Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 850
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Billman George E - - 2002
Sudden, unexpected cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation is the leading cause of death in most industrially developed countries. Yet, despite the enormity of this problem, the development of safe and effective antiarrhythmic therapies has proven to be an elusive goal. In fact, many initially promising antiarrhythmic medications were subsequently ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2002
Insights into both normal and pathological cardiac responses to exercise have been hampered by lack of a safe, accurate, feasible means of estimating cardiac output (Q) during high-intensity and maximal exercise. Doppler ultrasound noninvasively measures blood velocity as it exits the heart and can be performed during exhaustive exercise without ...
Takayanagi K - - 2001
We investigated the neural regulation of the cardiac interval to an exercise demand signal and to a repeated exercise in 20 healthy human subjects. Electrocardiogram (ECG), muscle torque, and electromyogram (EMG) were simultaneously measured and their time relationships compared before and during the exercise. The R-R interval of ECG was ...
Zöllner C - - 2001
PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of two different continuous cardiac output monitoring systems based on the thermodilution principle in critically ill patients. METHODS: Nineteen cardiac surgical patients were randomly assigned to continuous cardiac output monitoring using one of the two systems under study (group I, IntelliCath(TM) catheter, n=9; group II, ...
Marshall P - - 2001
There is evidence that multiple benefits can be obtained through exercise training that leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption (V(O(2))). It is unclear whether significant improvements can also be achieved through unsupervised low-budget home-based training regimes, especially in terms of cardiac functional gains. A randomized cross-over trial was conducted ...
Rowland T W - - 2001
The circulation of blood during upright exercise involves a two-pump system, a central cardiac pump and a peripheral pump responsible for systemic venous return. Axiomatically, the function of the two pumps must be equal, and certain evidence suggests that the peripheral pump may "drive" the circulation during exercise. Despite its ...
Oliver D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Reduced skeletal muscle strength is characteristic of individuals following heart transplantation. Weight lifting exercise has been demonstrated as an effective means by which to increase muscular strength in other cardiac patients but the appropriateness of this form of exercise in heart transplant patients has not been investigated. The purpose ...
Kennedy R R - - 2001
Cardiac output is a major determinant of the rate of uptake of volatile anaesthetic agents. Theoretical work suggests a 30% change in cardiac output will produce a measurable change in end-tidal volatile agent. We present three patients in whom significant changes in haemodynamic parameters, consistent with a large fall in ...
Bengel F M - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Late after cardiac transplantation, limited reinnervation of the transplanted heart may occur, but little is known about the effect of reinnervation on cardiac function and exercise performance. METHODS: We quantified the extent of myocardial reinnervation noninvasively in 29 cardiac-transplant recipients, using positron-emission tomography and the catecholamine analogue [11C]hydroxyephedrine. Global ...
Türkmen A - - 2001
In this study, a minimal mathematical model of the cardiovascular system is used to study the effects of changes in arterial compliance and cardiac contractility on the onset time of Korotkoff sounds during an auscultatory procedure. The model provides blood pressure waveforms in the ventricle, the aorta and the brachial ...
Williams S G - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prognostic value of peak cardiac power output, measured non-invasively during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, against other exercise-derived haemodynamic variables in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. METHOD AND RESULTS: Two hundred and nineteen unselected, consecutive patients with congestive heart failure (166 men, mean (+/-SD) age ...
Richard R - - 2001
One of the greatest challenges in exercise physiology is to develop a valid, reliable, non-invasive and affordable measurement of cardiac output (CO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and accuracy of a new impedance cardiograph device, the Physio Flow, during a 1-min step incremental exercise test ...
Moser D J DJ Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52240, USA. - - 2001
We used bilateral transcranial Doppler to monitor the number of microembolic events (ME) in the left and right middle cerebral arteries of 29 patients during cardiac surgery that required extracorporeal circulation. Based on a previously published study, we hypothesized that the commonly used method of doubling unilateral ME counts to ...
Adachi H - - 2001
The issue of whether exercise training improves exercise hyperpnea in patients after coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) surgery has not been fully explored. Effects of short-term physical training on ventilatory response and cardiac output during exercise in patients following coronary arterial bypass grafting surgery is studied. Thirty-four patients underwent exercise ...
Yasui K - - 2001
Stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured during maximal symptom-limited bicycle exercise testing in 13 young patients (age, 11-26 years) with nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). SV was measured by impedance plethysmocardiography; %SVend, %COend, and %SBPend represent the ratio of the value at termination of ...
Freeman K - - 2001
The medical treatment of chronic heart failure has undergone a dramatic transition in the past decade. Short-term approaches for altering hemodynamics have given way to long-term, reparative strategies, including beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) blockade. This was once viewed as counterintuitive, because acute administration causes myocardial depression. Cardiac myocytes from failing hearts ...
Arruda A M - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the prognostic value of exercise echocardiography in the elderly. BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the prognostic value of exercise testing in the elderly, a population which may be less able to exercise and is at increased risk of cardiac death. METHODS: Follow-up (2.9 +/- 1.7 ...
Ekstrand K E - - 2001
The relative output factors of the four helmets for a model B Leksell Gamma Knife and the end effect times for each helmet have been measured. For the three helmets with the smallest-diameter collimators a technique employing Kodak XV-2 film was used. The measured output factors are in good agreement ...
Blevins, Jennifer Susanne
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is estimated to affect 2 to 4 percent of the adult population (Young T 1993, Skomro and Kryger 1999). However, an estimated 80 to 90 percent of adults with moderate to severe OSA may be clinically undiagnosed. Identification of those at risk and their subsequent diagnosis ...
Wotton S B - - 2000
Cattle are normally stunned electrically by three sequential cycles, first a three-second head-only cycle, to stun the animal, secondly a 15-second cardiac cycle, to induce ventricular fibrillation (cardiac arrest), and thirdly a four-second discharge cycle, to reduce convulsions after death. An effective and immediate stun was produced when > or ...
Jin H - - 2000
This study determined the effects of exercise training on cardiac function, gene expression, and apoptosis. Rats exposed to a regimen of treadmill exercise for 13 wk had a significant increase in cardiac index and stroke volume index and a concomitant decrease in systemic vascular resistance compared with both age-matched and ...
Boone T - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine cardiovascular responses to laughter. The CO(2) rebreathing method was used to determine cardiac output and understand the role of the central and peripheral components of oxygen consumption and its relation to energy expended. Eight college-age subjects participated in this study. During periods ...
Sundblad P - - 2000
Seven healthy men performed steady-state dynamic leg exercise at 50 W in supine and upright postures, before (control) and repeatedly after 42 days of strict head-down tilt (HDT) (-6 degrees) bedrest. Steady-state heart rate (fc), mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded. The following ...
Auerbach I - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Relatively light isometric exercise (handgrip) in heart transplant recipients induces attenuated increments in heart rate, blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, but hemodynamic response to whole-body, heavy isometric exercise is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the influences of whole-body, heavy, isometric exercise on Doppler-derived parameters ...
Farmer C G - - 2000
Mechanical integration of the cardiac, muscular and ventilatory pumps enables mammals to vary cardiac output over a wide range to match metabolic demands. We have found this integration lacking in a lizard (Iguana iguana) that differs from mammals because blood flow from the caudal body and ventilation are maximal after, ...
Brown S C - - 2000
This study examined the development, implementation, and evaluation of a module to enhance self-esteem among patients in an outpatient cardiac clinic. Eighty percent of the subjects reported that activities such as exercise and social functions helped them feel better about themselves. This data supported the use of spirituality, interpersonal relationships, ...
Kizakevich P N - - 2000
Very little is known about the cardiovascular responses of exercising individuals when exposed to carbon monoxide (CO). Sixteen healthy nonsmoking men aged 18-29 years participated in the study. Using a combination of exposures to CO by breathing from a bag or in an environmental chamber, subjects performed a randomized sequence ...
Kallinen M - - 2000
Cardiac arrhythmias, ST segment depressions and other cardiac adverse effects are occasionally seen in relation to physical exercise in elderly people. However, the magnitude, quality, and time-dependence of these events need to be clarified. During voluntary maximal cycle ergometer exercise (CEE), immediate cardiac disturbances as a reason for exercise termination ...
Pardo Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A protective effect of exercise in preventing sudden cardiac death is supported by studies in healthy populations as well as in patients with cardiac disease. The mechanisms involved in this protective effect are unknown. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that exercise conditioning would beneficially alter autonomic nervous system tone, measured by ...
Tagarakis C V - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Concomitant application of anabolic-androgenic steroids and physical exercise can induce cardiac hypertrophy. These experiments investigate the still unknown response of the cardiac myocytes and capillaries to the combined influence of various anabolic steroids and muscular exercise. METHODS: Female SPF-NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: a) sedentary control, ...
Allison M J - - 2000
Clinicians who work with elderly people after acute cardiac events need strategies to facilitate the continuance of physical activity learned in cardiac rehabilitation programs. This exploratory study examined three factors related to this maintenance in 31 men and women: self-efficacy, stages of change, and social support for exercise. Self-efficacy was ...
Charloux A - - 2000
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of a new impedance cardiograph device, the Physio Flow, at rest and during a steady-state dynamic leg exercise (work intensity ranging from 10 to 50 W) performed in the supine position. We compared cardiac output determined simultaneously by ...
Matsumoto A - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: We measured end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2) during exercise and investigated the relationship between PETCO2 and exercise capacity, ventilatory parameters and cardiac output to determine the mechanism(s) of changes in this parameter. BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether PETCO2 is abnormal at rest and during exercise in cardiac patients. METHODS: Cardiac ...
McCole S D - - 2000
PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether older women athletes who had habitually performed vigorous endurance exercise training had higher stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than sedentary postmenopausal women during maximal exercise. METHODS: Seventeen endurance-trained, postmenopausal women athletes (age 65 +/- 4 yr; VO2max 2.11 +/- 0.31 L x min(-1), 38.3 ...
Vanhees L - - 2000
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility of the exponential method of CO2 rebreathing with the use of automated curve fitting and to determine whether this method is superior to the equilibrium method in terms of reproducibility and clinical practicability. METHODS: Repeated measurements of cardiac ...
Watanabe T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that QT-interval changes are more useful than ST-T changes in evaluating the severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB). HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the improvement in regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) in ischemic areas ...
Tanabe Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics of cardiac output during recovery from maximal exercise in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that oxygen uptake kinetics during recovery from exercise are delayed in patients with CHF. However, the kinetics of cardiac ...
Christensen T B - - 2000
In the lower range of cardiac output (CO, up to 15 l min-1), we found an excellent agreement between CO measured by bioimpedance and carbon dioxide rebreathing techniques. CO estimated by bioimpedance was generally lower. The bioimpedance method had better reproducibility. Both methods seem valuable for non-invasive studies in healthy ...
Cohn W E - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Decreasing the ICU length of stay (LOS) after cardiac operations may increase ICU recidivism, obviating the benefit of early discharge. METHODS: From January 1, 1994 to January 1, 1998, there were 2,388 consecutive cardiac operations, from which 2,228 patients were discharged alive from the ICU and had sufficient information ...
Schoerkhuber W - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The prediction of neurological outcome in comatose cardiac arrest survivors has enormous ethical and socioeconomic implications. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prognostic relevance of the time course of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as a biochemical marker of hypoxic brain damage. METHODS: Serial ...
Ide K - - 1999
Atrial fibrillation limits the ability to increase cardiac output during exercise and may, in turn, affect the exercise-associated elevation in cerebral perfusion. In nine patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in five age-matched healthy subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCA Vmean) was measured during incremental exercise using the transcranial ...
Santos B M - - 1999
Evidence shows that cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is a risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. Several stimuli may cause CH-like manifestations and promote volume or pressure overload. Exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy is an expected adaptation to regular exercise training. Salt intake has been shown to be the most important determinant of blood ...
Norton K H - - 1999
The present investigation was designed to uncouple the hemodynamic physiological effects of thermoregulation from the effects of a progressively increasing central command activation during prolonged exercise. Subjects performed two 1-h bouts of leg cycling exercise with 1) no intervention and 2) continuous infusion of a dextran solution to maintain central ...
Matsumoto A - - 1999
Patients with chronic heart failure performed exercise tests to evaluate the relation of kinetics of oxygen uptake to cardiac output and arteriovenous oxygen difference at the onset of exercise. The kinetics of oxygen uptake are primarily determined by cardiac output; these kinetics are useful in evaluating exercise intolerance and cardiac ...
Houtman S - - 1999
The arterial pulse contour method called Modelflow 2.1 calculates stroke volume continuously, beat to beat, from the non-invasive blood pressure signal measured by Finapres or Portapres. Portapres is the portable version of Finapres. The purpose of this study was to compare cardiac output (CO) calculated using Modelflow 2.1 (COmf) with ...
Wiebe C G - - 1999
PURPOSE: To clarify the physiological reasons for the decline in aerobic power of endurance trained (ET) women with aging. METHODS: Blood volume, VO2max, and exercise cardiac function were examined in 23 ET women; six age 20-29 yr, six age 40-45 yr, six age 49-54 yr, and five age 58-63 yr. ...
Lehmann K G - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether thermodilution cardiac output determination based on measurement of injectate temperature in vivo leads to more accurate and precise estimates and to study the influence of chilled injectate on test performance. BACKGROUND: Cardiac output measurement via right heart catheterization is used extensively for hemodynamic evaluation in a ...
Wilde A A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to identify a possible relationship between genotype and phenotype in the congenital familial long QT syndrome (cLQTS). BACKGROUND: The cLQTS, which occurs as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, is characterized by QT-interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram and torsade de pointes arrhythmias, which may give ...
Haryadi D G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: This study is an evaluation of a new thoracic bioimpedance cardiac output monitoring system which incorporates a modified form of the Kubicek equation and a method of estimating the left ventricular ejection time from the time derivative bioimpedance signals. METHODS: The performance of the new system was compared with ...
Kobashigawa J A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In patients who have received a cardiac transplant, the denervated donor heart responds abnormally to exercise and exercise tolerance is reduced. The role of physical exercise in the treatment of patients who have undergone cardiac transplantation has not been determined. We assessed the effects of training on the capacity ...
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