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Results 401 - 450 of 1099
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Delecluse Christophe - - 2003
This study examined the impact of short-term (7-day), high-dose (0.35 g.kg(-1).d(-1)) oral creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrS) on single sprint running performance (40 m, <6 seconds) and on intermittent sprint performance in highly trained sprinters. Nine subjects completed the double-blind cross-over design with 2 supplementation periods (placebo and creatine) and a ...
Galy Olivier - - 2003
To study the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the decrease of post-triathlon diffusing capacity (DLco), blood rheologic properties (blood viscosity: eta(b); changes in plasma volume: deltaPV) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) were assessed in ten triathletes during cycle-run (CR) and run-cycle (RC) trials at a metabolic intensity of 75% of maximal ...
Millet Gregoire P - - 2003
The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the time sustained above 90% of VO2max in different intermittent running sessions having the same overall time run at the velocity (vVO2max) associated with VO2max, and (2) to test whether the use of a fixed-fraction (50%) of the time to exhaustion ...
Mamula Paul W - - 2003
When Jim Fixx's The Complete Book of Running became a best-seller, it helped fuel the physical fitness enthusiasm that swept the United States in the mid-to-late 1970s. When he died of a heart attack while running at age 52 a few years later, his death created a stir. An autopsy ...
Mononen K - - 2003
In this study, we examined the construct validity and practical significance of an optoelectronic shooting training system (Noptel ST 2000 Sport) for the technical analysis of running target shooting. A total of 37 male shooters of three different skill levels participated in the study. Principal component analysis revealed four common ...
Braun William A - - 2003
Delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) is a common response to exercise involving significant eccentric loading. Symptoms of DOMS vary widely and may include reduced force generating capacity, significant alterations in biochemical indices of muscle and connective tissue health, alteration of neuromuscular function, and changes in mechanical performance. The purpose ...
Mercer John A - - 2003
The purpose of the study was to investigate the physiological cost of running in spring-boots compared with running in running shoes at different speeds. During testing, subjects (n = 7) completed running trials while wearing spring-boots and running shoes. Three speed conditions (2.23, 2.68, and 3.13 m.s(-1)) were completed per ...
Welde Boye - - 2003
PURPOSE: First, to measure the O(2) uptake ([OV0312]O(2)) and the blood lactate concentration during cross-country skiing at competition speed. Second, to compare these entities for the free technique and the classical technique. Further, to establish the subjects' [OV0312]O(2max) and the [OV0312]O(2) corresponding to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, ...
Bernard T - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of three cycling cadences on a subsequent 3000 m track running performance in well trained triathletes. METHODS: Nine triathletes completed a maximal cycling test, three cycle-run succession sessions (20 minutes of cycling + a 3000 m run) in random order, and one isolated run (3000 ...
Hue O - - 2003
AIM: Running performance has become key to the triathlete's overall performance. We still know relatively little about the factors that define the ability to perform a good run after cycling, however, and the perception of discomfort during the first minutes of this post-cycling running has yet to be satisfactorily explained. ...
Nomura Kunihiko - - 2003
By comparing the characteristics of cardiac-locomotor synchronization (CLS) in running and cycling individuals, we tested whether the characteristics of CLS occurring during rhythmic exercise adhere to the central origin hypothesis, which postulates a direct interaction between cardiovascular centers in the brain and the pattern generator in the spinal cord. Ten ...
Tsintzas K - - 2003
The aim of this study was to compare whole-body glucose uptake in cycling and running performed during physiological hyperinsulinaemia. On three occasions, seven male subjects underwent a hyperinsulinaemic (30 mU m(-2) min(-1)), euglycaemic (5 mmol l(-1)) clamp for 120 min. On one occasion, subjects rested for the duration of the ...
Billat V L - - 2003
Eight unacclimatized long-distance runners performed, on a level treadmill, an incremental test to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the minimal velocity eliciting VO2max (vVO2max) in normoxia (N) and acute moderate hypoxia (H) corresponding to an altitude of 2,400 m (PIO 2 of 109 mmHg). Afterwards, on separate days, ...
Spiropoulos K - - 2003
Marathon racing is a strenuous exercise that has a profound effect on many laboratory parameters. Participants in marathon races may require abstinence of exercise and the performance of laboratory assays several days after the event. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in blood cell count ...
Heiden Tamika - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prior cycling on EMG activity of selected lower leg muscles during running. Ten elite level triathletes underwent two testing sessions at race pace: a 40 km cycle followed by a 2 km run (CR) and a 10 km run ...
Ang E T - - 2003
The possible neuroprotective effect of physical exercise was investigated in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a focal stroke model. It was found that physical exercise in the form of a 12-week treadmill running programme reduced the volume of infarction caused by MCAO. At the molecular level, reverse transcription ...
Chester N - - 2003
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of maximal therapeutic dosing of sympathomimetic amines found in over-the-counter (OTC) decongestant preparations on endurance running. Following familiarisation and a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), trained male runners (n = 8) completed four exercise sessions ...
Spurrs Robert W - - 2003
Previous research has reported that plyometric training improves running economy (RE) and ultimately distance-running performance, although the exact mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. This study examined whether changes in running performance resulting from plyometric training were related to alterations in lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Seventeen male runners ...
Pitkänen H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate serum amino acid responses to 3 different exercise sessions in male power athletes (sprinters and jumpers; n=11). METHODS: All subjects performed 2 running exercise sessions: a short run session (SRS) of 3 x 4 x 60 m with recoveries of 120 ...
Millet Grégoire P - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological responses in cycling and running of elite short-distance (ShD) and long-distance (LD) triathletes. Fifteen elite male triathletes participating in the World Championships were divided into two groups (ShD and LD) and performed a laboratory trial that comprised submaximal treadmill running, ...
Wang Benjamin W E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The magnitude and duration of the benefit of running and other aerobic exercise on disability and mortality in elderly persons are not well understood. We sought to quantify the benefits of aerobic exercise, including running, on disability and mortality in elderly persons and to examine whether morbidity can be ...
Navathe P D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Female pilots now fly many types of aircraft including military fighters capable of maneuvers that produce high, sustained acceleration in the +Gz axis. Although women have participated as subjects in various centrifuge studies, little is known about the acceleration tolerance of female pilots. METHODS: Between April 1995 and December ...
Fowles J R - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity is reduced in muscle of different fiber composition after a single session of aerobic exercise in rats. In one experiment, untrained female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight 275 +/- 21 g; means +/- SE; n = 30) were run ...
Troxell Michael Lee - - 2003
Adaptational response to aerobic exercise was artificially selected for across one generation in a founder population of 20 female and 20 male genetically heterogeneous rats (N:NIH). Selection for low and high response was based on the change in treadmill running capacity, assessed by meters (m) run to exhaustion before and ...
Williams Terrie M - - 2002
Semi-aquatic mammals move between two very different media (air and water), and are subject to a greater range of physical forces (gravity, buoyancy, drag) than obligate swimmers or runners. This versatility is associated with morphological compromises that often lead to elevated locomotor energetic costs when compared to fully aquatic or ...
Nassis George P - - 2002
The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of water ingestion on physiological responses to prolonged cycling (CYC) and running (RUN). A group of 11 men with mean (SEM) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 48.5 (1.8) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) on a cycle-ergometer and 52.1 (2.2) ml x ...
Sharwood Karen A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether oxygen consumption during submaximal running increases in proportion to years of accumulated training and racing in masters runners after a bout of downhill running. SETTING: University of Cape Town, Sports Science Institute of South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen male masters distance runners (45-55 years) with a range ...
Gottschall Jinger S - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine if cycling cadence affects subsequent running speed through changes in stride frequency. METHODS: Thirteen male triathletes completed three sessions of testing on separate days. During the first session (control condition), the participants completed a 30-min cycling bout of high intensity at their preferred cadence, immediately followed by ...
Prince A - - 2002
In order to compare the metabolic responses to exercise in 2 similarly managed breeds of horses, 5 Arabian (AR) and 5 Thoroughbred (TB) horses, fed an identical diet with a similar diet and exercise training programme for the 2 preceding months, undertook 3 treadmill (3 degree incline) trials with a ...
Billat V L - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 4 weeks of intense interval-training on the pulmonary off-transient oxygen uptake (V*O2) after running until exhaustion at the same absolute speed. Seven physical education students ran as follows in three maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst ...
Telford R D - - 2003
There is a wide body of literature reporting red cell hemolysis as occurring after various forms of exercise. Whereas the trauma associated with footstrike is thought to be the major cause of hemolysis after running, its significance compared with hemolysis that results from other circulatory stresses on the red blood ...
Dutto Darren J - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine whether the stiffness characteristics of the leg change during a treadmill run to voluntary exhaustion. METHODS: Fifteen runners performed a test run at a constant speed that elicited approximately 80% of their .VO(2peak). The run was performed on a treadmill instrumented to measure vertical ground reaction forces; ...
Williams James S - - 2002
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength and endurance and whole-body endurance exercise capacity in competitive endurance athletes. METHODS: Seven collegiate distance runners (5 male/2 female; VO2max = 59.9 +/- 11.7 mL.kg-1.min-1) were recruited to participate ...
Billat V - - 2002
This study examined the effect of 8 weeks of specific marathon training before the Olympic trials on the physiological factors of the marathon performance in top-class marathon runners. Five males and four females, age 34 +/- 6 yr (+/- SD) with a marathon performance time of 2 h 11 min ...
Hardin E C - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of midsole durometer on mechanical and hematological responses during a prolonged downhill run. Twenty-four men completed a 30-min downhill run (-12% grade) wearing either soft, medium, or hard midsole shoes. Data describing mean peak tibial acceleration (PTA), stride frequency, plasma ...
Derrick Timothy R - - 2002
PURPOSE: To examine the kinematic adjustments that runners make during an exhaustive run and to look at the effects these adjustments have on shock and shock attenuation. METHODS: Ten recreational runners ran to volitional exhaustion on a treadmill at a velocity equal to their average 3200-m running velocity at maximal ...
Katzman M A - - 2002
The cholecystokinin (CCK) system, which has been shown to interact with both the panicogenic and respiratory systems, provides an interesting mechanism to further evaluate the central chemoreceptor and its effect on panic attack sensitivity. Intravenous CCK, a naturally occurring neuropeptide in the brain, has been found to induce the emotional ...
Yoshiga Chie C - - 2002
This study evaluated whether the heart rate (HR) response to exercise depends on body position and on the active muscle mass. The HR response to ergometer rowing (sitting and using both arms and legs) was compared to treadmill running (upright exercise involving mainly the legs) using a progressive exercise intensity ...
Dupont Grégory - - 2002
This study was designed to determine the intermittent critical velocity, the time spent at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the time spent above 90% of VO2max for short intermittent runs of 15 s at supramaximal velocities, alternating with 15 s of passive recovery. Nine male subjects performed 5 field-tests to ...
Petibois C - - 2002
Blood chemical parameters were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (notably for determining the concentrations of glucose, lactate, urea, glycerol, triglycerides, and proteins) in 14 top-class marathon runners (133.7+/-4.1 min at marathon, 10.1% difference between extremes) who performed a 10-km run at their individual marathon velocity. Marathon performance level was correlated ...
Cottin François - - 2002
Best performances in middle-distance running are characterized by coefficients of variation of the velocity ranging from 1% to 5%. This seems to suggest that running at constant velocity is a strain inducing an increase in physiological variables such as oxygen uptake. This study tested three questions. (l) Does velocity variability ...
Plymire Darcy C - - 2002
Jim Fixx was one of millions ofAmericans who started running in the 1 960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Unlike other runners, however, Fixx wrote a best-selling book about running and, ironically, died of a heart attack at the age of 52 years while running. Fixx and the authors of other running ...
Vercruyssen Fabrice - - 2002
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different cycling cadences on metabolic and kinematic parameters during subsequent running. METHODS: Eight triathletes performed two incremental tests (running and cycling) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VT) values, a cycling test to assess the ...
Moosavi S H - - 2002
We employed an associative learning paradigm to test the hypothesis that exercise hyperpnea in humans arises from learned responses forged by prior experience. Twelve subjects undertook a "conditioning" and a "nonconditioning" session on separate days, with order of performance counterbalanced among subjects. In both sessions, subjects performed repeated bouts of ...
Oliver Stephen K - - 2002
The Access bar claims to contain adenosine antagonists and a precise mixture of macronutrients that are purported to improve aerobic performance by increasing fat metabolism and providing sustained exogenous energy. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of the Access bar on endurance running performance. Twelve active, ...
Millet G P - - 2002
This study investigated the effects of 40-weeks training in swimming, cycling and running on performances in swimming, running and triathlon competitions in four elite triathletes. The training stimulus was calculated using the exercise heart rate. The level of performance was measured in running by a submaximal 30 min run, in ...
Pandorf Clay E - - 2002
To examine correlates of the speed at which female soldiers carrying loads could cover 3.2 km on foot and traverse an obstacle course, 12 volunteers (mean +/- SD: 25.3 +/- 6 years, 166 +/- 7 cm, 61.3 +/- 7 kg) were timed over 3.2 km while carrying loads of 14, ...
Gaudard A - - 2002
Exercise-induced impairment in blood fluidity has been supposed to increase cardiovascular risk but there is no data to support this hypothesis. We report the case of a 50 yr old marathon runner who underwent a central retinal vein thrombosis after a marathon run. We investigated his rheological response to exercise ...
Charles Corinne - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to examine whether an over-stimulation of the vestibular system, induced by thousands of time saccadic head stimulations, affects the vestibular sensitivity, and consequently if such a phenomenon could contribute to the deterioration of postural stability observed after a long distance running exercise. Eighteen athletic ...
Hue O - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of performance level on the pulmonary responses in triathletes during the cycle-run succession. METHODS: Eight regionally and nationally ranked (Competitive) and six internationally ranked (Elite) male triathletes underwent 30 min of cycling followed by 20 min of running (C-R) ...
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