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Results 251 - 300 of 1108
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Denadai Benedito S - - 2006
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programs on selected aerobic physiological indices and 1500 and 5000 m running performance in well-trained runners. The following tests were completed (n=17): (i) incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), ...
Bakos J - - 2007
We hypothesized that voluntary wheel running results in increased secretion of oxytocin, a peptide involved in the stress response. An additional hypothesis was that prolonged exercise affects oxytocin levels in the heart, which is in line with the potential role of oxytocin in cardiovascular functions. Voluntary wheel running lasted 3 ...
Miller Ross H - - 2007
Injury patterns in distance running may be related to kinematic adjustments induced by fatigue. The goal was to measure changes in lower extremity mechanics during an exhaustive run in individuals with and without a history of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). Sixteen recreational runners ran to voluntary exhaustion on a treadmill ...
Racinais S - - 2007
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the modulations in H-reflex and V-wave responses (spinal loop properties) induced by prolonged locomotion activities. The second purpose was to compare the development of central fatigue between continuous and intermittent running modes. Eleven males randomly performed two 90-min running exercises either ...
Sanada Kiyoshi - - 2007
The present study developed nonexercise models for predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using skeletal muscle (SM) mass and cardiac dimensions and to investigate the validity of these equations in healthy Japanese young men. Sixty healthy Japanese men were randomly separated into two groups: 40 in the development group and 20 ...
Snyder Gregory K - - 2008
Rates of oxygen consumption were measured for two bipedal runners (two species of quail) and two quadrupedal runners (two small species of rodents), with average body masses that ranged from 0.035 to 0.217 kg, trained to run on a treadmill set to horizontal and then to a 10 degrees incline. ...
Genc Kerim O - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: During treadmill exercise on the International Space Station (ISS), a restoring load from a subject load device (SLD) is applied through a shoulder-and-waist harness to pull the exercising crewmember toward the treadmill surface. The capacity of this arrangement to provide 1-g-like reaction forces may be critical for effective use ...
Williams Paul T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Prior randomized and non-randomized training studies have failed to establish a dose-response relationship between vigorous exercise and weight loss; this failure may be due, in part, to their short durations and small sample sizes. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exercise reduces body weight and to ...
Kristensen Geir Olav - - 2006
A comparison of resistance running, normal sprint running, and supramaximal running was performed. Nineteen young, generally well-trained subjects were divided into 3 training groups: resistance, normal, and supramaximal groups. Resistance and supramaximal training was done using a towing device, providing extra resistance or propulsion forces, resulting in running speed differences ...
Paradisis Giorgos P - - 2006
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3 degrees ) on selected kinematic and physiological variables. Thirty-five sport and physical education students were randomized into 4 training groups (uphill-downhill, downhill, uphill, and horizontal) and a control group, with 7 participants ...
Ghio Andrew J - - 2006
We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was evident on gross inspection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, examination ...
Killgore Garry L - - 2006
The purpose of this investigation was to identify a deep-water running (DWR) style that most closely approximates terrestrial running, particularly relative to the lower extremities. Twenty intercollegiate distance runners (women, N = 12; men, N = 8) were videotaped from the right sagittal view while running on a treadmill (TR) ...
Ambros-Rudolph Christina M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Marathon running has surged in popularity; it is generally believed to be healthy, but may be associated with medical risks. Over the past decade, we observed 8 ultramarathon runners with malignant melanoma. UV exposure, immunosuppression due to long-term intensive exercise, or both have been discussed as potential triggers in ...
Ogawa Takeshi - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the metabolic response and running performance during intermittent graded sprint running were affected by moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H; 2,500 m above sea level) in competitive middle-distance runners. Nine male runners performed intermittent graded sprint running until exhaustion, to evaluate the metabolic ...
Midgley A W - - 2007
Previous studies have reported large between-subject variations in the time to exhaustion during intermittent running at the velocity at V(.-)O (2max) (vV(.-)O (2max)). This study aimed to determine which physiological factors contribute to this variability. Thirteen male runners (age 38.9 +/- 8.7 years) each completed five treadmill running tests; two ...
Gvozdík Lumir - - 2006
Conflicts between structural requirements for carrying out different ecologically relevant functions may result in a compromise phenotype that maximizes neither function. Identifying and evaluating functional trade-offs may therefore aid in understanding the evolution of organismal performance. We examined the possibility of an evolutionary trade-off between aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in ...
Lucia Alejandro - - 2006
Despite their young age, limited training history, and lack of running tradition compared with other East African endurance athletes (e.g., Kenyans and Ethiopians), male endurance runners from Eritrea have recently attained important running successes. The purposes of our study were (i) to document the main physical and physiological characteristics of ...
Midgley Adrian W - - 2006
This study investigated the utility of a verification phase for increasing confidence that a "true" maximal oxygen uptake had been elicited in 16 male distance runners (mean age (+/-SD), 38.7 (+/- 7.5 y)) during an incremental treadmill running test continued to volitional exhaustion. After the incremental test subjects performed a ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2006
PURPOSE: Although running economy (RE) is recognized as an integral component of successful endurance performance and is affected by numerous factors, little is known about the influence of body water loss on RE. This investigation examined the effects of hypohydration (HY) on RE and associated physiological responses. METHODS: Ten highly ...
Yanagita Shinya - - 2007
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are known to be activated during physical or psychological stress, and play an important role as one of the central activators of integrated stress response. Physical exercise has also been suggested as one of the stressors activating CRH neurons in ...
He Z - - 2006
The crucial role of haemoglobin in endurance performance has been well documented. We examined whether polymorphisms in the HBB gene modified aerobic capacity. 102 recruits were trained by running 5000 m three times per week for 18 weeks. Exercise intensity progressively increased from an initial heart rate corresponding to 95% ...
Fernandes R J - - 2006
AIM: The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between time limit at the minimum velocity that elicits the individual's maximal oxygen consumption (TLim-v VO2max) and three swimming economy related parameters: the net energy cost corresponding to v VO2max (Cv VO2max), the slope of the regression line ...
Tian Y - - 2006
AIM: This study was designed to examine the appearance and clearance characteristics of serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and I (cTnI) in junior runners after an exhaustive 21-km run. The dependence of the alternations of the cardiac troponins on the runners' training status reflected in training years, running ability and ...
Young W - - 2006
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of volume and intensity of static stretching in a warm-up on explosive force production and range of motion (ROM) of the plantar flexors. METHODS: Twenty subjects performed 5 warm-ups on different days. The warm-ups contained a 5 min treadmill ...
Rodriguez-Stanley Sheila - - 2006
Acid reflux occurs during exercise. The effects of esophageal acid and prophylactic antisecretory treatment on exercise performance are unknown. To determine 1) the effect of esophageal acid perfusion during exercise on pulmonary function and exercise performance, and 2) whether acid suppression with rabeprazole (RAB) 20 mg x d(-1) increases exercise ...
Kilding A E - - 2006
The aims of this study were to determine if the primary time constant (tau) for oxygen uptake (VO2) at the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise is related to endurance running performance, and to establish if tau could be considered a determinant of endurance running performance. Thirty-six endurance trained male runners ...
Arampatzis Adamantios - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that runners having different running economies show differences in the mechanical and morphological properties of their muscle-tendon units (MTU) in the lower extremities. Twenty eight long-distance runners (body mass: 76.8+/-6.7 kg, height: 182+/-6 cm, age: 28.1+/-4.5 years) participated in the ...
Duffield R - - 2006
AIM: The present study examined the VO2 response to middle-distance track running events of 800 m, 1500 m and 3000 m and investigated the relationship between the speed of the VO2 response ((1) and subsequent race performance. METHODS: Trained 3000-m (n = 8), 1500-m (n = 10) and 800-m (n ...
Papadopoulos Charilaos - - 2006
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various lactate-threshold (LT) definitions and the average running velocity during a 10-km and a 21.1-km time trial (TT). METHODS: Thirteen well-trained runners completed an incremental maximal exercise test, a 10-km TT, and a 21.1-km TT on a motorized ...
McKune A J - - 2006
To examine the effect of downhill running on immunoglobulin responses. Eleven untrained men performed 2 x 60 minute bouts of downhill running (-13.5% gradient), at a speed eliciting 75% of their vO2peak on a level grade. Two runs were spaced 14 days apart. Serum samples were collected before, after, and ...
Berthoin Serge - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to apply the "critical velocity" concept to short intermittent high-intensity running exercises in prepubescent girls and boys and to compare the running performances obtained either by intermittent or continuous exercise runs. Eleven 8 to 11-year-old children underwent a maximal graded field test to determine ...
Eto D - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING THE STUDY: There is little information about the muscle fibre recruitment pattern during sloped and flat track running in Thoroughbred horses. OBJECTIVES: To examine the glycogen depletion pattern of each muscle fibre type during running on a flat and sloped treadmill. METHODS: Thirteen Thoroughbred horses (3-9 years ...
Noble E G - - 2006
AIM: The cytoprotective, inducible stress protein, Hsp70, increases in muscles of rodents subjected to strenuous treadmill running. Most treadmill running protocols employ negative reinforcement to encourage animals to exercise. As these stimuli may themselves activate stress responses, the present investigation was conducted to determine their contribution to the exercise-induced expression ...
Mackey Abigail L - - 2006
Exercise has been shown to influence collagen synthesis and degradation. The aim of this study was to determine whether the stimulus for these changes is metabolic or mechanical. Eight healthy adults aged 22 +/- 4 years (mean +/- s) completed two exercise bouts-a 10 km road run and a deep ...
Scoon Guy S M - - 2007
The physiological adaptations to sauna bathing could enhance endurance performance. We have therefore performed a cross-over study in which six male distance runners completed 3 wk of post-training sauna bathing and 3 wk of control training, with a 3 wk washout. During the sauna period, subjects sat in a humid ...
Degerstrøm Jorid - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two 30-min consecutive exercise bouts on a treadmill at 80% VO2max separated by a 4-h rest interval, on blood cell counts and the production of tissue factor, cytokines, and eicosanoids in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated blood. METHODS: Blood samples ...
Carmichael Martin D - - 2006
Brain cytokines, induced by various inflammatory challenges, have been linked to sickness behaviors, including fatigue. However, the relationship between brain cytokines and fatigue after exercise is not well understood. Delayed recovery of running performance after muscle-damaging downhill running is associated with increased brain IL-1beta concentration compared with uphill running. However, ...
Hue Olivier - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to estimate the exercise intensity from the competition heart rate (HR) of professional triathletes during a multi-triathlon race. Five internationally ranked professional triathletes completed incremental cycling and running tests to assess the first and second ventilatory thresholds (i.e., VT and RCT) and the HR ...
Gallo Maria - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether creatine (Cr) supplementation during 12 weeks of phasic high-frequency voluntary wheel running would result in a faster myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform profile in the rat mixed fast-twitch plantaris and alter its corresponding isometric contractile properties. The fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus ...
Lugo-Larcheveque Nelly - - 2006
This case report presents a high-level female runner with a history of more than 25 years of recurrent lower extremity (LE) injuries and LE malalignment problems during running. Due to her LE malalignment, she has been unable to run for the past 3 years. A definitive diagnosis was not found ...
Bringard A - - 2006
This study aimed to examine the effects of wearing compression compared to classic elastic tights and conventional shorts (control trial) on oxygen cost and sensation responses during submaximal running exercise. In part I, aerobic energy cost was evaluated in six trained runners at 10, 12, 14, and 16 km x ...
Kilding A E - - 2006
The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to compare the on- and off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics, in the moderate-intensity domain, of middle-distance (MD) and long-distance (LD) runners and 2) to determine the relationship between the volume of training and VO2 kinetics. With institutional ethics approval, 16 competitive ...
Alaei Hojjatallah - - 2006
Human and animal studies have suggested that exercise has benefits overall health and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill running on passive avoidance learning and memory deficit in morphine-treated rats. The passive avoidance learning was measured in different time intervals (1, 2 ...
Midgley A W - - 2006
Several authors have suggested that training at or near VO2max (i.e. > or = 95% VO2max) is the most effective training intensity to enhance VO2max and that for highly trained endurance athletes, training at or near VO2max may be necessary to increase it further. Consequently, there is an interest in ...
Nieman D C - - 2006
AIM: The relationship between salivary IgA secretion rate and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was studied in 155 ultramarathoners (126 males, 29 females, mean age 46.5+/-0.7 y) who had qualified to run the 160-km 2003 Western States Endurance Run. METHODS: Subjects provided saliva samples during registration, held the morning before ...
Ueda Takeshi - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential perceived exertion measured using a new set of Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) during pedaling and running. The subjects were eleven healthy males. They performed an incremental maximal test and then three 4-min stages of exercise, for both pedaling and running. ...
Nummela Ari T - - 2006
This study investigated the effects of the neuromuscular and force-velocity characteristics in distance running performance and running economy. Eighteen well-trained male distance runners performed five different tests: 20 m maximal sprint, running economy at the velocity of 4.28 m s(-1), 5 km time trial, maximal anaerobic running test (MART), and ...
Folland J P - - 2006
To evaluate the effect of temperature on running economy (RE) and stride parameters in 10 trained male runners (VO2peak 60.8 +/- 6.8 ml . kg (-1) . min (-1)), we used water immersion as a passive temperature manipulation to contrast localised pre-heating, pre-cooling, and thermoneutral interventions prior to running. Runners ...
Billat Véronique L - - 2006
We hypothesized that a freely paced 10,000 m running race would induce a smaller physiological strain (heart rate and oxygen uptake) compared with one performed at the same average speed but with an imposed constant pace. Furthermore, we analyzed the scaling properties with a wavelet transform algorithm computed log2 (wavelet ...
Slattery Katie M - - 2006
The present investigation examined the physiological parameters that contribute to 3-km running performance. Following 2 familiarization sessions, 16 experienced male triathletes (Vo(2)max = 55.7 +/- 4.9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), age = 31.3 +/- 11.7 years) performed a 3-km time trial (3kmTT) and were assessed for selected physiological and anthropometrical characteristics. Stepwise multiple ...
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