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Morley John E JE Divisions of Geriatric Medicine and Endocrinology, St. Louis University School of Medicine, 1402 S. Grand Blvd., M238, St. Louis, MO, 63104, USA, - - 2014
Sarcopenia is now defined as a decline in walking speed or grip strength associated with low muscle mass. Sarcopenia leads to loss of mobility and function, falls, and mortality. Sarcopenia is a major cause of frailty, but either condition can occur without the other being present. Sarcopenia is present in ...
Nadeau Stephen E SE Research Service, Brain Rehabilitation Research Center, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, - - 2014
Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent in patients with stroke, but because revascularization does not improve major clinical outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease relative to intensive medical therapy, routine evaluation for this disease is not warranted in stroke patients. However, it might be warranted in patients destined ...
Lee Jones Benjamin B Research Institute Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United - - 2014
Fluid and sodium balance is important for performance and health; however limited data in rugby union players exists. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass (BM) change (dehydration) and blood[Na] change during exercise. Data was collected from 10 premiership rugby union players, over a 4-week period. Observations ...
Cunniffe Brian B English Institute of Sport, Bisham Abbey, - - 2014
Little data exists on drinking behaviour, sweat loss and exercise intensity across a competitive handball tournament in elite female athletes. Heart rate (HR), fluid balance and sweat electrolyte content were assessed on 17 international players across a 6-day tournament involving 5 games and 2 training sessions played indoors (23 ± ...
Afman Gregg G Department of Kinesiology, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, - - 2014
Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n=10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common pre-exercise nutritional interventions ...
Lucas-Cuevas Angel Gabriel AG a GIBD (Grupo de Investigación en Biomecánica Aplicada al Deporte) , University of Valencia , Valencia , - - 2014
Abstract Controversy exists whether custom-made insoles are more effective in reducing plantar loading compared to prefabricated insoles. Forty recreational athletes ran using custom-made, prefabricated, and the original insoles of their running shoes, at rest and after a fatigue run. Contact time, stride rate, and plantar loading parameters were measured. Neither ...
Freyler K K Department of Sport and Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
Balance training (BT) is successfully implemented in therapy as a countermeasure against postural dysfunctions. However, patients suffering from motor impairments may not be able to perform balance rehabilitation with full body load. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether partial unloading leads to the same functional and neuromuscular ...
Grazioli Gonzalo G Grup de Treball Cardiologia Esportiva, Institut del Tòrax, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, - - 2014
Despite the established diagnostic value of the electrocardiogram in preparticipation screening of athletes, some cardiac structural changes can be missed, particularly in early disease stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cardiac structural changes via the systematic use of echocardiography in preparticipation screening of competitive ...
Périard Julien D JD Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine - - 2014
To determine whether an individualised hydration regimen reduces thermal, physiological and perceptual strain during match-play tennis in the heat, and minimises alterations in neuromuscular function and physical performance postmatch and into recovery. 10 men undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ball in play) of 20 min (∼113 min) ...
- - 2014
From 1999 through 2013, there were 1,406 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but decreased by 59 percent from 2010 to 2013. In 2013, there were fewer incident cases (n=73) than in any ...
Keller Jennifer L JL 1Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Physical therapy intervention is the primary treatment for gait ataxia and imbalance in individuals with cerebellar damage. Our aim was to determine if a home balance exercise program is feasible for improving locomotor and balance abilities in these individuals. A total of 14 patients with cerebellar ataxia participated in a ...
Williams S S School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, College Road, Sutton Bonington, LE12 5RD, - - 2014
A change in management from pasture to stabling is a risk factor for equine colic. To investigate the effect of a management change from pasture with no controlled exercise to stabling with light exercise on aspects of gastrointestinal function related to large colon impaction. The hypothesis was that drinking water ...
Quigley Patricia A PA From the VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, Florida (PAQ, TB, YF, SH-H); Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC (BS); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor (JKR); and Health Services Research & Development, Center of Innovation and Disability Rehabilitation Research, James A. Haley Veterans Hospital, Tampa, Florida - - 2014
Older patients with a distal symmetric polyneuropathy are at markedly increase risk for falls and fall-related injuries. Despite this, few studies have investigated the effect of exercise regimens on gait and balance in this high-risk group. One hundred older patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy were randomized to one of three ...
Olek Robert A RA Biochemistry Department, Gdansk University of Physical Education and Sport, Gorskiego 1, 80-336 Gdansk, Poland. - - 2014
This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg-1 of body mass of a ...
van Mourik Yvonne Y From the Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary care (YvM, JBR, KGMM, AWH, FHR), the Department of Cardiology, Heart Lung Center (MJMC), and the Department of Respiratory Medicine (J-WJL), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. - - 2014
Reduced exercise tolerance and dyspnea are common in older people, and heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the main causes. We want to determine the prevalence of previously unrecognized HF, COPD, and other chronic diseases in frail older people using a near-home targeted screening strategy. Community-dwelling ...
Farlie Melanie K - - 2013
How has balance challenge intensity been reported in trials of balance exercise interventions? Are there any instruments designed to measure the intensity of balance challenge in balance training exercises? Systematic review of randomised trials of balance training exercises. Older adults, ie, the majority of subjects were aged over 55 years. ...
Buchheit M - - 2013
To examine with a parallel group study design the performance and physiological responses to a 14-day off-season 'live high-train low in the heat' training camp in elite football players. Seventeen professional Australian Rules Football players participated in outdoor football-specific skills (32±1°C, 11.5 h) and indoor strength (23±1°C, 9.3 h) sessions ...
Flueck Joelle Leonie - - 2013
The aim of this study was to investigate whether caffeine and/or sodium citrate have an ergogenic effect on the 1500 m exercise performance in elite wheelchair athletes. A placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over and double-blind study design was conducted with the four treatments placebo, caffeine, sodium citrate and the combination of caffeine ...
Saunders Bryan - - 2013
To investigate the separate and combined effects of sodium bicarbonate and β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprints during simulated match play performed in hypoxia. Study A: 20 recreationally active participants performed two trials following acute supplementation with either sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g·kg-1BM) or placebo (maltodextrin). Study B: 16 recreationally active participants ...
Wassinger Craig A - - 2013
Dynamic standing balance is essential to perform functional activities and is included in the treatment of many lower extremity injuries. Physiotherapists utilize many methods to restore standing balance including stability exercises, functional retraining, and manual therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rearfoot distraction ...
Saunders Bryan - - 2013
The aim of this study was to determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalaemia or other metabolic responses are different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not. Twenty-one males completed two cycling capacity tests at 110% ...
Duncan Michael J - - 2013
This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in the back squat and bench press in trained males. Eight resistance trained males took part in this double-blind, randomized cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3gkg body mass) or ...
Baker Lindsay B - - 2013
Sports nutrition experts recommend that team-sport athletes participating in intermittent high-intensity exercise for ≥1 h consume 1-4 g carbohydrate/kg 1-4 h before, 30-60 g carbohydrate/h during, and 1-1.2 g carbohydrate/kg/h and 20-25 g protein as soon as possible after exercise. The study objective was to compare observed vs. recommended macronutrient ...
Park Jungseo J Department of Physical Therapy, Youngdong - - 2013
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of horseback riding simulator exercise on postural balance of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] A total of 67 stroke patients were assigned either to a horseback riding simulator exercise group (HEG, n=34) or a mat exercise group (MEG, n=33). [Methods] ...
Ruzic Lana - - 2013
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the physiological load on postural control. Special attention was directed toward the identifying the intensity level in which the major deterioration in balance abilities occurs. Thirty subjects randomly divided into two groups performed multistage all-out exertion protocol on cycle-ergometer ...
Khodaee Morteza M University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, - - 2013
Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), which is relatively common among marathon runners, is an uncommon event among ultra-endurance athletes. A 44-year-old man presented to the emergency department with increased thirst after successfully completing a 100-mile mountain bike race in Leadville, Colorado. Initial laboratory tests revealed a blood sodium level of 116 ...
Kirk Richard J - - 2013
Abstract Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled ...
Kahle Laura E LE Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63104, - - 2013
Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have ...
Cosgrove Samuel D - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and aerobic training session, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesised that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of over-drinking whereas during the aerobic session under-drinking will be more prevalent.As with previous fluid balance studies, ...
Intlekofer Karlie A KA Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, - - 2013
We demonstrate that exercise enables hippocampal-dependent learning in conditions that are normally subthreshold for encoding and memory formation, and depends on hippocampal induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a key mechanism. Using a weak training paradigm in an object location memory (OLM) task, we show that sedentary mice are ...
Tobias Gabriel - - 2013
We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day(-1)) was ingested ...
Buck Christopher L - - 2013
Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ...
Hobson Ruth M - - 2013
The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. Purpose: We examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing ergometer performance. Methods: Twenty male rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; mass 82.5±8.9kg; 2000m personal best time ...
Hoffman Martin D - - 2013
This study sought to identify runner characteristics or symptoms that could distinguish those finishers developing exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) from those not developing EAH in a 161-km ultramarathon. Of 310 finishers, 207 (67%) underwent postrace blood studies. Twelve (6%) finishers had EAH (blood sodium range 131-134 mmol/L). Experience at 161-km ultramarathons ...
Cadore Eduardo Lusa EL Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarre, Tudela, - - 2013
The aim of this review was to recommend training strategies that improve the functional capacity in physically frail older adults based on scientific literature, focusing specially in supervised exercise programs that improved muscle strength, fall risk, balance, and gait ability. Scielo, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, Sport Discus, and ScienceDirect ...
Mueller Sandro Manuel - - 2013
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to investigate the effects of one dose of NaHCO3 per day for five consecutive days on cycling time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) at 'Critical Power' (CP) and acid--base parameters in endurance athletes. METHODS: Eight trained male cyclists and triathletes completed two exercise periods in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind interventional ...
Zoorob Roger - - 2013
This article discusses how athletes should properly fuel their bodies before, during, and after exercise to maximize athletic performance. Emphasis is placed on hydration status and glycogen stores being maintained above deficits that negatively affect sport performance. Timing of nutrient intake is as important as composition.
Brandt-Wouters Evelyn - - 2013
An 11-month-old girl presented with episodic severe stridor from birth, often resulting in cyanosis. Her parents had noted recurrent unilateral ptosis. Later she developed spasms of her hands during exercise. Psychomotor development was normal. Neurologic examination showed generalized hypertonia. Cerebral MRI excluded a Chiari malformation. Laryngoscopy under general anesthesia showed ...
- - 2013
From 1999 through 2012, there were 1,333 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 to 2010 but have since decreased by 50 percent from 2010 to 2012. In 2012, there were fewer incident cases (n=84) than ...
Winger James M - - 2013
PURPOSE: To determine if beliefs about physiology and rehydration affect ultramarathon runners' hydration behaviors, or if these beliefs increase the risk for exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). METHODS: Participants of the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run completed a pre-race questionnaire, pre-race and post-race body mass measurements, and post-race assessment of serum ...
Smith Gordon I - - 2013
At rest administration of the short chain fatty acid acetate suppresses fat oxidation without affecting carbohydrate utilisation. The combined effect of increased acetate availability and exercise on substrate utilisation is however, unclear. With local ethics approval we studied the effect of ingesting either sodium acetate (NaAc) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ...
Barber James J - - 2013
ABSTRACT: Barber, JJ, McDermott, AY, McGaughey, KJ, Olmstead, JD, and Hagobian, TA. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 252-258, 2013-Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 ...
Burke Louise M - - 2013
Consumption of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg 1-2 h before exercise) can temporarily increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, enhancing extracellular buffering of hydrogen ions which accumulate and efflux from the working muscle. Such 'bicarbonate loading' provides an ergogenic strategy for sporting events involving high rates of anaerobic glycolysis which are otherwise limited ...
Cosgrove Samuel David SD Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin, Otago 9054, New - - 2013
Sodium ingestion during exercise may exert beneficial effects on endurance performance by either its ability to attenuate the decrease in plasma volume or reduce the risk of Exercise Associated Hyponatremia (EAH). This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium supplements on endurance performance during a 72 km road cycling time-trial ...
Hoffman Martin D - - 2012
PURPOSE: This work combines and reanalyzes five years of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) research at 161-km ultramarathons in northern California with primary purposes to define the relationship between post-race blood sodium concentration ([Na]) and change in body weight, examine the interactions among EAH incidence, ambient temperature and hydration state, and explore ...
Hew-Butler Tamara Dawn TD School of Health Science, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA, USA. - - 2012
To evaluate the efficacy of Ringer's lactate, isotonic saline and hypertonic saline on the clinical and biochemical recovery of athletes with exercise-associated hyponatraemic encephalopathy caused by fluid overload. We retrospectively reviewed serial blood sodium concentrations (Na+) and qualitative signs of recovery and time to recovery in two healthy menstruant females ...
Carr Benjamin M - - 2012
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The ...
Hickman Ingrid J - - 2012
Since its discovery in 1995 adiponectin has garnered considerable interest from the academic, clinical and biotech communities due to its proposed salutary anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective properties. As a result our appreciation of adiponectin's structure and the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in adiponectin production are now relatively advanced. ...
Gigou Pierre-Yves - - 2012
This study compared the effect of pre-exercise hyperhydration (PEH) and pre-exercise euhydration (PEE) upon treadmill running time-trial (TT) performance in the heat. Six highly trained runners or triathletes underwent two 18 km TT runs (~28 °C, 25%-30% RH) on a motorized treadmill, in a randomized, crossover fashion, while being euhydrated ...
Siette Joyce J School of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, - - 2013
Physical exercise in early adulthood and mid-life improves cognitive function and enhances brain plasticity, but the effects of commencing exercise in late adulthood are not well-understood. We investigated the effects of voluntary exercise in the restoration of place recognition memory in aged rats and examined hippocampal changes of synaptic density ...
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