Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1098
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Nishijima Takeshi - - 2006
Exercise appears to improve hippocampal plasticity and cognitive function, leading us to postulate that exercise may activate hippocampal neurons, which in turn increase hippocampal cerebral blood flow (Hip-CBF). Recent studies using laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have shown that Hip-CBF increases with behavior and locomotion, but it has not been examined whether ...
De Bono J P JP Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, Level 5, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU, - - 2006
Regular physical exercise has beneficial effects in many human disease states, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and depression. Exercise training of genetically modified mouse models may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of exercise. Presently, there is relatively little understanding of the normal physiology of mouse ...
Geraerts Elke - - 2006
The current experiment employed a thought suppression paradigm to investigate whether repressors (N=40) are more skilled in suppressing positive and anxious autobiographical thoughts than low anxious (N=40), high anxious (N=40), and defensive high anxious (N=40) individuals, both immediately and over a longer time period (i.e., 7 days). Regardless of suppression ...
Simões H G - - 2005
AIM: The running velocities associated to lactate minimum (V(lm)), heart rate deflection (V(HRd)), critical velocity (CV), 3.000 m (V(3000)) and 10 000 m performance (V10km) were compared. Additionally the ability of V(lm) and V(HRd) on identifying sustainable velocities was investigated. METHODS: Twenty runners (28.5+/-5.9 y) performed 1) 3,000 m running ...
Peeling P D - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of different swimming intensities on subsequent cycling and overall triathlon performance. METHODS: Nine highly trained, male triathletes completed five separate laboratory sessions comprising one graded exercise test, a swim time trial (STT), and three sprint distance triathlons (TRI). The swimming velocities of the three TRI ...
Roels B - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To compare maximal heart rate (HRmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MAX), and the ventilatory threshold (VT; %VO2MAX) during cycle ergometry and free swimming between swimmers and triathletes. METHODS: Nine swimmers and ten triathletes completed an incremental swimming and cycling test to exhaustion. Whole body metabolic responses were determined in each ...
Legaz Arrese A - - 2005
AIM: The relationship between VO2max (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and running performance has been assessed in cross-sectional studies. Follow-up studies of the long-term effects of running training on the changes in performance and VO2max have not been undertaken. METHODS: Twenty-five male endurance-trained (MET) and 8 female endurance-trained (FET) athletes ...
Ohiwa Nao - - 2006
Expression of the inducible transcription factor c-Fos was mapped in the rat medulla oblongata to identify the brain areas respond to different running speeds. Rats were subjected to 30 min of running, either at high speed, low speed or just sitting on a treadmill (control). Blood lactate levels were measured ...
Muehling Olaf M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Dobutamine stress MR (DSMR) is increasingly used in the clinical routine. Due to the limitations inherent to MR, i.e. the distance of the personnel to the patient during imaging, it is necessary to set up an emergency training to rescue a patient from the scanner room in the shortest ...
Ohiwa Nao - - 2006
Since running accompanied with blood lactate accumulation stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), running above the lactate threshold (LT) acts as stress (running stress). To examine whether A1/A2 noradrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus activate under running stress, c-Fos immunohistochemistry was used to compare the effects of running ...
Vuorimaa Timo - - 2006
This study investigated acute changes in muscle activation and muscular power performance after three different running exercises in elite long-distance runners. Twenty-two nationally and internationally ranked long-distance runners performed first an incremental treadmill running test until exhaustion (MR) and then 40 min continuous (TR) and intermittent (2 min run/2 min ...
Rezende Enrico L - - 2006
Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy ...
Garcin M - - 2005
The purpose of the present investigation was i) to study the effect of sex on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and estimation of time limit (ETL) during runs to exhaustion at both absolute and relative physical and physiological reference criteria, ii) to propose some recommendations for exercise intensity prescription from ...
Baden D A - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of unknown exercise duration and an unexpected increase in exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and running economy during treadmill running. METHODS: Sixteen well trained male and female runners completed three bouts of treadmill running at 75% of their peak treadmill running ...
Laursen Paul B - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the performance heart rate during an ultra-endurance triathlon and the heart rate corresponding to several demarcation points measured during laboratory-based progressive cycle ergometry and treadmill running. Less than one month before an ultra-endurance triathlon, 21 well-trained ultra-endurance triathletes ...
Karamanidis Kiros - - 2005
The objectives of this work were (i) to investigate whether chronic endurance running is a sufficient stimulus to counteract the age-related changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of human triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon units (MTUs) by comparing runners and non-active subjects at different ages (young ...
Plank David M - - 2005
Adaptations in aerobic exercise responses as well as the relationship between aerobic exercise responses and running performance were examined in a group of previously trained adolescent runners (n = 9; 15.9 +/- 1.0 years) over the course of a competitive cross-country season. Running economy (RE), submaximal blood lactate concentration [BLa] ...
Hsu Cheng-Chen - - 2005
AIM: To investigate whether American ginseng (AG, Panax quinquefolium) supplementation was able to improve endurance exercise performance. METHODS: Thirteen physically active male college students were divided into two groups (AG or placebo) and received supplementation for 4 wk, before the exhaustive running exercise. Treadmill speed was increased to a pace ...
Peake Jonathan M - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise intensity and exercise-induced muscle damage on changes in anti-inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Nine well-trained male runners completed three different exercise trials on separate occasions: (1) level treadmill running at 60% VO2max (moderate-intensity trial) for 60 min; ...
Divert C - - 2005
In order to further compare shod versus barefoot running, 35 subjects ran two bouts of 4 minutes at 3.33 m x s(-1) on a treadmill dynamometer. Parameters were measured on about 60 consecutive steps. Barefoot showed mainly lower contact and flight time (p < 0.05), lower passive peak (1.48 versus ...
Psotta R - - 2005
AIM: In multiple sprint sports the ability to perform repeated short duration bouts of maximal intensity exercise appears to be sport specific than the ability to perform prolonged continuous exercise or produce a single bout of exercise. However, previous studies have not verified a field test method with an appropriate ...
Fehrenbach E - - 2005
Soluble heat shock protein 72 (sHSP72) is suggested to play a role as a signalling molecule in the immune response to exercise. We were interested in whether duration and intensity of endurance running affect the level of inducible sHSP72 in the plasma/serum of endurance athletes. In the first part of ...
Carmichael Martin D - - 2005
Recovery following muscle-damaging downhill running is associated with increased muscle inflammatory cytokines. Various inflammatory challenges can also increase cytokines in the brain, which have been linked to sickness behaviors, including fatigue, but little is known about the brain cytokine response to stressful exercise. We used a downhill running model to ...
Smith J D JD Department of Health and Physical Education, Texas A & M University, Kingsville, TX, USA. - - 2005
This study examined the effects of pushing a jogging stroller on biomechanical and physiological variables. The hypothesis was that running with a stroller for 30 minutes would shorten stride length and increase physiological indices of exercise. this was a repeated measures design. participants were recruited from road races in the ...
Lavcanska Vesna - - 2005
This study investigated the time needed for familiarization to treadmill running. Seventeen young healthy adults, who were inexperienced on a treadmill, ran for 11 min on a treadmill at their self-selected speed. Discrete sagittal-plane angular kinematic parameters of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle, and cadence and stride time data ...
Dugan Sheila A - - 2005
Physical activity, including running, is important to general health by way of prevention of chronic illnesses and their precursors. To keep runners healthy, it is paramount that one has sound knowledge of the biomechanics of running and assessment of running gait. More so, improving performance in competitive runners is based ...
Laufs Ulrich - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Increased numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are associated with improved vascular function. Exercise is a central component of the primary prevention of vascular diseases. The effect of physical activity on circulating EPC in healthy individuals is not known. DESIGN: A prospective crossover study. METHODS AND RESULTS: In ...
Slawinski Jean S - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine, during an overground supra-threshold run, whether a change in the internal mechanical cost could occur during an exhaustive run and whether this change was related to the increase in the energy cost of running (C(r)). METHODS: The Cr of 14 endurance ...
Boraita A - - 2005
We report the case of an elite male, East African endurance runner (18 years old) who ranked in the top 15 in the World Cross Country Championships (sub 21 year old category) despite having a ventricular septal defect (VSD; width: 0.22 cm) that was diagnosed 2 weeks after this event ...
Dallam George M - - 2005
In this study, we examined the consequences of a global alteration in running technique on running kinematics and running economy in triathletes. Sixteen sub-elite triathletes were pre and post tested for running economy and running kinematics at 215 and 250 m.min-1. The members of the treatment group (n=8) were exposed ...
Yamano S - - 2006
To consider the optimal training programme for Thoroughbred horses, we examined the recruitment pattern of muscle fibres including hybrid muscle fibres in well-trained Thoroughbred horses. The horses performed exercise at three different intensities and durations; i.e., 100% VO2max for 4 min, 80% and 60% VO2max for 8 min on a ...
Tremblay Mark S - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of endurance exercise duration on hormone concentrations in male subjects while controlling for exercise intensity and training status. Eight endurance-trained males (19-49 years) completed a resting control session and three treadmill runs of 40, 80, and 120 min at ...
Rezende Enrico L - - 2005
Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, ...
Draper S B - - 2005
We compared the oxygen uptake (VO2) response of sprint- and endurance-trained runners for an exhaustive square wave run lasting approximately 2 minutes. Six sprinters and six middle- and long-distance runners each performed two exhaustive square wave runs lasting approximately 2 min and two exhaustive ramp tests. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath ...
Modica Jesse R - - 2005
The metabolic cost of leg swing in running is highly controversial. We investigated the cost of initiating and propagating leg swing at a moderate running speed and some of the muscular actions involved. We constructed an external swing assist (ESA) device that applied small anterior pulling forces to each foot ...
Drummond Micah J - - 2005
Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) may describe the impact of previous exercise on energy metabolism. Ten males completed Resistance Only, Run Only, Resistance-Run, and Run-Resistance experimental conditions. Resistance exercise consisted of 7 lifts. Running consisted of 25 minutes of treadmill exercise. Vo(2) was determined during treadmill exercise and after each ...
Vercruyssen F - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of cadence selection during the final minutes of cycling on metabolic responses, stride pattern, and subsequent running time to fatigue. METHODS: Eight triathletes performed, in a laboratory setting, two incremental tests (running and cycling) to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) and the lactate threshold (LT), ...
Laursen Paul B - - 2005
This study examined the effect of running and cycling on exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) in individuals well trained in each modality. Thirteen male triathletes (X+/-SD: age=36+/-5 years, mass=69+/-8 kg, body fat=12+/-1%) performed progressive exercise to exhaustion during cycle ergometry and treadmill running. Gas exchange was determined, while oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)) ...
Schmitz Anke - - 2005
The CO2 release of the well-tracheated jumping spider, Marpissa muscosa, and the poorly tracheated, Pardosa lugubris, was tested while animals were running on a treadmill at three different speeds and under a selective elimination of lungs or tracheae. Thus, the influence of a well-developed tracheal system on the metabolism during ...
Gerlach Kristen E - - 2005
PURPOSE: This research examined how ground reaction forces (GRF) changed with fatigue induced by an exhaustive treadmill run in female runners. A separate retrospective and prospective analysis correlated initial magnitude of GRF and fatigue-induced changes in GRF with lower-extremity injury. METHODS: Ninety adult female runners had vertical GRF measured before ...
Palazzetti S - - 2005
The aim of the study was to verify whether an overloaded training (OT) in triathlon deteriorates running kinematics (RK) and running economy (RE). Thirteen well-trained male long-distance triathletes (age: 28.1 +/- 4.3 yrs; V.O (2max): 65.0 +/- 3.1 ml O (2) . min (-1) . kg (-1)) were divided into ...
Winther Bjørn - - 2005
A comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC system (SEC x RPC) was evaluated. Various model compounds with differing hydrophobicity (log D: -0.08 to 2.22) and size (MW: 194 to 66.0 x 10(3)) were used. In order to reduce the run time of the second dimension, and thereby optimize the number of runs per ...
Larsen Henrik B - - 2005
To investigate the response to endurance training on physiological characteristics, 10 Nandi town boys and 14 Nandi village boys 16.5 and 16.6 years of age, respectively, from western Kenya performed 12 weeks of running training. The study was performed at altitude (approximately 2000 m.a.s.l. approximately 595 mm Hg). Training heart ...
Vaillancourt Eric - - 2005
The metabolic consequences of cold exposure and exercise are not well characterized in birds. Ruff sandpipers Philomachus pugnax are migrant shorebirds traveling between Africa and Siberia for up to 30,000 km annually. Our goal was to quantify the fuel selection pattern of these remarkable athletes during shivering and terrestrial locomotion. ...
Bruce Bonnie - - 2005
We studied the long term impact of running and other aerobic exercise on musculoskeletal pain in a cohort of healthy aging male and female seniors who had been followed for 14 years. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study in 866 Runners' Association members (n = 492) and community controls (n ...
Galy O - - 2005
To investigate 1) the blood rheological responses to high training volume and 2) the potential effect of these responses on arterial hypoxemia induced during submaximal running and cycling, 10 triathletes performed an incremental cycle test, 20 minutes of running (R), and 20 minutes of cycling (C). All trials were performed ...
Dallam George M - - 2005
Competitors in triathlons experience a range of environmental conditions and physiological demands in excess of that found in individual sport events of comparable duration. Consequently, there is a broad range of possible medical problems and complications that must be taken into account when preparing for such races. For most competitors, ...
Roland M - - 2005
Skeletal unloading causes bone and muscle loss that may be reversed by post-unloading exercise. This study examines the effects of unloading and exercise, using tail-suspension for 14 days combined with a week of post-suspension cage wheel running in mice. Twenty-four adult, male, C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n ...
DiSilvestro R A - - 2005
Studies show mixed conclusions about acute responses of copper status to strenuous exercise. Because copper function involves metalloenzyme activities, which might take days to change, the present study examined the response of three copper metalloenzyme activities to sustained strenuous exercise in sled dogs. A race lasting 12-15 d depressed activities ...
Fagerhol M K - - 2005
Running leads to biochemical and hematological changes consistent with an inflammatory reaction to tissue injury. We report changes in the plasma concentration of the leukocyte-derived protein calprotectin after long-distance running. Blood samples were collected from runners before and after a marathon, half-marathon, a 30-km cross-country run, a military ranger-training course ...
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