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Hobson Ruth M - - 2009
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of time of day on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. METHODS: Nine males cycled to exhaustion at 65% .VO2peak in an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C (60% relative humidity) at 0645 h (AM) and 1845 h (PM). Rectal temperature (Tc), skin ...
Cortés Pablo - - 2009
In evolutionary physiology, studies of inter-individual variation (i.e. repeatability) in functional capacities are valuable as they indicate - within populations - what attributes could respond to natural selection. Although repeatability and quantitative genetics of physiological traits in energy metabolism of eutherian mammals have been well characterized, few or no studies ...
English W A - - 2009
The Diamedica Draw-Over Vaporizer (DDV) has been developed as an alternative to the Oxford Miniature Vaporizer (OMV). Both can function as draw-over or plenum vaporizers. The performances of these two vaporizers were compared under conditions simulating intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and continuous flow (CF). Series 1 experiments were conducted ...
Liu Chengchu - - 2009
This study investigated the effects of flash freezing, followed by frozen storage, on reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Pacific raw oysters. Raw Pacific oysters were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus at a total level of approximately 3.5 x 10(5) most probable number (MPN) per gram. Inoculated oysters were ...
Tyka Aleksander - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To compare the mechanical power and physiological parameters in males at the lactate (LAAT) and integrated electromyographic (IEMGAT) anaerobic thresholds during exercise testing at 23 degrees C, 31 degrees C and 37 degrees C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen men aged 21.9+/-1.80 years performed an incremental exercise test on a ...
Saka Tolga T Department of Sports Medicine, Medical Faculty of Erciyes University, - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscle damage between maximal eccentric exercises of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee extensors (KE). Twelve sedentary male volunteers participated in the study. Range of motion (ROM), isometric peak torque (IPT), delayed onset of muscle soreness ...
Clark T D - - 2008
Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) ...
Yanagisawa Osamu - - 2009
In this study, we assessed the physiological changes after exercising or cooling skeletal muscles on the basis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). DWIs of the ankle dorsiflexors were acquired with a 1.5-T MR device before and after exercising (22 subjects) or ...
Grant R F - - 2009
Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of boreal coniferous forests is believed to rise with climate warming, thereby offsetting some of the rise in atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C(a)) by which warming is caused. However, the response of conifer NEP to warming may vary seasonally, with rises in spring and declines in summer. ...
Saad S - - 2008
Short-term machine perfusion after liver retrieval from non-heart-beating donors has been considered a beneficial means to reverse deleterious priming of the predamaged organ. In this study, the possible impact of different temperatures during aerobic perfusion was addressed, focusing on liver metabolic functions, structural integrity, and vascular activation. Livers retrieved 30 ...
Choi Jeong-Wha - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of different types of personal cooling equipments (PCE) on the alleviation of heat strain during red pepper harvest simulated in a climatic chamber. The experiment consisted of eight conditions: 1) Control, 2) Neck cooling scarf A with a cooling ...
Hostler David - - 2009
Work in personal protective equipment (PPE) impairs thermoregulation causing cardiovascular stress, increased core body temperature, and hypohydration. We examined the effect of pretreating first responders performing treadmill exercise in PPE with an infusion of normal saline on physiological and perceptual strain. Ten (eight males, two females) euhydrated subjects performed treadmill ...
Roelands Bart - - 2009
The combination of acute dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (bupropion; BUP) and heat stress (30 degrees C) significantly improves performance (9%). Furthermore the maintenance of a higher power output resulted in the attainment of significantly higher heart rates and rectal temperatures--above 40 degrees C--in the BUP trial compared to the placebo trial. ...
Tang Zhongzhi - - 2008
The influence of exercise at high temperature on adult males' routine blood indexes and biochemical indexes and the expression of HSP72 in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was studied in order to provide theoretical ground for health supervision of adults receiving exercise at high temperature. 180 adult males were selected and ...
Ftaiti Foued - - 2008
The aim of this study was to differentiate the effects of hyperthermia and physical activity on circulating growth hormone (GH) secretion. Nine healthy volunteer adults performed two 40 min exercise trials and two 50 min passive standing trials. The exercise was performed in either thermo-neutral (N-Ex: air temperature 18 degrees ...
Horswill Craig A - - 2008
Carbohydrate ingestion has recently been associated with elevated core temperature during exercise in the heat when testing for ergogenic effects. Whether the association holds when metabolic rate is controlled is unclear. Such an effect would have undesirable consequences for the safety of the athlete. To examine whether ingesting fluids containing ...
Caramaschi Doretta - - 2008
Aggressiveness is often considered a life-long, persistent personality trait and is therefore expected to have a consistent neurobiological basis. Recent meta-analyses on physiological correlates of aggression and violence suggest that certain aggression-related psychopathologies are associated with low functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). We tested ...
Oliver S Ryan - - 2008
Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile ...
DeGroot David W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There are limited data concerning the physiological responses to long-duration exercise collected under field conditions, and less data under harsh environmental conditions. This paper describes select environmental conditions and physiological responses of three runners attempting to run across the entire Sahara desert over a 111-d period. METHODS: The runners ...
Papadopoulos C - - 2008
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypohydration (HH) on the lactate threshold (LT) in a hot and humid environment. METHODS: Ten apparently healthy males (age 25+/-3 yrs; height 1.8+/-0.04 m; mass 78+/-12 kg; VO2peak 3.7+/-0.4 L/min) underwent four randomly assigned maximal treadmill tests. Two ...
Tanguy Sébastien - - 2008
In order to determine the effect of figure skating on the functional plasticity of the vestibular system, we quantified vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and motion sickness (MS) intensity in 11 female figure skaters and 11 matched control subjects. Vestibular stimulation consisted of three cycles of sinusoidal rotation (0.025 Hz, +/-60 degrees ...
Johnson A K - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of shading wallows during the summer months on lactating sow behavior, performance, and physiology. A total of 128 sows were used during warm weather (May to August 2001) to determine the effects of unshaded (control; n = 8) vs. shaded ...
Storebø Michael L - - 2008
Pulmonary diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) is reduced by approximately 10% 1-6 h after maximal exercise. The mechanisms may be interstitial alveolar oedema and reduced pulmonary capillary blood volume. It was hypothesized that thermal stress following exercise contributes to the reduction in DL(CO), and that skin cooling would attenuate ...
Grissom Colin K - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hypercapnia during avalanche burial may increase core temperature cooling rate by decreasing the temperature threshold for shivering or by increasing respiratory heat loss. METHODS: We studied the effect of hypercapnia on rectal core temperature (T(re)) cooling rate, respiratory heat loss, heat production, and the T(re) shivering threshold during snow ...
Demchak Timothy J - - 2008
CONTEXT: Researchers have recommended certain ultrasound treatment parameters for deep heating; however, we observed different parameters in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment effect of using observed clinical parameters (OCP) from 8 clinicians to the treatment effect of using the recommended parameters (RP) sited in research. DESIGN: 2 ...
Noakes Tim T University of Cape Town. - - 2008
On 7 August 1954, the world 42 km marathon record holder, Jim Peters, collapsed repeatedly during the final 385 metres of the British Empire and Commonwealth Games marathon held in Vancouver, Canada. It has been assumed that Peters collapsed from heatstroke because he ran too fast and did not drink ...
Altareki N - - 2009
The aim of the present investigation was to examine the influence of environmental heat stress (35 degrees C) on 4-km cycling time trial performance using simulated environmental conditions and facing air velocities that closely reflect competitive situations. Nine competitive cyclists (age 34 +/- 5 years, maximal oxygen uptake 61.7 +/- ...
Rae Dale E - - 2008
PURPOSE: Five of 28,753 cyclists participating in an annual 109-km bicycle race died, four within 24 h of the race and the fifth 17 d later. All five deaths were reported to be the consequence of exertional heatstroke. One runner of 6874 participating in an annual 56-km ultramarathon developed heatstroke ...
Cochrane D J - - 2008
This study compared the rate of muscle temperature (Tm) increase during acute whole-body vibration (WBV), to that of stationary cycling and passive warm-up. Additionally we wanted to determine if the purported increase in counter-movement jump and peak power cycling from acute WBV could be explained by changes in muscle temperature. ...
Webborn N - - 2010
Precooling has been shown to enhance performance in repeated sprint exercise in able-bodied subjects in a hot environment. Spinal cord injury causes thermoregulatory impairment with a detrimental effect on performance. This study assessed whether cooling strategies before and during exercise in the heat enhances sprint performance in athletes with tetraplegia. ...
Lemire Bruno - - 2008
This study evaluated the effect of body adiposity on core cooling rates, as measured by decreases in rectal (T (re)), esophageal (T (es)) and aural canal (T (ac)) temperatures, of individuals rendered hyperthermic by dynamic exercise in the heat. Seventeen male participants were divided into two groups; low body fat ...
Spomer Neil A - - 2008
The effect of temperature on [14C]fipronil uptake and transfer from donor (D) to recipient (R) Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) workers was evaluated. Test chambers used in the fipronil uptake study were constructed from petri dishes containing autoclaved soil treated with 1 ppm [14C]fipronil (1.14 microCi of total radioactivity per ...
Chan K O W - - 2008
AIM: This study examined the effects of a hot environment on metabolic responses, thermoregulation, and performance during simulated cycling and running in triathletes. METHODS: Seven male triathletes completed two trials in moderate (22+/-0.2 degrees C, 76+/-2% relative humidity, M) and hot (31.2+/-0.2 degrees C, 76.4+/-1.6% relative humidity, H) environmental conditions ...
Champagne C P - - 2008
Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 was inoculated in an apple-pear-raspberry juice blend at 4.5 x 10(9) CFU/250 mL portion, and viability was followed during storage in conditions simulating consumer use. Study parameters were age of the juice (2 or 4 wk), sampling size (one to three 250-mL portions), incubation temperature (between 2 ...
Lafrenz Andrew J - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that the magnitude of cardiovascular (CV) drift and decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (V[spacing dot above]O2max) would be greater at 35 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. METHODS: The increase in HR and decrease in stroke volume (SV) between 15 and 45 min ...
Anegawa E - - 2008
To clarify the relationship between head posture and pharyngeal airway space (PAS), the cephalometric parameters at different head postures were examined. Twelve normal Japanese adults (6 males and 6 females) were examined. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at five different head postures in each person. All radiographs were traced, and ...
Ferreira José J A - - 2008
This study aimed at evaluating the thermographic changes associated with localized exercise in young and elderly subjects. An exercise protocol using 1 kg load was applied during 3 min to the knee flexors of 14 elderly (67 +/- 5 years) and 15 young (23 +/- 2 years) healthy subjects. The ...
Crewe Helen - - 2008
This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in rating of perceived exertion (RPE) predicts the duration of exercise to exhaustion during exercise in hot conditions. Seven subjects performed five cycling trials in an environmental chamber at temperatures of 15 degrees C (C) and 35 degrees C (H). The cool ...
Tyler C - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a 90-min treadmill-based preloaded time-trial (TT (pre)) in hot (HOT) and moderate (MOD) temperatures. Nine well-trained males completed six 90-min TT (pre), three in HOT (30.5 +/- 0.1 degrees C) and three in MOD (14.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C) ...
Brown Peter I - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of previous warming on high-intensity intermittent running using nonmotorized treadmill ergometry. Ten male soccer players completed a repeated sprint test (10 x 6-second sprints with 34-second recovery) on a nonmotorized treadmill preceded by an active warm-up (10 minutes of running: ...
Biglione Nicole - - 2008
This work investigated the kinetic parameters of atrazine mineralization by suspended cells of Pseudomonas sp. ADP in both shake flasks and spherical stirred tank batch reactors (SSTR). The degradation of atrazine and growth of Pseudomonas sp. ADP were studied. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and stirring speeds in both ...
Cravello Barbara - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Many authors have written about skin physiological parameters and their changes according to different environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the literature puts in evidence disagreement among different studies due to the great variability in these parameters and due to the difficulty in comparing the results obtained under different working conditions. Hence, ...
Stillitano Iane - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in ocular wavefront aberrations and contrast sensitivity during 1-year follow-up of overnight orthokeratology. METHODS: Prospective study of 26 eyes that underwent orthokeratology with the BE lens design. Wavefront measurements were analyzed at baseline and after 1, 8, 30, 90, 180, and 365 nights of orthokeratology for ...
Nespolo Roberto F - - 2008
Avian bioenergetic studies suggest that, compared with other vertebrates, birds are efficient thermoregulators. However, most avian physiological studies have been performed in species of small body masses (less than 1 kg). In contrast to what might be anticipated, thermoregulatory abilities of large, flying birds are scarcely studied, especially in temperate ...
Goosey-Tolfrey Victoria - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of reducing core temperature in postexercise hyperthermic subjects and to assess if hand cooling (HC) improves subsequent timed distance performance. Following a detailed measurement check on the use of insulated auditory canal temperature (T(ac)), eight wheelchair (WA) athletes and seven ...
Hadid A - - 2008
The present study was conducted in order to evaluate whether physiological strain is alleviated by a new personal cooling system (CS) consisting of a layered vest and integrated blower that generate a flow of air. Twelve male volunteers were exposed to climatic conditions of 40 degrees C, 40%RH (40/40), and ...
Lee Jason K W - - 2008
In this study, we examined thermoregulatory responses to ingestion of separate aliquots of drinks at different temperatures during low-intensity exercise in conditions of moderate heat stress. Eight men cycled at 50% (s = 3) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.3 degrees C, s ...
Ogura Yuji - - 2008
This study examined whether the exercise-increased extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHsp72) levels in rats was associated with body temperature elevation during exercise. In all, 26 female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 mo old) were assigned randomly to control (CON; n = 8), exercise under warm temperature (WEx; n = 9), or ...
Nadarajan Jayanthi - - 2008
Shoot-tips of Parkia speciosa, a recalcitrant seed producing tropical leguminous tree withstood cryopreservation using encapsulation-vitrification in combination with trehalose preculture. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that trehalose moderated the thermal characteristics of the shoot-tips. A 30 min PVS2 treatment had the lowest glass transition temperature (Tg) (-50.2 +/- 1.1 degree ...
Chou Chinmei - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of ice-packs (ICE) and phase change material (PCM) cooling devices in reducing physiological load based on subjects' physiological and subjective responses while the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer while wearing firefighting protective clothing in a relatively high temperature ...
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