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Crabtree Daniel R DR 1University of Aberdeen, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, United Kingdom; 2University of Birmingham, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United - - 2014
Exercise in cold water has been shown to simulate post-exercise energy intake (EI) in normal-weight individuals. However, the effect of cold exercise on EI in overweight individuals has yet to be examined. The present study investigated the impact of brisk walking in a cold (8˚C) and neutral (20˚C) environment on ...
Mason Caitlin C Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 98109, Seattle, WA, - - 2014
Compensatory metabolic changes that accompany weight loss, e.g., increased ghrelin, contribute to weight regain and difficulty in long-term weight loss maintenance; however, the separate effects of long-term caloric restriction and exercise on total circulating ghrelin in humans is unknown. A 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing: i) dietary weight loss with ...
Schubert Matthew M MM School of Public Health, Research Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia, - - 2014
Understanding of the impact of an acute bout of exercise on hormones involved in appetite regulation may provide insight into some of the mechanisms that regulate energy balance. In resting conditions, acylated ghrelin is known to stimulate food intake, while hormones such as peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and ...
Gholipour Majid M Physical Education Center, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.. - - 2014
Body weight is influenced by both food intake and energy expenditure. Acylated ghrelin enhances appetite, and its circulating level is suppressed by Growth Hormone. Data on the acylated ghrelin responses to exercise of different intensities in obese individuals are currently not available. This study examined the effects of an intermittent ...
Invernizzi M M Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", AOU "Maggiore della Carità", Viale Piazza D'armi 1, 28100, Novara, Italy, - - 2013
The occurrence of cachexia of multifactorial etiology in chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common and underestimated condition that usually leads to poor outcome and low survival rates, with high direct and indirect costs for the Health Care System. Recently, a consensus definition on cachexia has been reached, leading to ...
Bishop Nicolette C - - 2013
The orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin exerts potent inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine release via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a (GHS-R1a) on T cells and monocytes. As such, ghrelin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, but these effects depend on the availability of GHS-R1a. The aim ...
Saghebjoo Marzyeh M Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, IR - - 2013
Ghrelin, a 28 amino acid peptide, is effective in control of appetite and body weight. Acylated ghrelin peptide is the active form of this peptide which plays a major role in the body's energy balance. This study aimed to investigate the possible effect (s) of intensive resistance exercise on acylated ...
Bouchonville Matthew F MF Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, - - 2013
The increasing prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in older adults has heightened interest in identifying the most effective treatment. This review highlights recent progress in the management, with an emphasis on lifestyle interventions and pharmacologic therapy aimed at reversing sarcopenic obesity. Whereas weight loss and exercise independently reverse sarcopenic obesity, they ...
Heden Timothy D - - 2013
Adiposity alters acylated ghrelin concentrations, but it is unknown if adiposity alters the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if adiposity (normal-weight [NW] vs. obese [Ob]) influences the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin, hunger, and ...
Knudsen Sine Haugaard - - 2013
Ghrelin levels are suppressed in obese subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise-stimulated decreases in plasma ghrelin are a proposed mediator of exercise-induced satiety in healthy subjects. However, exercise-induced satiety and the impact of impaired ghrelin levels in obesity-related disease are poorly understood. Therefore, our objective was ...
Miki Keisuke - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The aim of this substudy of the ghrelin treatment, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the effects of ghrelin administration on exercise capacity and the underlying mechanisms in underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. METHODS: Twenty underweight COPD patients were randomized ...
Wasse Lucy K - - 2013
Ambient temperature during exercise may affect energy intake regulation. Compared with a temperate (20 °C) environment, 1 h of running followed by 6 h of rest tended to decrease energy intake from 2 ad libitum meals in a hot (30 °C) environment but increase energy intake in a cool (10 ...
King James A - - 2013
Since its discovery in 1999, ghrelin has been implicated in a multiplicity of physiological activities. Most notably, ghrelin has an important influence on energy metabolism and after the identification of its potent appetite stimulating effects ghrelin has been termed the 'hunger hormone.' Exercise is a stimulus which has a significant ...
Tiryaki-Sonmez G G Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, The City University of New York, Bronx, New York, - - 2013
Over the past decade, our knowledge of how homeostatic systems regulate food intake and body weight has increased with the discovery of circulating peptides such as leptin, acyl ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin. These hormones regulate the appetite and food intake by sending signals to the brain regarding the body's ...
Rumbold Penny L S - - 2013
This study explored 5-day regulation of exercise-induced energy expenditure, energy intake, and hormonal appetite, via acylated ghrelin, after acute exercise. Using a randomized crossover design, 10 female adolescents (13-15 years old) completed two 7-day treatment weeks (2 days of maintenance, 1 day of treatment, and a 4-day follow-up), interspersed with ...
Vanhatalo Anni - - 2013
The extent to which dietary supplementation with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate, L-arginine (ARG), impacts on NO production and NO-mediated physiological responses is controversial. This randomised, double blinded, cross-over study investigated the effects of acute ARG supplementation on NO biomarkers, O(2) cost of exercise and exercise tolerance in humans. ...
Kawano Hiroshi - - 2013
The present study determined the changes in appetite and appetite-regulating gut hormones during and following bouts of both rope skipping exercise (weight-bearing) and bicycle ergometer exercise (non-weight-bearing). After a 12-h fast, 15 young men (mean ± SD, age 24.4 ± 1.7 yrs, maximal oxygen uptake 47.0 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) participated ...
Wasse Lucy K - - 2013
Vigorous running suppresses plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations but the limited literature on cycling suggests that acylated ghrelin is unchanged, perhaps because body mass is supported during cycling. It is important from a research and applied perspective to determine whether acylated ghrelin and hunger responses are exercise-mode specific. This study sought ...
Deighton Kevin - - 2012
Sprint interval exercise improves several health markers but the appetite and energy balance response is unknown. This study compared the effects of sprint interval and endurance exercise on appetite, energy intake and gut hormone responses. Twelve healthy males [mean (SD): age 23 (3) years, body mass index 24.2 (2.9) kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 46.3 (10.2) mL kg(-1) min(-1)] ...
Scheid Jennifer L JL Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, Noll Laboratory, Dept. of Kinesiology, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, - - 2013
Elevated ghrelin has been shown to be associated with reduced luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatility in Rhesus monkeys, rats, men, and recently women. We previously reported that 24-h ghrelin concentrations are elevated in women following a 3-mo exercise and diet program leading to weight loss. We investigated whether the elevations in ...
Smith Gordon I GI Center for Human Nutrition, Division of Geriatrics and Nutritional Science, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2012
Physical activity and eating are two major physiological muscle growth stimuli. Although muscle protein turnover rates are not different in young and middle-aged men and women, we recently found that the basal rate of muscle protein synthesis is greater and the anabolic response to mixed-meal intake is blunted in 65- ...
Swift Damon L - - 2012
Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to improve CRP; however, there are limited data evaluating the effect of other exercise training modalities (aerobic, resistance, or combination training) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. ...
Sullivan Shelby S Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Atkins Center of Excellence in Obesity Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, - - 2012
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alterations in hepatic lipoprotein kinetics are common metabolic complications associated with obesity. Lifestyle modification involving diet-induced weight loss and regular exercise decreases intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) secretion rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate ...
Mora-Rodriguez Ricardo - - 2012
It is believed that the adaptations induced by aerobic training would prevent athletes from overheating while retaining body electrolytes during exercise in the heat. Data from our laboratory suggest that aerobic training is not enough to induce these adaptations. This review considers the factors that can lead to hyperthermia in ...
Thijssen Dick H J - - 2012
Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been consistently reported in asymptomatic subjects and those with cardiovascular ...
Swift Damon L - - 2012
Low serum bilirubin levels have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and recent data suggest that lower body fat and reductions in weight are associated with higher bilirubin levels. However, it is unknown if exercise training can increase bilirubin levels and whether a higher dose of exercise will ...
Pesic Snezana - - 2012
"Regular training has been claimed to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and, consequently, augments the resistance to oxidative stress; however, large volumes of training performed by elite sportsmen could lead to a chronic oxidative stress state. The aim of our study was to assess the oxidative status of elite ...
Cermak Naomi M - - 2012
Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are available regarding the effect of ...
Jansen Fw - - 2012
Please cite this paper as: Jansen F, Hiemstra E. Laparoscopic skills training using inexpensive box trainers: which exercises to choose when constructing a validated training course. BJOG 2012;119:263-265.
Crossingham G V - - 2012
Non-technical skills are recognised as crucial to good anaesthetic practice. We designed and evaluated a specialty-specific tool to assess non-technical aspects of trainee performance in theatre, based on a system previously found reliable in a recruitment setting. We compared inter-rater agreement (multir-ater kappa) for live assessments in theatre with that ...
Auersperger Irena - - 2012
Exercise-associated iron deficiency is a common disorder in endurance athletes. The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners. Eighteen runners were assigned to either an interval- or a continuous-training exercise group. The physical training consisted ...
Bescós Raúl - - 2012
Nitric oxide (NO) has led a revolution in physiology and pharmacology research during the last two decades. This labile molecule plays an important role in many functions in the body regulating vasodilatation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration and platelet function. Currently, it is known that NO synthesis occurs via at least ...
Maggioni M A - - 2012
Study design:Case-control.Objectives:To execute an echocardiographic comparison between trained and untrained spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects, and to evaluate whether long-term heart adjustments to endurance training are comparable to those observed in able-bodied (ABL) subjects.Setting:Italy.Methods:We enrolled: (1) 17 male SCI patients (lesion level T(1)-L(3), 34±8 years, body mass index (BMI) 23.0±2.8 kg m(-2)), ...
Hawley J A - - 2012
Since the work of Eriksson and Lindgärde, published over two decades ago (Diabetologia 1991;34:891-898), we have known that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by supervised lifestyle interventions (physical exercise and diet modification) in persons at risk of the disease. Here we discuss a novel, time-efficient approach to ...
Millar P J - - 2012
Hypertension is characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP) and autonomic dysfunction, both thought to be improved with exercise training. Isometric handgrip (IHG) training may represent a beneficial, time-effective exercise therapy. We investigated the effects of IHG training on BP and traditional and nonlinear measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Pre- ...
Lira F S - - 2012
Bearing in mind that cancer cachexia is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and that endurance training has been adopted as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory strategy, we examined the effect of 8 weeks of moderate intensity exercise upon the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in 2 different depots of white adipose ...
Shibata Shigeki S Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, - - 2012
Arteriosclerosis with aging leads to central arterial stiffening in humans, which could be a prime cause for increased cardiac afterload in the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of 1 yr of progressive exercise training on central aortic compliance and left ventricular afterload in ...
Sandri Marcus - - 2012
AimsDiastolic dysfunction (DD) was identified as a predictor of adverse prognosis in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). It is, however, unknown if DD is improved by exercise training, which is known to induce reverse remodelling, and if the training effect is attenuated in elderly HFREF patients. We therefore ...
Bobbert T - - 2012
Endurance training may lead to different hormonal alterations e. g., exercised induced hypothalamic ovarian/testicular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to reveal new connections between physical exercise, leptin and hormonal responses. 36 male participants of the Berlin-Marathon had their blood samples taken 2 days before the marathon. Hormones of the ...
Canning Colleen G - - 2012
Objective: To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of six weeks of home-based treadmill training in people with mild Parkinson's disease.Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial of a six-week intervention followed by a further six weeks follow-up.Setting: Home-based treadmill training with outcome measures taken at a hospital clinic.Participants: Twenty cognitively intact participants ...
Nebel Silke - - 2012
Life-history theory predicts that animals face a trade-off in energy allocation between performing strenuous exercise, such as migratory flight, and mounting an immune response. We experimentally tested this prediction by studying immune function in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, flown in a wind tunnel. Specifically, we predicted that constitutive immune function ...
Bougault Valérie - - 2012
Elite competitive swimmers are particularly affected by airway disorders that are probably related to regular and intense training sessions in a chlorinated environment. Upper and lower airway respiratory symptoms, rhinitis, airway hyper-responsiveness, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction are highly prevalent in these athletes, but their influence on athletic performance is still unclear. ...
Rosenkranz Sara K - - 2012
the relationship between physical activity and airway health in children is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 8 wk of high-intensity exercise training would improve airway responsiveness in prepubescent, nonasthmatic, inactive children. 16 healthy, prepubescent children were randomized [training group (TrG) n = 8, ...
Smart Neil A - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined electrical stimulation versus conventional exercise training or placebo control in heart failure patients. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 2011). The search ...
Macdonald Christopher J - - 2012
MacDonald, CJ, Lamont, HS, and Garner, JC. A comparison of the effects of six weeks of traditional resistance training, plyometric training, and complex training on measures of strength and anthropometrics. Complex training (CT; alternating between heavy and lighter load resistance exercises with similar movement patterns within an exercise session) is ...
Dutra Márcio Ferreira - - 2012
Astrocytic changes have been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, showing that these cells play an important role in functional recovery/maintenance against brain damage. Physical exercise is known to contribute to this process; however, the cellular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of physical exercise on ...
Lovell Dale I - - 2012
The hormonal response of 32 older men (70-80years) to a bout of sub-maximum aerobic exercise was examined before, after 16weeks of resistance or aerobic training and again after 4weeks of detraining. Blood samples were obtained at rest and immediately post sub-maximum exercise (30min @ 70% VO(2) max) to determine the ...
Fitch Kenneth D - - 2012
Data from the past five Olympic Games obtained from athletes seeking to inhale β2 adrenoceptor agonists (IBA) have identified those athletes with documented asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). With a prevalence of about 8%, asthma/AHR is the commonest chronic medical condition experienced by Olympic athletes. In Summer and Winter athletes, ...
Ribeiro Fernando - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Heart rate recovery, defined as the fall in heart rate during the first minute after exercise, is an indicator of autonomic function, and has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Exercise training has several well-known benefits in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, modifiable ...
Gomes Wellington Fabiano - - 2012
The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble forms of the TNF-α receptor (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) from plasma taken from the peripheral blood of elderly individuals presenting with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. These patients underwent aerobic treatment ...
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