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Results 501 - 550 of 816
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Whipp B J - - 1989
During incremental exercise PCO2 does not fall for several work rates ('isocapnic buffering') above the anaerobic threshold (theta an). We explored this apparent lack of compensatory hyperventilation in 24 normal subjects who underwent incremental cycling (15 W/min) to exhaustion. Ventilation, pulmonary gas exchange, and end-tidal gas tensions were computed breath-by-breath. ...
Messenger N - - 1989
Non-invasive transcutaneous blood gas monitoring techniques have been used as indicators of the effect of standing exercise on circulation in paraplegic subjects. Oxygen (tPO2) and carbon dioxide (tPCO2) electrodes were positioned on the chests and legs of a group of normal control subjects and a group of paraplegic subjects in ...
Band D M - - 1989
The CO2 production of 5 anaesthetized cats, ventilated to a constant PaCO2 and PaO2 by appropriate alteration of tidal volume and FIO2, was altered by means of an extracorporeal gas exchanger. Afferent chemoreceptor discharge was recorded from a single fibre preparation of the right carotid sinus nerve and the respiratory ...
Nishimura M - - 1989
The ability of brain cells to regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and several phosphate metabolites was evaluated during 1 h of hypercapnia (inspiratory CO2 fraction of 0.10 and 0.05) in anesthetized rats by 31P high-field (145.6 MHz) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Body temperature was maintained at 37 +/- 0.5 degrees C. ...
Poon C S - - 1989
Five healthy young men underwent two separate steady-state incremental exercise runs within the aerobic range on a treadmill with alternating periods of breathing with no load (NL) and with a discontinuous inspiratory elastic load (IEL) of approximately 10 cmH2O/l. End-tidal PCO2 was maintained constant throughout each run at the eucapnic ...
Jacobi M S - - 1989
1. The transient ventilatory response to CO2, measured using short pulses at constant inflow, was compared with the steady-state response at rest and during exercise at 50 W, and with the rebreathing response at rest, in nine healthy subjects. At rest CO2 was given at flow rates of 0.2 and ...
Kochi T - - 1989
We have investigated, in six healthy male volunteers, the effect of high thoracic extradural anaesthesia on the ventilatory pattern and hypercapnic ventilatory response. Ventilatory variables were determined using a respiratory inductive plethysmograph. Duration of inspiration, rib cage excursion and its contribution to tidal volume decreased significantly following extradural anaesthesia, while ...
Lamarra N - - 1989
In humans, arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) has been demonstrated to be regulated at or near resting levels in the steady state of moderate exercise (i.e., for work rates not associated with a sustained lactic acidosis). To determine how PaCO2 might be expected to behave under the nonsteady-state conditions of incremental exercise ...
Georgopoulos D - - 1989
The relationship between CO2 and ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia was examined in nine normal young adults. At three different levels of end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, approximately 35, 41.8, and 44.3 Torr), isocapnic hypoxia was induced for 25 min and after 7 min of breathing 21% O2, isocapnic ...
Greenberg H E - - 1989
Compensation for inspiratory flow-resistive loading was compared during progressive hypercapnia and incremental exercise to determine the effect of changing the background ventilatory stimulus and to assess the influence of the interindividual variability of the unloaded CO2 response on evaluation of load compensation in normal subjects. During progressive hypercapnia, ventilatory response ...
Javaheri S - - 1989
A study was designed to investigate the possibility that changes in ventral medullary extracellular fluid carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) and hydrogen ion (H+) concentration mediate the ventilatory stimulation induced by systemic administration of aminophylline. Six cats with peripheral chemodenervation (bilateral carotid sinus nerve and vagal neurotomy) were studied while anaesthetised ...
Takahashi E - - 1989
In order to examine the role of respiratory oscillation of PaCO2 (CO2 oscillation) in the control of respiration, we performed veno-venous bypass using a membrane lung in 10 anesthetized paralyzed dogs, where the dog was put on fixed mechanical ventilation so that we could keep average PaCO2 and PaO2 constant ...
Miyamoto Y - - 1989
In order to know the role of cardiodynamic factors for exercise hyperpnea, ventilation and several cardiorespiratory variables were measured simultaneously in human subjects during exercise. Cardiac output (Q) and mixed venous CO2 content (CVCO2) were determined by a rebreathing method. The correlation coefficients (r) for the relationships between minute expiratory ...
McLellan T M - - 1989
Five men performed an incremental exercise test following a normal, low and high carbohydrate dietary regimen over a 7-day period, to examine the influence of an altered carbohydrate energy intake on the relationship between the ventilation (VET) and lactate (LaT) thresholds. VET and LaT were determined from the ventilatory equivalents ...
Pressler M L - - 1989
Intracellular pH (pHi) is a significant modifier of cell-to-cell communication in some tissues but its role is uncertain in heart tissue. The present studies examined the effect of cytosolic protons on electrotonic spread and conduction velocity in cardiac Purkinje fibers. Cable analysis provided values for internal longitudinal resistance (ri) and ...
Chonan T - - 1988
We examined the role of CO2 responsiveness and breathing efficiency in limiting exercise capacity in 15 patients with chronic airway obstruction (FEV1 = 0.88 +/- 0.25 L, mean +/- SD). Responses of minute ventilation and P0.1 (mouth pressure 0.1 s after the onset of occluded inspiration) to hypercapnia (delta VE/delta ...
Engwall M J - - 1988
The effect of prolonged hypercapnia on carotid chemoreceptor discharge frequency has not been elucidated. In addition, the effect of acute hypercapnia on chemoreceptor discharge has not been determined in the goat, a species commonly used for ventilatory control studies. Therefore, we determined the effects of acute and prolonged normoxic-hypercapnia on ...
Duffin J - - 1988
1. The threshold of the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide mediated by the peripheral chemoreceptors was determined under mild hypoxic conditions during both rest and exercise in eight volunteers. 2. The method used was an adaptation of the Read rebreathing technique, modified for hypoxia and with prior hyperventilation. The method ...
Bennett F M - - 1988
The ratio G = delta VE/delta VCO2 where delta VA is change in ventilation and delta VCO2 is change in CO2 production, is often used to quantitate the ventilatory response to exercise and is the overall system gain (G). However, the actual variable of interest often is the gain for ...
Kowalchuk J M - - 1988
The pulmonary responses and changes in plasma acid-base status occurring across the inactive forearm muscle were examined after 30 s of intense exercise in six male subjects exercising on an isokinetic cycle ergometer. Arterial and deep forearm venous blood were sampled at rest and during 10 min after exercise; ventilation ...
Carroll J L - - 1988
We studied the interaction of O2 and CO2 at the peripheral chemoreceptors in 6 two-week-old awake lambs. The method used, which selectively tested the peripheral chemoreceptors, measured the immediate ventilatory (VE) response to pure O2 and then to O2 + CO2. From room air, the animal was switched abruptly to ...
van Lanschot J J - - 1988
In the treatment of critically ill patients, it may be important to know the values of total diurnal O2 consumption and CO2 production. Often, diurnal values are obtained by extrapolation from the easily obtained short interval values. However, both stochastic and systematic errors can be introduced. This study analyzes the ...
Melton J E - - 1988
The CO2 response of the phrenic neurogram before and during CO-induced isocapnic brain hypoxia was studied in peripherally chemodenervated, vagotomized, paralyzed, ventilated cats with blood pressure held constant. During inhalation of 0.5% CO in 40% O2, arterial O2 content (CaO2) was reduced to 40% and minute phrenic activity to 38.4 ...
Hwang W W - - 1988
The problem faced in determining the ventilatory response to CO2 near eupnea has been the difficulty of unloading metabolically produced CO2 from the subject in the steady state. Previous methods using extracorporeal circuits to unload CO2 are technically difficult and provide a limited number of experimental states per experiment. Using ...
Smith C A - - 1988
We investigated the effects of selective large changes in the acid-base environment of medullary chemoreceptors on the control of exercise hyperpnea in unanesthetized goats. Four intact and two carotid body-denervated goats underwent cisternal perfusion with mock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of markedly varying [HCO-3] (CSF [H+] = 21-95 neq/l; pH 7.68-7.02) ...
Light R W - - 1988
The purpose of this project was to better define factors that influence the resting PaCO2 and the change in the PaCO2 from rest to exercise in patients with moderate to severe chronic airflow obstruction. Pulmonary function testing, symptom-limited exercise tests using arterial catheter lines, and resting ventilatory and mouth occlusion ...
Robbins P A - - 1988
1. The question of whether there is any interaction between the peripheral and central chemoreceptor contributions to ventilation in man has been addressed. 2. Subjects were exposed to an end-tidal PCO2 of ca. 10 Torr above resting for 8 min at an end-tidal PO2 of 100 Torr. The end-tidal PCO2 ...
Luntz M - - 1988
The tympanic membrane of 18 atelectatic ears was examined before and immediately after nocturnal sleep. On the patients' awakening, eight (44.4%) of these ears presented a spontaneous disappearance of the atelectasis. The original atelectatic state reappeared thereafter within 75 min (on average). This time corresponds to diffusion into the circulation ...
Pilsbury D - - 1988
Transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2), which is linearly related to arterial PCO2, was continuously recorded in healthy, adult, normal volunteers for 8-h periods. Recording this variable with the apparatus employed permits measurement of changes in the level of ventilation while subjects are freely ambulant and unencumbered by invasive and flow-resistive respiratory apparatus. ...
Shindoh C - - 1988
Ventilatory response to graded external dead space (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 liters) with hyperoxia and CO2 steady-state inhalation (3, 5, 7, and 8% CO2 in O2) was studied before and after 4% lidocaine aerosol inhalation in nine healthy males. The mean ventilatory response (delta VE/delta PETCO2, where VE is ...
Powers S K - - 1988
The purpose of these experiments was to examine ventilatory and gas exchange responses to acute head-down tilt. Subjects (N = 5) participated in two series of head-down tilt experiments. Both experimental protocols involved movement from a near-vertical position (120 degrees) to a -30 degrees head-down position. One set of experiments ...
Forslid A - - 1988
The study pertains to a series of investigations on the effects of CO2 inhalation as used for pre-slaughter anaesthesia in swine. Acid/base parameters, blood oxygen tension, plasma Na, K, Ca and stress hormone concentrations were monitored in Yorkshire swine before, during, and for 10 min after the animals were descended ...
Poole D C - - 1988
1. At a given level of pulmonary gas exchange, ventilation (VE) is appreciably higher during isometric exercise than during isotonic exercise. It is presently not clear whether the resultant hypocapnia represents a compensatory hyperventilation for an arterial metabolic acidaemia or whether it might reflect a primary respiratory alkalaemia. 2. To ...
Arieli R - - 1988
Recently, Arieli and Farhi (1987) formulated a model for a previous suggestion made by their group that an increased ventilation as gravity increases is due to reduced perfusion of the respiratory center which causes an elevation of tissue PCO2. Extending the model to the dynamic response, we predict a slower ...
Wasser J S - - 1988
We studied the ventilatory and blood acid-base response of turtles to 6 h of breathing either 100% N2 (anoxic) or 95% N2-5% CO2 (anoxic-hypercapnic). In both groups, minute ventilation (VE) increased promptly with anoxia, with peak ventilation occurring between 1 and 3 h. VE then decreased but was still significantly ...
Poon C S - - 1988
The detection of mild nonlinearities and/or state-dependent variability in otherwise linear physiological relationships is generally difficult in the presence of significant measurement errors. Conventional approaches using pooled subject data to increase the degree of freedom for statistical inference are enervated by the resultant introduction of intersubject variability. This paper proposes ...
Maruyama R - - 1988
Ventilatory response during external dead space (tube) breathing and CO2 inhalation for given increase in PETCO2 were compared at different levels of PETO2 (hyperoxia, normoxia, and hypoxia) in human subjects. At all the PETO2 levels studied, magnitude of increment in minute ventilation (VE) and tidal volume were larger in the ...
Stock M C - - 1988
Currently available estimates of the PaCO2 rate of rise in resting humans with resting lung volume were gathered during general anesthesia. The PaCO2 rate of rise during apnea in awake subjects was determined to acquire a value that may be more applicable to awake, ventilator-dependent, critically ill patients. Clinically, apnea ...
Tojima H - - 1988
In order to estimate to what extent the stimulatory action of CO2 on ventilation is mediated by the formation of H+, we studied effects on the temporal profile of ventilatory response to CO2 of carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition with acetazolamide in the halothane anesthetized spontaneously breathing rat. Since hydration reaction ...
Gustin P - - 1988
Eleven double-muscled calves of the Belgian White and Blue breed and eleven Friesian calves have been investigated at rest, during exercise on a treadmill (11% incline; speed 1.3 m.sec-1) and 10 and 30 minutes after the end of this exercise. Blood gases and acid-base status were determined in mixed venous ...
Ishida K - - 1988
In the untrained subjects, inhalation of 4.5-6.0% CO2 prior to maximal treadmill exercise does not affect physical performance and maximum oxygen uptake, while blood lactate levels during recovery have a tendency to greater decrease in CO2 breathing than that in the room-air breathing. It was suggested that CO2 inhalation immediately ...
Brice A G - - 1988
We studied the role of central command mediation of exercise hyperpnea by comparing the ventilatory and arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) responses to voluntary (ExV) and electrically induced (ExE) muscle contractions in normal, awake human subjects. We hypothesized that if central command signals are critical to a normal ventilatory response, ...
Brice A G - - 1988
We studied the role of spinal afferent pathways in the hyperpnea of electrically induced muscle contractions (ExE). The ventilatory (VE) and arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) responses were measured at rest and during two levels of ExE in awake human paraplegic subjects with clinically complete lesions of the spinal cord ...
Norfleet W T - - 1987
Previous studies have shown that, upon breaking a maximal breath-hold (BH), reinhalation of the expired gas allows an additional period of breath-holding. This indicates that mere ventilatory movements can diminish the urge to breathe. We sought to determine if vigorous ventilations, performed immediately prior to a maximal BH and in ...
Murphy K - - 1987
1. Continuous recordings of arterial pH, ventilation, airway CO2 and heart rate were made during rest and during 3-4 min periods of rhythmic leg exercise in four renal patients with arteriovenous shunts. 2. The patients were anaemic (haemoglobin 6.5-9.0 g/dl) but had a normal ventilatory response to exercise as judged ...
Provine R R - - 1987
Using human college-age subjects, the present study tested the commonly cited but previously untested hypothesis that yawning is facilitated by higher than normal levels of CO2 or lower than normal levels of O2 in the blood by comparing the effect on yawning of breathing 100% O2 and gas mixtures with ...
McKelvie R S - - 1987
The ability to determine cardiac output (Q) noninvasively during a nonsteady state (NSS) incremental exercise test was assessed. Seven healthy subjects performed two maximal incremental cycle ergometer exercise tests (100 kpm/min increments every minute), and also steady state exercise (SS) at 25, 50, and 75 percent of their maximum power ...
Kuna S T - - 1987
The effect of hypercapnia on the suppression of efferent hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerve activity by phasic volume feedback was studied in decerebrate paralyzed intubated cats ventilated with a phrenic-driven servo-respirator. The gain of the respirator was altered for single inspirations, and the resulting changes in neural activities were quantified ...
Shirahata M - - 1987
Effects of oligomycin on carotid chemoreceptor responses to O2 and CO2 were investigated using an in situ perfusion technique. Cats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated. To avoid a possible reaction between an oligomycin-ethanol mixture and blood, we administered oligomycin to the carotid body via cell- and protein-free perfusate. Except ...
Steffensen J F - - 1987
1. Immediately following burst swimming, the oxygen consumption of rainbow trout increased by 71%, carbon dioxide excretion by 104% and the respiratory exchange ratio by 17%. 80 min after burst swimming all of these parameters had returned to levels which were not significantly different from control values. 2. Infusion of ...
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