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Results 351 - 400 of 1098
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Yang Yifan - - 2005
The aim of this study was to examine the time course activation of select myogenic (MRF4, Myf5, MyoD, myogenin) and metabolic (CD36, CPT1, HKII, and PDK4) genes after an acute bout of resistance (RE) or run (Run) exercise. Six RE subjects [25 +/- 4 yr (mean +/- SD), 74 +/- ...
Naylor Andrew S - - 2005
Previous work has shown that voluntary running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. Here we report that long-term running for 24 days results in a down-regulation of hippocampal progenitor proliferation to one-half the level of nonrunning controls compared with a fivefold increase in ...
Weyand Peter G - - 2005
We hypothesized that the anaerobic power and aerobic power outputs during all-out runs of any common duration between 10 and 150 s would be proportional to the maximum anaerobic (E(an-max)) and aerobic powers (E(aer-max)) available to the individual runner. Seventeen runners who differed in E(an-max) and E(aer-max) (5 sprinters, 5 ...
Lazaar Nordine - - 2004
This pilot study compared the rating of perceived exertion scores (RPE) in young girls for two modalities of exercises (running vs cycling) performed at the same absolute heart rate. 23 girls, ages 8 to 11 years, from a gymnastic club performed graded, intermittent, and submaximal running and cycling exercises at ...
Grego F - - 2004
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine if the relationship between physiological changes classically observed with exercise duration and some subjective workload measures would be affected by the complexity of the locomotion mode (running vs racewalking). METHODS: The study was conducted on 24 well trained subjects (12 long ...
Malison E R - - 2004
AIM: This study examined the relationship of 3-km run time to indices of aerobic and anaerobic ability in 9 male runners (13.4+/-0.6 years, mean+/-SD). METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were made, and an exercise test to determine running economy at 187 m x min(-1) and (.-)VO(2max) were assessed on a treadmill. On ...
Sanada Kiyoshi - - 2005
The purposes of our study were to determine the peak oxygen uptake (V(.) >O(2peak)) per total or regional skeletal muscle (SM) mass using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate the relationships between SM mass and V(.) >O(2peak) during running and arm cranking. Eight male college swimmers aged 18-22 years ...
Saunders Philo U - - 2004
PURPOSE: To establish the typical error (TE) associated with equipment, testing, and biological variation of a running economy (RE) test in 11 elite male distance runners (VO2max 70.3 +/- 7.3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1)), and measure the between-athlete variation of 70 highly trained runners (VO2max 69.7 +/- 6.0 mL ...
Hayes Philip R - - 2004
The relationships between local muscular endurance and kinematic changes during a run to exhaustion at vVo2max. J Strength Cond. Res. 18(4):000-000. 2004.-A recent study suggested that runners who maintain a stable running style are able to run for longer at vVo2max velocity (vVo2max). This may be because of the capacity ...
Menet Jerome S - - 2005
In the Syrian hamster, winter seasonal inhibition of reproduction occurs in response to decreasing day length. This inhibitory response is modulated by nonphotic cues. In particular, access to a running wheel has been shown to produce incomplete gonadal regression. The present study sought to determine whether this occurs as a ...
Kalliokoski Kari K - - 2004
We investigated the effects of acute prolonged exercise (marathon running) on cardiac function and myocardial perfusion. Cardiac dimensions and function were measured in seven endurance-trained men using echocardiography before and repeatedly after marathon (42.2 km) running (at 10 min, 150 min, and 20 h). Myocardial perfusion and perfusion resistance were ...
Slawinski Jean S - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Recently it has been shown that endurance training decreases the variability in stride rate. This decrease would lead to a reduction in the mechanical and the energy cost of running. PURPOSE: This study therefore aimed to compare the mechanical and the energy cost of running according to the training ...
Stanton Robert - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a short-term Swiss ball training on core stability and running economy. Eighteen young male athletes (15.5 +/- 1.4 years; 62.5 +/- 4.7 kg; sigma9 skinfolds 78.9 +/- 28.2 mm; VO2max 55.3 +/- 5.7 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) were divided into a control ...
Ohkuwa Tetsuo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The differences of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) between maximal treadmill and deep-water running have not been reported. The purpose of this investigation was to compare u-PA and t-PA levels during maximal treadmill and deep-water running. METHODS: Six male subjects carried out two maximal exercises, ...
Fredericson Michael M Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. - - 2004
An 18-year-old male runner was referred to the authors' clinic with a 1-year history of cramping left foot pain. His symptoms developed insidiously when he increased his training, with an onset of severe left foot pain and tightness that would develop after about 20 minutes of exercise. The more he ...
Hampson David B - - 2004
This investigation examined the overall and localized perceived exertion responses to repeated bouts of submaximal, high-intensity running when subjects were deceived. Well-trained male and female n = 40) runners were randomly assigned to four groups who completed three 1680-m bouts of running at 80-86% peak treadmill running speed. The two ...
Kuphal K E - - 2004
AIM: The classical maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) assessment protocol takes multiple days to measure thus necessitates athletes to return to a laboratory for several visits. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a new protocol (Palmer protocol), which proposes to measure MLSS in ...
Kano Yutaka - - 2004
To utilize the rat spinotrapezius muscle as a model to investigate the microcirculatory consequences of exercise training, it is necessary to design an exercise protocol that recruits this muscle. There is evidence that the spinotrapezius is derecruited during standard treadmill exercise protocols performed on the uphill treadmill (i.e., 6 degrees ...
Garcin M - - 2004
The purpose of the present investigation was 1) to study the effects of fitness level on perceived exertion (RPE) and estimated time limit (ETL) scales during exhausting runs, and 2) to predict time to exhaustion from RPE or ETL values collected during a constant run exercise. Eight high-fitness level and ...
Yoshida Yuko - - 2004
We examined whether the quantity of exercise performed influences the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 in mouse skeletal muscles (plantaris, tibialis anterior, soleus) and heart. Wheel running exercise (1, 3, and 6 wk) was used, which results in marked variations in self-selected running activity. Differences in muscle ...
Billat Véronique L - - 2004
The aim of this study was to determine the energetic factors of middle-distance running performance in junior elite runners according to gender and by using measurements from on-track performances. Fifteen elite runners (8 males and 7 females) were investigated by means of an incremental test and an all-out run over ...
Avogadro Patrick - - 2004
Recently, new treadmill ergometers have been designed to measure the ground reaction forces during numerous successive steps. From ground reaction forces measured in track running, it has been shown to be possible to compute external mechanical work ( W(ext)) and leg stiffness ( k) of a bouncing spring-mass system. However, ...
de Carvalho Rosangela M - - 2004
The use of EDTA in the medium to avoid the passivation of a solid electrode during electrochemical analysis of acetaminophen is presented in this work. The performance of this system was investigated with respect to pH, applied potential and supporting electrolyte concentration. The major advantage in using EDTA in the ...
McCrory Jean L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Exercise is likely to be an important countermeasure to bone demineralization, which remains a concern for astronauts during long-duration spaceflight. However, loads on the feet during exercise with 1 G equivalent gravity replacement are not known. The purpose of this study was to compare ground reaction forces (GRFs) during ...
Coffey V - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three different recovery modalities--active (ACT), passive (PAS) and contrast temperature water immersion (CTW)--on the performance of repeated treadmill running, lactate concentration and pH. Fourteen males performed two pairs of treadmill runs to exhaustion at 120% and 90% of peak ...
Galy O - - 2004
AIM: To evaluate the influence of successive running and cycling on both exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) release, 5 triathletes performed 2 separate exercise trials. METHODS: One trial consisted of a 20-min+20-min successive cycle-run exercise (C(1)-R(2)) and the other consisted of a 20-min+20-min successive run-cycle exercise ...
Ishihara Akihiko - - 2004
The effects of hindlimb unloading and recovery with or without running exercise on morphological and metabolic properties of soleus muscle fibers and their spinal motoneurons in rats were investigated. Ten-week-old rats were hindlimb suspended for 2 weeks and thereafter were rehabilitated with or without voluntary running exercise for 2 weeks. ...
Judelson Daniel A - - 2004
PURPOSE: In practice, tests of maximal oxygen uptake (.VO2max) are often preceded by a lactate profile, a highly intense but submaximal exercise bout. The .VO2max response to preceding high-intensity submaximal exercise, with or without a rest period, has not been determined. If .VO2max is limited after a lactate profile, exercise-induced ...
Billat Veronique - - 2004
Training effects on time-to-exhaustion, substrate and blood lactate balances at the maximal lactate steady state velocity (MLSSv) were examined. Eleven male, veteran, long-distance runners performed three tests before and after 6 weeks of training at MLSSv: an incremental test to determine maximum O2 uptake (VO(2,max)) and the velocity at the ...
Saunders Philo U - - 2004
Running economy (RE) is typically defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, and is determined by measuring the steady-state consumption of oxygen (VO2) and the respiratory exchange ratio. Taking body mass (BM) into consideration, runners with good RE use less energy and therefore less oxygen ...
Salo Aki - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to further understand the biomechanical differences between the standing and crouch starting methods, and to investigate whether one of the starting styles provides better acceleration and proves to be faster. Six university track team sprinters performed 2 x 3 x 50 m trials. Digitised ...
Liu J - - 2004
A new control strategy is introduced for operating anaerobic digestion processes efficiently at high load. The control system includes a cascade controller embedded into a rule-based supervisory system based on extremum-seeking control. The control system measures pH and biogas production rate and varies the organic load by manipulating the influent ...
Sparling P B - - 2003
Extensive documentation exists showing that exercise induces analgesia and sedation. Despite decades of research attempting to explicate a neurochemical basis for these phenomena, the mechanism underlying these changes is unknown. Using trained male college students running on a treadmill or cycling on a stationary bike for 50 min at 70-80% ...
Oöpik V - - 2003
To test the hypothesis that sodium citrate administered two hours before exercise improves performance in a 5 km running time trial. A total of 17 male well trained college runners (mean (SD) O(2)MAX 61.3 (4.9) ml/kg/min) performed a 5 km treadmill run with and without sodium citrate ingestion in a ...
Caputo F - - 2003
The objective of the present study was to compare pulmonary gas exchange kinetics (VO2 kinetics) and time to exhaustion (Tlim) between trained and untrained individuals during severe exercise performed on a cycle ergometer and treadmill. Eleven untrained males in running (UR) and cycling (UC), nine endurance cyclists (EC), and seven ...
Garcin M - - 2003
The present purpose was to study the influence of the type of training sport practised (long distance running, sprinting, handball) on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), estimation of time limit (ETL), and heart rate (HR) on running tests. It was hypothesised that these parameters would be related to the type ...
Reilly Thomas - - 2003
Deep-water running is performed in the deep end of a swimming pool, normally with the aid of a flotation vest. The method is used for purposes of preventing injury and promoting recovery from strenuous exercise and as a form of supplementary training for cardiovascular fitness. Both stroke volume and cardiac ...
Finni T T Neuromuscular Research Center, Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvlskyll, Jyvlskyll, Finland. - - 2003
Effects of endurance exercise on running economy, mechanics, force generating capacity and their interactions were examined. During the exercise, metabolic, kinetic and kinematic variables were recorded to find out adaptive mechanisms in the course of the fatiguing run. In addition, before and after it maximal force and power production was ...
Lee Hee-Hyuk - - 2003
Intracerebral hemorrhage is one of the most devastating types of stroke. This disease is known to cause severe neurological damage and also has a very high mortality rate. In this study, the effect of treadmill exercise on intrastriatal hemorrhage-induced neuronal cell death was investigated. Intrastriatal hemorrhage was caused by injection ...
Mercer J A - - 2003
The aim of this study was to examine shock attenuation before and after completing a maximal effort graded exercise test while running on a treadmill. Ten individuals ran before and after a maximal graded exercise test with running speed controlled between conditions. Transfer functions were calculated using surface-mounted accelerometers to ...
Herrmann Markus - - 2003
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and other diseases. Recently many endogenous and exogenous modulators of homocysteine (Hcy) have become known, e.g., B-vitamins. However, little is known about the effect of exercise on Hcy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three different types of ...
Bundle Matthew W - - 2003
We hypothesized that all-out running speeds for efforts lasting from a few seconds to several minutes could be accurately predicted from two measurements: the maximum respective speeds supported by the anaerobic and aerobic powers of the runner. To evaluate our hypothesis, we recruited seven competitive runners of different event specialties ...
Kuipers H - - 2003
To study the effect of stage duration on some physiological variables in an incremental running test, 8 well-trained runners underwent 3 running tests, with stage durations of 1, 3 and 6 min. To study maximal lactate steady state (maxLASS) and its corresponding speed, every subject underwent a 4th test with ...
Larsen Henrik B - - 2003
Critical physiological factors for performance in running are maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), fractional VO(2max) utilization and running economy. While Kenyan and Caucasian elite runners are able to reach very high, but similar maximal oxygen uptake levels, the VO(2max) of black South African elite runners seems to be slightly lower. Moreover, ...
Seshagiri Baily - - 2003
Measurements of diesel exhaust emissions (DEEs) were taken in the cabs of leading and trailing locomotives on 48 runs, under winter and summer conditions, on 9 different routes. The cab windows were kept open during the summer runs and closed during the winter runs. The average measurement duration was 9.5 ...
Celik Muzaffer - - 2003
Since 1997, 129 patients have undergone the open approach rhinoplasty procedure. Scar quality with running W incision was compared to the scar with V type incision. According to clinical and statistical evaluations after 6 months, postoperatively the running W incision group showed better scar quality than the V type incision ...
Kindig C A - - 2003
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Capillary stress failure-induced (exercise-induced) pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) during intense running in horses is thought to involve both intravascular (i.e. mean pulmonary arterial pressure [Ppa] > 100 mmHg) and extravascular (e.g. negative inspiratory pressure swings) mechanisms. HYPOTHESIS: That inclined running would reduce breathing frequency (coupled to stride ...
Ellerby David J - - 2003
Judgement of exercise performance in birds has been hampered by a paucity of data on maximal aerobic capacity. We measured the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (Vo2,max) in running guinea fowl Numida meleagris, a bird that has been used in several previous studies of avian running. Mean Vo2,max during level ...
Webster K N - - 2003
The locomotory characteristics of kangaroos and wallabies are unusual, with both energetic costs and gait parameters differing from those of quadrupedal running mammals. The kangaroos and wallabies have an evolutionary history of only around 5 million years; their closest relatives, the rat-kangaroos, have a fossil record of more than 26 ...
Delecluse Christophe - - 2003
This study examined the impact of short-term (7-day), high-dose (0.35 g.kg(-1).d(-1)) oral creatine monohydrate supplementation (CrS) on single sprint running performance (40 m, <6 seconds) and on intermittent sprint performance in highly trained sprinters. Nine subjects completed the double-blind cross-over design with 2 supplementation periods (placebo and creatine) and a ...
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