conducted in order to evaluate whether physiological strain is alleviated by a new personal cooling system (CS) consisting of a layered vest and integrated blower that generate a flow of air. Twelve male volunteers were exposed to climatic conditions of 40 degrees C, 40%RH (40/40), and ...
Lee Jason K W - - 2008
In this study, we examined thermoregulatory responses to ingestion of separate aliquots of drinks at different temperatures during low-intensity exercise in conditions of moderate heat stress. Eight men cycled at 50% (s = 3) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.3 degrees C, s ...
Ogura Yuji - - 2008
This study examined whether the exercise-increased extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) levels in rats was associated with body temperature elevation during exercise. In all, 26 female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 mo old) were assigned randomly to control (CON; n = 8), exercise under warm temperature (WEx; n = 9), or ...
Nadarajan Jayanthi - - 2008
Shoot-tips of Parkia speciosa, a recalcitrant seed producing tropical leguminous tree withstood cryopreservation using encapsulation-vitrification in combination with trehalose preculture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that trehalose moderated the thermal characteristics of the shoot-tips. A 30 min PVS2 treatment had the lowest glass transition temperature (Tg) (-50.2 +/- 1.1 degree ...
Chou Chinmei - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature ...
Dennis J - - 2008
The European Pharmaceutical Aerosol Group (EPAG) has undertaken investigations with the aim of developing robust methods for the droplet size analysis of nebuliser-produced aerosols in support of the proposed European Pharmacopeia general chapter 2.9.44 covering preparations for nebulisation. A multi-centre study was designed to investigate the effects of cooling the ...
Coso J D - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to compare tympanic (measured by infrared thermometry; Tty- (IRED)) with rectal and esophageal temperatures (T(REC) and T(ES)) during exercise in the heat. During Experiment 1, nine subjects pedaled for 55 min in a hot-dry environment (37 degrees C; 27% humidity) in still-air (<0.2 m/s) ...
Kinney Elissa - - 2008
The trapezius muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining proper shoulder mechanics and is often considered a source of weakness and dysfunction in patients. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation patterns of the middle and lower trapezius during four prone horizontal abduction exercises of the ...
Fujii Ronaldo Kenzou - - 2008
Envisioning a cooling method and aiming at maximum feasibility and simplicity, we designed an experimental intervention-control study based on non-refrigerated water usage, consisting of pouring 2 l of 23.0 degrees C water simultaneously on head and hands for one minute, after every 20 min of exertion. The subjects were 11 ...
Saur Joachim - - 2008
The aim of the present study was the comparison of calculated and measured values of the energy expenditure of critically ill patients during the different phases of therapeutic mild hypothermia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients (mean age 40.6 years, range 23 to 68 years, 2 females) suffering from severe acute ...
Hashim Nur Aida - - 2008
Life tables were constructed for twelve cohorts of immature stages of the dengue vector Ae. albopictus in a wooded area of Penang, Malaysia. The development time of Ae. albopictus ranged from 6 to 10 days depending on the mean environmental temperature (r = - 0.639, p < 0.05). Total cohort ...
Sangole A P - - 2008
Current classification systems of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) are limited because they are based on visual assessments of two-dimensional (2D) clinical indices (e.g. Cobb angle, central sacral vertebral line) calculated from calibrated radiographs. This study presents a cluster analysis using three-dimensional characteristics of 172 pre-operative Lenke 1 thoracic curve cases ...
Andrade Michele R - - 2008
Water supplemented with 10% or 20% (v/v) of Zarrouk medium was used to cultivate Spirulina platensis in closed and open bioreactors under controlled conditions (30 degrees C, 32.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1), 12 h light/dark photoperiod) and in a greenhouse (9.4 to 46 degrees C, up to 2800 micromol m(-2) s(-1), ...
Houghton Laurence A - - 2009
Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal ...
Racinais Sébastien - - 2009
Seven male subjects volunteered to participate in an investigation of whether the diurnal increase in core temperature influences the effects of pre-cooling or passive warm-up on muscular power. Morning (07:00-09:00h) and afternoon (17:00-19:00h) evaluation of maximal power output during a cycling sprint was performed on different days in a control ...
Palomero J - - 2008
AIM: The present study investigated whether increased activation of heat shock factors (HSF) following exercise relates primarily to the increased muscle temperature or to exercise in general. METHODS: Six subjects completed 40 min of intermittent cycling (15s:15s exercise:recovery at 300 +/- 22 W) at an ambient temperature of either 20.0 ...
Cain Sean W - - 2007
In rodents, increased activity due to running-wheel access is associated with a change in observed circadian period. In humans, exposure to exercise has failed to demonstrate similar effects on period. Methodological issues with prior studies such as light exposure during exercise, length of study, and method of measuring period confounded ...
Ansley L - - 2008
The present study investigated the effects of head cooling during endurance cycling on performance and the serotonergic neuroendocrine response to exercise in the heat. Subjects exercised at 75 % VO(2max) to volitional fatigue on a cycle ergometer at an ambient temperature of 29+/-1.0 degrees C, with a relative humidity of ...
Laager Frédéric - - 2008
Using two photomultiplier tubes (PMT), we measured the biophoton emission of the left and right wrists simultaneously. The subjects performed hand-grip exercises with both hands, during the measurements. We found a slow increase of the emission rates during the exercises, rising in average from 51.6 cps (counts per second) to ...
Zhou W - - 2008
AIMS: To optimize the production condition of chitosanases of Gongronella sp. JG and to characterize the major chitosanase. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the optimized medium and culturing condition, strain JG produced 800 micromol min(-1) l(-1) chitosanase activity at 72 h. The major chitosanase - csn1 was purified through three chromatography ...
Green J Matt - - 2007
PURPOSE: This study examined effects of heat gain, circulatory adjustment to temperature regulation (HR), and [La] consequent to interval (INT) and constant-load (CON) cycling on session RPE (S-RPE). METHODS: Male volunteers (N = 10) completed a cycle ergometer VO2peak test and then, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, four cycling bouts, ...
Sattler Melanie - - 2007
Two competing meteorological factors influence atmospheric concentrations of pollutants from open liquid area sources such as wastewater treatment plant units: temperature and stability. High temperatures in summer produce greater emissions from liquid area sources because of increased compound volatility; however, these emissions tend to disperse more readily because of frequent ...
Peake Jonathan - - 2008
We investigated the influence of rectal temperature on the immune system during and after exercise. Ten well-trained male cyclists completed exercise trials (90 min cycling at 60% VO(2max) + 16.1 - km time trial) on three separate occasions: once in 18 degrees C and twice in 32 degrees C. Twenty ...
Wang Y-H - - 2008
AIMS: To evaluate the influence of environmental parameters on the production of antibiotics (xenocoumacins and nematophin) by Xenorhabdus nematophila and enhance the antibiotic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of five parameters (the initial pH, medium volume in flask, rotary speed, temperature ...
Zhang Lifei - - 2008
A method of decomposing hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by gamma-alumina was investigated at low temperature of 300 degrees C. It was found that HCB was rather quickly decomposed under such a condition. Decomposition efficiency (DE) increases with increasing the surface area of gamma-alumina. Pretreated gamma-alumina has a better performance for the decomposition ...
Hasegawa Hiroshi - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of an acute injection of a dual dopamine (DA)/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitor (bupropion) on exercise performance, thermoregulation and neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH) of the rat during exercise in the heat. Body core temperature (T(core)), ...
Northington William E - - 2007
BACKGROUND: As the likelihood of terrorist acts increases, prehospital personnel have been forced to train in the proper use of chemical-resistant personal protective equipment (PPE). This protective ensemble has been reported to be physiologically taxing for the wearer, imposing an additional thermal load resulting in hypohydration, hyperthermia, and reduced work ...
Laing Stewart J - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise with and without a thermal clamp on neutrophil trafficking, bacterial-stimulated neutrophil degranulation, stress hormones, and cytokine responses. Thirteen healthy male volunteers (means +/- SE: age 21 +/- 1 yr; mass 74.9 +/- 2.1 kg; maximal oxygen uptake ...
Atkinson G - - 2008
The thermoregulatory responses to morning exercise after exposure to different schedules of bright light were examined. At 07:00 h, six males ran on two occasions in an environmental chamber (temperature = 31.4 +/- 1.0 degrees C, humidity = 66 +/- 6 %) for 40 min at 60 % of maximal ...
Oztürk Levent - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess how anaerobic exercise affects auditory brainstem response (ABR) parameters, and whether one night of sleep deprivation could alter these possible exercise-induced changes in ABRs. METHODS: Seven healthy, audiologically normal male students (mean age 22.4 +/- 1.0 years) participated in the study. All ...
Sinclair Wade H - - 2008
This study investigated the influence of protective clothing worn to prevent marine stinger envenomation on the thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubescent surf lifesavers exercising in situ under hot and humid conditions (27 degrees C, 78% relative humidity). Participants performed beach and water activities typically associated with junior surf lifesaving competition in ...
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