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Hue O - - 2010
The Tropical climate imposes a high level of physiological stress, which could modify the target heart rate in training load prescription, as the recommendations are often determined by maximal oxygen uptake testing in temperature-neutral laboratories. To test this hypothesis, 7 high-level cyclists performed two randomised maximal tests in neutral (19.2±0.9°C; ...
Greiner Jesse G - - 2010
Hyperthermia potentiates the influence of CO(2) on pulmonary ventilation (.V(E)). It remains to be resolved how skin and core temperatures contribute to the elevated exercise ventilation response to CO(2). This study was conducted to assess the influences of mean skin temperature (_T(SK)) and end-tidal PCO(2) (P(ET)CO(2)) on .V(E) during submaximal ...
Kounalakis Stylianos N - - 2010
We tested the hypothesis that menthol application would reduce the magnitude and initiation of sweating via excitation of cold-sensitive afferent pathways and concurrently via a cross-inhibition of heat loss pathways in acclimatized (swimmers, SW) and non acclimatized (control, CON) subjects in cool water. It was expected this effect to be ...
Ely Brett R - - 2010
Environmental heat stress degrades aerobic performance; however, little research has focused on performance when the selected task elicits modest elevations in core body temperature (<38.5 degrees C). PURPOSE: To determine the effect of environmental heat stress, with modest hyperthermia, on aerobic performance and pacing strategies. METHODS: After a 30-min cycling ...
Scroop Garry C - - 2010
Whereas the prevalence of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) in endurance athletes is commonly reported as approximately 50%, most previous studies have not corrected PaO2 for exercise-induced hyperthermia. Furthermore, although a detrimental effect on aerobic performance has been assumed, no study has measured arterial oxygen content (CaO2) in this context. PURPOSE: To ...
Duffield Rob - - 2009
The current study investigated the effects of a pre-cooling intervention on physiological and performance responses to team-sport training in the heat. Seven male lacrosse players performed a familiarization session and 2 randomized, counterbalanced sessions consisting of a 30-minute intermittent-sprint conditioning session. Prior to the sessions, players performed a 20-minute mixed-method, ...
Miyazawa Taiki - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Centric administration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated to affect temperature regulation in animals during rest or under anesthesia. However, there are few reports concerning the effects of the oral administration of GABA on temperature regulation in humans during rest and exercise. In order to clarify the effects ...
Walker Thomas B - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine if using the CoreControl Rapid Thermal Exchange (RTX), a commercial palm cooling device, during active rest periods of multiple set training is an effective means to increase performance. Ten volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a VO2max test on a motorized treadmill ...
Sinclair Wade H - - 2009
PURPOSE: To contrast the effects of three postcooling techniques in reducing body core temperature (Tc) in exercise-induced hyperthermic participants on the cessation of exercise. METHODS: Eleven healthy active male volunteers were cooled during a 40-min period using three different methods: ice packs to the neck, axillae, and groin (ICE); water ...
Merla Arcangelo - - 2010
In this paper we used high-resolution thermal imaging to visualize the human whole body anterior cutaneous temperature (T(c)) variations in well-trained runners during graded exercise. Fifteen male volunteers underwent a graded treadmill test until reaching their individual maximal heart rate. Total body T(c) decreased as the subjects started the exercise. ...
Hodges Gary J - - 2009
The cutaneous circulation is influenced by a variety of thermoregulatory (skin and internal temperature-driven) and nonthermoregulatory (e.g., baroreflex, exercise-associated reflexes) challenges. The responses to these stimuli are brought about through vasoconstrictor nerves, vasodilator nerves, and changes in the local temperature of the vessels themselves. In this review, we examine how ...
Price Michael J - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of both pre-exercise and combined pre-exercise and midexercise cooling strategies during simulated match play in elite female soccer players in the heat. Eight elite female soccer players performed two 45 min periods of intermittent running separated by 15 min seated ...
Shorten Allison L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The performance of exercise while immersed in cold water has been shown to influence energy intake in the subsequent meal. However, the effect of ambient temperature during land-based exercise is not known. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were to investigate the effect of exercise performed in the heat on energy intake ...
Lee Joo-Young - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to examine the discrepancies in rectal temperature (T (re)) at various depths. Nineteen young males performed two bouts of bicycle exercise and recovery. T (re) was simultaneously measured at depth of 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 19 cm, alongside the measurement ...
Ellegaard Karen - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Use of ultrasound Doppler (USD) in diagnosing and treatment monitoring of patients with RA has increased considerably. Hyperaemia is an integral part of the inflammatory response, and the amount of USD activity in an inflamed synovium may therefore be used to quantify the inflammatory activity. It is unclear, however, ...
Mündel Toby - - 2010
We have previously demonstrated that provision of a cold fluid (4 degrees C) during exercise in the heat increases fluid intake and improves exercise capacity when compared to a control fluid (19 degrees C). The present study investigated whether these positive effects could simply be replicated with a cooling agent, ...
Lemire Bruno B - - 2009
PURPOSE: We evaluated differences between sexes in core cooling rates during cold water immersion after exercise-induced hyperthermia. METHODS: Ten male (M) and nine female (F) participants, matched for body surface area-to-mass ratio (AD/M) (F: 268 +/- 19 vs M: 261 +/- 16 cm2 x kg(-1)), were recruited for the study. ...
Barwood Martin James - - 2009
Major sporting events are often held in hot and humid environmental conditions. Cooling techniques have been used to reduce the risk of heat illness following exercise. This study compared the efficacy of five cooling techniques, hand immersion (HI), whole body fanning (WBF), an air cooled garment (ACG), a liquid cooled ...
Kallinich Tilmann - - 2009
Hyperthermia is characterized by an increase of body core temperature due to exogenous heat exposure and/or endogenous heat production. Contrary to fever the hypothalamic-controlled temperature set point remains unchanged. AIM: To demonstrate that exercise-induced hyperthermia is a common phenomenon in childhood. CASE: We describe a 5-year-old boy, who attended our ...
McEntire Serina J SJ Shriners Hospitals for Children, and Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77550, - - 2009
An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia=body core temperature>39 degrees C) during exercise. We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31 degrees C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17-year-old boy with a 99% TBSA ...
Roelands Bart - - 2009
The original central fatigue hypothesis suggested that fatigue during prolonged exercise might be due to higher 5-HT activity. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute administration of a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on performance and thermoregulation. Eleven healthy trained male cyclists completed four experimental trials (two in 18 degrees ...
Barwood Martin J - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Recent research has focused on developing air-ventilated garments to improve evaporative cooling in military settings. This study assessed a ventilated vest (Vest) in hot (45 degrees C), dry (10% RH) ambient conditions over 6 h of rest and exercise. It was hypothesized that the Vest would lower the thermal ...
Morris Chris C Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK. - - 2009
Chronobiological investigations into core temperature during and after exercise can involve ambulatory measurements of intestinal temperature during actual competitions, esophageal temperature measurements in laboratory simulations, or rectal temperature, which can be measured in both the field and laboratory. These sites have yet to be compared during both morning and afternoon ...
Kambia N K - - 2009
The use of extemporaneously prepared admixtures of drugs must be supported by documentation of their chemical stability. To assess the physical compatibility and the chemical stability of nefopam hydrochloride, a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic, when admixed with selected proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, esomeprazole or pantoprazole), in bionolyte G5 injection for ...
Hobson Ruth M - - 2009
PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of time of day on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. METHODS: Nine males cycled to exhaustion at 65% .VO2peak in an ambient temperature of 35 degrees C (60% relative humidity) at 0645 h (AM) and 1845 h (PM). Rectal temperature (Tc), skin ...
Cortés Pablo - - 2009
In evolutionary physiology, studies of inter-individual variation (i.e. repeatability) in functional capacities are valuable as they indicate - within populations - what attributes could respond to natural selection. Although repeatability and quantitative genetics of physiological traits in energy metabolism of eutherian mammals have been well characterized, few or no studies ...
English W A - - 2009
The Diamedica Draw-Over Vaporizer (DDV) has been developed as an alternative to the Oxford Miniature Vaporizer (OMV). Both can function as draw-over or plenum vaporizers. The performances of these two vaporizers were compared under conditions simulating intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and continuous flow (CF). Series 1 experiments were conducted ...
Liu Chengchu - - 2009
This study investigated the effects of flash freezing, followed by frozen storage, on reducing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Pacific raw oysters. Raw Pacific oysters were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus at a total level of approximately 3.5 x 10(5) most probable number (MPN) per gram. Inoculated oysters were ...
Tyka Aleksander - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To compare the mechanical power and physiological parameters in males at the lactate (LAAT) and integrated electromyographic (IEMGAT) anaerobic thresholds during exercise testing at 23 degrees C, 31 degrees C and 37 degrees C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen men aged 21.9+/-1.80 years performed an incremental exercise test on a ...
Saka Tolga T Department of Sports Medicine, Medical Faculty of Erciyes University, - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscle damage between maximal eccentric exercises of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee extensors (KE). Twelve sedentary male volunteers participated in the study. Range of motion (ROM), isometric peak torque (IPT), delayed onset of muscle soreness ...
Clark T D - - 2008
Owing to the inherent difficulties of studying bluefin tuna, nothing is known of the cardiovascular function of free-swimming fish. Here, we surgically implanted newly designed data loggers into the visceral cavity of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) to measure changes in the heart rate (fH) and visceral temperature (TV) ...
Yanagisawa Osamu - - 2009
In this study, we assessed the physiological changes after exercising or cooling skeletal muscles on the basis of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). DWIs of the ankle dorsiflexors were acquired with a 1.5-T MR device before and after exercising (22 subjects) or ...
Grant R F - - 2009
Net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of boreal coniferous forests is believed to rise with climate warming, thereby offsetting some of the rise in atmospheric CO(2) concentration (C(a)) by which warming is caused. However, the response of conifer NEP to warming may vary seasonally, with rises in spring and declines in summer. ...
Saad S - - 2008
Short-term machine perfusion after liver retrieval from non-heart-beating donors has been considered a beneficial means to reverse deleterious priming of the predamaged organ. In this study, the possible impact of different temperatures during aerobic perfusion was addressed, focusing on liver metabolic functions, structural integrity, and vascular activation. Livers retrieved 30 ...
Choi Jeong-Wha - - 2008
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of different types of personal cooling equipments (PCE) on the alleviation of heat strain during red pepper harvest simulated in a climatic chamber. The experiment consisted of eight conditions: 1) Control, 2) Neck cooling scarf A with a cooling ...
Hostler David - - 2009
Work in personal protective equipment (PPE) impairs thermoregulation causing cardiovascular stress, increased core body temperature, and hypohydration. We examined the effect of pretreating first responders performing treadmill exercise in PPE with an infusion of normal saline on physiological and perceptual strain. Ten (eight males, two females) euhydrated subjects performed treadmill ...
Roelands Bart - - 2009
The combination of acute dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (bupropion; BUP) and heat stress (30 degrees C) significantly improves performance (9%). Furthermore the maintenance of a higher power output resulted in the attainment of significantly higher heart rates and rectal temperatures--above 40 degrees C--in the BUP trial compared to the placebo trial. ...
Tang Zhongzhi - - 2008
The influence of exercise at high temperature on adult males' routine blood indexes and biochemical indexes and the expression of HSP72 in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was studied in order to provide theoretical ground for health supervision of adults receiving exercise at high temperature. 180 adult males were selected and ...
Ftaiti Foued - - 2008
The aim of this study was to differentiate the effects of hyperthermia and physical activity on circulating growth hormone (GH) secretion. Nine healthy volunteer adults performed two 40 min exercise trials and two 50 min passive standing trials. The exercise was performed in either thermo-neutral (N-Ex: air temperature 18 degrees ...
Horswill Craig A - - 2008
Carbohydrate ingestion has recently been associated with elevated core temperature during exercise in the heat when testing for ergogenic effects. Whether the association holds when metabolic rate is controlled is unclear. Such an effect would have undesirable consequences for the safety of the athlete. To examine whether ingesting fluids containing ...
Caramaschi Doretta - - 2008
Aggressiveness is often considered a life-long, persistent personality trait and is therefore expected to have a consistent neurobiological basis. Recent meta-analyses on physiological correlates of aggression and violence suggest that certain aggression-related psychopathologies are associated with low functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). We tested ...
Oliver S Ryan - - 2008
Mechanisms for the loss of muscle contractile function in hyperthermia are poorly understood. This study identified the critical temperature, resulting in a loss of contractile function in isolated diaphragm (thermal tolerance), and then tested the hypotheses 1) that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production contributes to the loss of contractile ...
DeGroot David W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There are limited data concerning the physiological responses to long-duration exercise collected under field conditions, and less data under harsh environmental conditions. This paper describes select environmental conditions and physiological responses of three runners attempting to run across the entire Sahara desert over a 111-d period. METHODS: The runners ...
Papadopoulos C - - 2008
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hypohydration (HH) on the lactate threshold (LT) in a hot and humid environment. METHODS: Ten apparently healthy males (age 25+/-3 yrs; height 1.8+/-0.04 m; mass 78+/-12 kg; VO2peak 3.7+/-0.4 L/min) underwent four randomly assigned maximal treadmill tests. Two ...
Tanguy Sébastien - - 2008
In order to determine the effect of figure skating on the functional plasticity of the vestibular system, we quantified vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and motion sickness (MS) intensity in 11 female figure skaters and 11 matched control subjects. Vestibular stimulation consisted of three cycles of sinusoidal rotation (0.025 Hz, +/-60 degrees ...
Johnson A K - - 2008
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of shading wallows during the summer months on lactating sow behavior, performance, and physiology. A total of 128 sows were used during warm weather (May to August 2001) to determine the effects of unshaded (control; n = 8) vs. shaded ...
Storebø Michael L - - 2008
Pulmonary diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) is reduced by approximately 10% 1-6 h after maximal exercise. The mechanisms may be interstitial alveolar oedema and reduced pulmonary capillary blood volume. It was hypothesized that thermal stress following exercise contributes to the reduction in DL(CO), and that skin cooling would attenuate ...
Grissom Colin K - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Hypercapnia during avalanche burial may increase core temperature cooling rate by decreasing the temperature threshold for shivering or by increasing respiratory heat loss. METHODS: We studied the effect of hypercapnia on rectal core temperature (T(re)) cooling rate, respiratory heat loss, heat production, and the T(re) shivering threshold during snow ...
Demchak Timothy J - - 2008
CONTEXT: Researchers have recommended certain ultrasound treatment parameters for deep heating; however, we observed different parameters in the clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment effect of using observed clinical parameters (OCP) from 8 clinicians to the treatment effect of using the recommended parameters (RP) sited in research. DESIGN: 2 ...
Noakes Tim T University of Cape Town. - - 2008
On 7 August 1954, the world 42 km marathon record holder, Jim Peters, collapsed repeatedly during the final 385 metres of the British Empire and Commonwealth Games marathon held in Vancouver, Canada. It has been assumed that Peters collapsed from heatstroke because he ran too fast and did not drink ...
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