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Results 251 - 300 of 826
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Loeppky J A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Measurements of pulmonary gas exchange are especially sensitive to low levels of CO2 in the environment; this is an important consideration in measurements in enclosed spaces. METHODS: In order to determine the responses to these low levels, subjects were exposed in five studies to partial pressures of inspired CO2 ...
Kazama T - - 1998
Tension pneumoperitoneum may force gas into a small injured vessel if the opening is kept patent by surrounding tissues. However, the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that penetrates through injured or noninjured peritoneum has not been systematically determined. In 25 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic ultrasonography and cholecystectomy, CO2 output (VCO2) ...
Mucci P - - 1998
Exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) in master athletes may be related to a diminished exercise hyperpnoea. The aim of this study was to determine whether EIH is associated with a change in the sensitivity of the ventilation response to activation of the central chemoreceptors. The ventilation response to CO2 was measured in ...
Nakata Y - - 1998
We have compared the differences between end-tidal PE'CO2 and arterial PaCO2 carbon dioxide partial pressures during general anaesthesia using either a cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) or a tracheal tube (TT) in spontaneously breathing adult patients. After induction of anaesthesia, a COPA was inserted in 20 patients who were allowed to ...
Neven L G - - 1998
Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount ...
Tansley J G - - 1998
Ventilation (VE) rises throughout 40 min of constant elevated end-tidal PCO2 without reaching steady state (S. Khamnei and P. A. Robbins. Respir. Physiol. 81: 117-134, 1990). The present study investigates 8 h of euoxic hypercapnia to determine whether VE reaches steady state within this time. Two protocols were employed: 1) ...
Schneider D A - - 1998
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the linear relationship between CO2 output (VCO2) and pulmonary ventilation (VE) is altered during incremental cycling performed after exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Ten untrained, female subjects performed two incremental cycling tests (15 W x min(-1) up to 165 W) on separate ...
Pérez Fontán J J - - 1998
We analyzed the changes induced by central chemoreceptor stimulation on the lung resistances and phrenic neurogram of anesthetized newborn (3-6 days, n = 9) and 9 week old lambs (n = 3). Starting from hypocapneic apnea, 5% CO2 inhalation evoked a reversible increase in total lung resistance in both newborn ...
Passe D H - - 1997
The effects of carbonated beverages on sensory acceptability and voluntary fluid intake after exercise were examined. The level of carbonation in a 6% carbohydrate (CHO) electrolyte drink was systematically varied (0, 1.1, 2.3, and 3.0 volumes of CO2), and its impact was assessed in 52 adults following 30 min of ...
Soma R - - 1997
A new method was developed for continuous isotopic estimation of human whole body CO2 rate of appearance (Ra) during non-steady state exercise. The technique consisted of a breath-by-breath measurement of 13CO2 enrichment (E) and a real-time fuzzy logic feedback system which controlled NaH13CO3 infusion rate to achieve an isotopic steady ...
Ashutosh K - - 1997
Effects of theophylline administration on the respiratory drive were studied in seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). End tidal CO2 (PetCO2), minute ventilation (Ve), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), serum theophylline level (STL), ventilatory response ...
Chua T P - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the arterial blood gas chemosensitivity in relation to exercise ventilatory response in patients with univentricular heart and cyanosis and in patients with univentricular heart and Fontan-type circulation without cyanosis. BACKGROUND: Patients with univentricular heart demonstrate excessive ventilation during exercise. Chronic hypoxemia may alter chemoreceptor function, ...
Turner D L - - 1997
The control of ventilatory responses to mild or moderate dynamic exercise has been the subject of considerable debate for over a century. The prevailing view has been that the ventilatory response to exercise is stereotypical and rather unmalleable. However, paradigms involving novel associations of stimulus inputs have been shown to ...
Kocis K C - - 1997
Clinically, a noninvasive measure of diaphragm function is needed. The purpose of this study is to determine whether ultrasonography can be used to 1) quantify diaphragm function and 2) identify fatigue in a piglet model. Five piglets were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium and halothane and studied during the following conditions: ...
Jubran A - - 1997
Dysrhythmias of breathing occur in several clinical disorders, but their mechanistic basis is obscure. To understand their pathophysiology, factors responsible for the variability of breathing need to be defined. We studied the effect of hyperoxic hypercapnia (CO2) on the variational activity of breathing in 14 volunteers before and after delivering ...
Nsegbe E - - 1997
Recent authors have stressed the role of conditioning in the control of breathing, but experimental evidence of this role is still sparse and contradictory. To establish that classic conditioning of the ventilatory responses can occur in rats, we performed a controlled experiment in which a 1-min tone [conditioned stimulus (CS)] ...
Hasegawa M M Technical Research Laboratory, Dai-Dan Co., Ltd., Saitama, - - 1997
Recently, a forced-air-ventilated micro-isolation system (FVMIS) has been recognized to accurately maintain microenvironmental conditions inside cages, but the details of the relationship between the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) and the air change rate inside the cages have never been reported. In this study, the proper intra-cage ...
Horswill C A - - 1997
To determine whether a 13C-bicarbonate, isotope dilution technique could be used to estimate relative changes in energy expenditure of leisure activities of short duration, we studied eight adolescents who performed the following activities: watching television (120 min); playing a stringed instrument (60 min plus 60 min of sitting); and walking ...
Muro S - - 1997
The present study was undertaken to investigate whether, independent of changes in PaCO2, ventilatory assist influences not only the pattern but also the level of the respiratory drive. The experiments were performed on decerebrate and paralyzed cats ventilated by a phrenic-driven servo respirator at three different FICO2 levels (0, 0.30, ...
Jacoby G C - - 1997
Tree rings have been used in various applications to reconstruct past climates as well as to assess the effects of recent climatic and environmental change on tree growth. In this paper we briefly review two ways that tree rings provide information about climate change and CO2: (i) in determining whether ...
Lai J - - 1997
Modarreszadeh and Bruce (J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2765-2775, 1994) proposed that continuous random disturbances in arterial PCO2 are more likely to elicit ventilatory oscillation patterns that mimic periodic breathing in normoxia than in hyperoxia. To test this hypothesis experimentally, in nine awake humans we applied pseudorandom binary inspired CO2 fraction ...
Reisen W K - - 1997
Factors altering the pattern of Culex tarsalis Coquillett host-seeking activity were studied in Kern and Riverside counties of California using an automatic time-segregated sampler baited with bottled CO2 gas released at 0.5 or 1.0 liters/min. Host-seeking always commenced shortly after sunset and usually peaked during the succeeding 1-3 h, the ...
Babb T G - - 1997
To determine if ventilation (VE) during maximal exercise would be increased as much by 3% CO2 loading as by resistive unloading of the airways, we studied seven subjects (39 +/- 5 years; mean +/- S.D.) during graded-cycle ergometry to exhaustion while breathing: (1) room air (RA); (2) 3% CO2, 21% ...
Williams J S - - 1997
Arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) has been estimated during exercise with good accuracy in younger individuals by using the Jones equation (PJCO2) (J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 954-960, 1979). The purpose of this project was to determine the utility of estimating PaCO2 from end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) or PJCO2 at rest, ventilatory threshold (VTh), ...
Capderou A - - 1997
We validated experimentally the ability of hood indirect calorimetry to measure accurately VO2. For this purpose we compared cardiac output calculated from the Fick equation Q = VO2/(Ca(O2) - CV(O2)), in which VO2 was obtained by hood indirect calorimetry, to thermodilution cardiac output (Qth) measured simultaneously during cardiac catheterization in ...
Blumenthal S R - - 1997
There is currently no practical method for determining cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) efficacy in the field. We investigated the relationship between the volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) excreted in the airway (CO2EX) when tidal volume and respiratory rate are controlled, and cardiac output (CO), an indicator of CPR efficacy, to determine ...
Beck J G - - 1997
In order to explore the mechanism of action of interoceptive exposure, 12 Panic Disorder (PD) patients were presented with two sessions of repeated CO2 inhalation. Two distinct patterns of responding were noted. The first pattern was described as habituation of fear (n = 6). These patients showed decrements in pre- ...
Ohuchi H - - 1997
We investigated alveolar-arterial gas tension differences as a measurement of ventilatory impairment during exercise in patients who had undergone the Fontan operation. The ventilatory response to exercise in 13 operated patients was compared with that of 11 control subjects. The difference between end-tidal and arterial oxygen tension (P(ET-a)DO2) and between ...
Couture P - - 1997
PURPOSE: Abdominal wall retraction (AWR) was recently proposed as an alternative for CO2 pneumoperitoneum. In this study we evaluated the cardiorespiratory effects of AWR during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Fifteen patients were studied during laparoscopic cholecystectomy using AWR. Monitoring included heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse oxymetry (SpO2), end-tidal ...
Mador M J - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute hypercapnia depresses limb muscle and diaphragmatic contractility. Twelve subjects breathed 8% CO2 for 20 min on two separate occasions. On one occasion, twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was obtained during both cervical magnetic and transcutaneous stimulation before and 2, 10, and ...
Yano T - - 1997
In this study, a physiological model to explain the pathway of CO2 output during incremental exercise was examined by referring to experimental data. Since CO2 output (VCO2) shows multiple correlations with mixed venous CO2 pressure (PvCO2) and arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2), the increase in the difference between PvCO2 and PaCO2 ...
Tavernier B - - 1997
We have studied, in 16 patients undergoing thoracoabdominal oesophagectomy, if two prolonged expiration manoeuvres improve prediction of arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) from end-tidal PCO2 (PE' CO2). PE' CO2, PCO2 at the end of a simple prolonged expiration (PE1 CO2), and PCO2 at the end of a prolonged expiration preceded by sustained ...
Byrnes C A - - 1997
The aim of this study was to determine whether the nitric oxide (NO) measured in exhaled air is produced at airway or alveolar level. Exhaled NO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyser, and carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration using a Morgan capnograph in single exhalations in 12 healthy subjects (mean age ...
Takano N - - 1997
1. The present study attempted to test the hypothesis that breathlessness associated with exercise hyperpnoea is greater in subjects with greater activities of the central and peripheral chemoreceptors during exercise. The chemoreceptor activities were assessed by resting estimates of hypercapnic ventilatory response (delta VE/delta PCO2, HCVR) and hypoxic ventilatory response ...
Rollin F - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the peripheral chemoreceptor-induced ventilatory response to single tidal-breath CO2 (SB CO2) tests, compared with eructations, in 2 breeds of calves. ANIMALS: 13 conscious unsedated Holstein-Friesian and 8 Belgian White and Blue hypermuscled calves. PROCEDURE: An SB of +/- 50% CO2 in equal parts of O2 and N2 ...
Yano T - - 1997
The purpose of the present study was to examine the kinetics of mixed venous CO2 pressure (PvCO2) in incremental-load exercise. PvCO2 seemed to indicate a linear increase after a somewhat slow increase. CO2 store phase appearing in expiration of CO2 (stored CO2) was calculated from the data of O2 uptake ...
Maresh C M - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Perception of CO2 in ambient air may be of fundamental importance to the health, safety, and job performance of persons occupationally exposed to increased levels of CO2. Few studies have examined the perceptual responses to inhaled CO2 at levels between 6-10%. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that healthy, highly-active men would ...
Griffiths T L - - 1997
The purine nucleoside, adenosine, has been implicated as a neuromodulator in central respiratory depression during prolonged exposure to hypoxia. It may also be a mediator of hypoxic hyperpnoea, acting on the carotid bodies. As there may be adenosine-sensitive mechanisms of hypoxic respiratory control, we sought to determine whether adenosine might ...
Teppema L - - 1997
The effect of intravenous administration of 40 mg/kg N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), on the ventilatory response to CO2 was studied in anesthetized cats. The ventilatory response to CO2 was assessed during normoxia by applying square-wave changes in end-tidal PCO2 of approximately 1 ...
Bach L F - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Continuous end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring during normofrequent jet-ventilation (NFJV) has not previously been successful and no correspondence between ETCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) demonstrated. METHODS: During NFJV jet-ventilation in 19 healthy volunteers, continuous ETCO2 was measured and compared to PaCO2 values. The original ETCO2 sampling line from ...
Kobayashi T - - 1996
The peripheral chemoreceptors play a dominant role in the respiratory compensation of lactic acidosis during heavy exercise of humans. Our object was to determine the contribution of peripheral chemoreceptors to exercise hyperpnea during mild to moderate and heavy exercise above the anaerobic threshold. We used a hyperoxic suppression test in ...
Schmetterer L - - 1996
The effect of different mixtures of O2 and CO2 on pulsatile ocular blood flow as assessed by laserinterferometric measurement of fundus pulsations was studied. This was done in an effort to identify the gas mixture with an optimal O2/CO2 ratio for treatment in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). In a ...
Petroianu G - - 1996
The capnometric demonstration of end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) is a reliable method of differentiating between a correct endotracheal tube position and an accidental misplacement of the tube into the esophagus. Recently, several CO2 detectors have been introduced for monitoring end-tidal CO2 in the "out-of-hospital" setting, where quantitative capnometry with capnography ...
Yan S - - 1996
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of chest wall configuration at end expiration on tidal volume (VT) response during CO2 rebreathing. In a group of 11 healthy male subjects, the changes in end-expiratory and end-inspiratory volume of the rib cage (delta Vrc,E and delta Vrc,I, respectively) ...
Clement I D - - 1996
1. Ventilatory chemoreflex responses have been studied at rest during the recovery from a brief period of heavy exercise. 2. Six young, healthy male subjects each undertook four experimental studies. In each study measurements were made at rest during recovery from an exhaustive 1-2 min sprint on a bicycle ergometer ...
Kuo P H - - 1996
This study was conducted to assess the CO2-elimination efficiency of tracheal gas insufflation (TGI) in 20 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and to compare its efficacy during volume-controlled (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). TGI was initially applied as an adjunct to VCV, with continuous flows (Vcath) of 4 and ...
Hirakoba K - - 1996
To determine the predictability of blood lactate accumulation from excess CO2 output derived from bicarbonate buffering of lactic acid during constant exercise, eight normal active volunteers were studied during three stages of constant exercise on a cycle ergometer. Three work rates consisted of 100% (stage I), 120% (stage II) and ...
Nahum A - - 1996
Adjunctive ventilatory strategies have been developed to improve oxygenation and carbon dioxide (CO2) removal during mechanical ventilation of critically ill patients. These techniques allow clinicians to attain their clinical goals at lower levels of ventilatory support. In this article, the authors discuss extracorporeal CO2 removal, venovenous intravena caval oxygenator, and ...
Kapoor V - - 1996
The StatCap semiquantitative carbon dioxide detector was evaluated in an experimental setting. The monitor underread at progressively higher concentrations of carbon dioxide. During simulated rebreathing, progressive increases in inspired carbon dioxide resulted in the StatCap readings decreasing. It is recommended that the StatCap be used with caution in circumstances where ...
Gautier J F - - 1996
The measurement of breath 13CO2/12CO2 is commonly used during exercise to evaluate the oxidation rate of exogenous carbohydrates enriched in 13C. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise itself affects the 13C/12C ratio in expired air CO2 in relation to exercise intensity. The relative abundance of 13C ...
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