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Results 201 - 250 of 1091
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di Prampero Pietro E - - 2008
In supra-maximal exercise to exhaustion, the critical velocity (cv) is conventionally calculated from the slope of the distance (d) versus time (t) relationship: d = I + St. I is assumed to be the distance covered at the expense of the anaerobic capacity, S the speed maintained on the basis ...
Pontes Francisco L FL - - 2008
Previous studies demonstrated a reduction in blood pressure level immediately after different types of exercises, like running, cycling and resistance training, a phenomenon called post-exercise hypotension (PEH). Since PEH can persist for hours it could be suggested as a non-pharmacological therapy for hypertensive individuals. Unfortunately, usually running is not recommended ...
Buchheit M - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of the critical velocity (CV) and the endurance index (EI) to assess endurance performance during intermittent exercise. Thirteen subjects performed two intermittent runs: 15-s runs intersected with 15 s of passive recovery (15/15) and 30-s runs with 30-s rest ...
Pedersen Arve Vorland - - 2007
The present study was designed to investigate how much running economy would be affected by changing the placement of extra load on running subjects. Twenty-four volunteer college students, 18 males and 6 females between 19 and 25 years ran on a treadmill at three different speeds (6, 8, and 10 ...
Louis Emily - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine the time course induction of select proteolytic [muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1), atrogin-1, forkhead box 3A (FOXO3A), calpain-1, calpain-2], myostatin, and cytokine (IL -6, -8, -15, and TNF-alpha) mRNA after an acute bout of resistance (RE) or run (RUN) exercise. Six experienced RE ...
Westermeier Reiner - - 2007
In spite of text books, instrument manuals, product instructions, and web tutorials there are a number of erroneous protocols around, which lead repeatedly to issues during electrophoresis runs and to inadequate results. The relatively low resolution and short running time of miniformat systems often conceals these issues. However, in high-resolution ...
Rhim Yong-Taek - - 2007
Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (AS) is classified into the family of Araliaceae. The plant has been used as an analeptic aid, which improves weakened physical status and strength. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the rate-f the raphe nuclei. These are associated with "central fatigue ...
O'Brien Brendan J - - 2008
The magnitude of improvement in peak oxygen uptake (V(o)(2peak))) and performance to an exercise training regime is related to the V(o)(2) of prior accumulated exercise training bouts. However, it is unclear whether constant rate training (CRT) or interval training (INT) preferentially alters the V(o)(2) of running exercise. Therefore, the purpose ...
Verges S - - 2007
High-intensity, exhaustive exercise may lead to inspiratory as well as expiratory muscle fatigue (EMF). Induction of inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) before exercise has been shown to impair subsequent exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether induction of EMF also affects subsequent exercise performance. Twelve healthy ...
Ploughman Michelle - - 2007
Endurance exercise (i.e. running), by up-regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other modulators of synaptic plasticity, improves attention and learning, both critical components of stroke rehabilitation. We hypothesized that, following middle cerebral artery occlusion in male Sprague-Dawley rats, endurance exercise would act synergistically with a challenging skilled forelimb task to ...
Bosquet L - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare anaerobic running capacity (ARC, i.e., the distance that can be run using only stored energy sources in the muscle) determined from a 3-parameter systems model with other anaerobic indices and with running performance in the 800 m. Seventeen trained male subjects (.VO(2max) ...
James David V B - - 2007
PURPOSE: Previously it has been observed that, in well-trained 800-m athletes, VO2max is not attained during middle-distance running events on a treadmill, even when a race-type pacing strategy is adopted. Therefore, the authors investigated whether specialization in a particular running distance (400-m or 800-m) influences the VO2 attained during running ...
He Z - - 2008
Our purpose was to determine the possible association between genotypes of three polymorphisms (Gly482Ser, Thr394Thr and A2962G) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) gene, on one hand, and both the pre- (baseline) and post-training levels of maximal (i.e., maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) and submaximal human endurance ...
Skof Branko - - 2007
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different warm-up protocols on the neuromuscular system of well-trained middle distance runners. Seven runners performed 2 different warm-up protocols, one of which included slow running, stretching, and bounding and sprinting exercises, while the other consisted of slow running ...
Lambert G P - - 2007
This study was conducted to determine the effects of aspirin or ibuprofen on gastrointestinal permeability when combined with exercise. Eight runners completed three 60 min treadmill runs at 70 % VO(2max). For 24 hours prior to each run, subjects ingested aspirin (2 x 325 mg), ibuprofen (2 x 200 mg), ...
Soya Hideaki - - 2007
Despite the indication that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated during treadmill running, there have not been any studies focusing on the relationship between exercise intensity and region-specific neural activities in hypothalamus. To address this, rats were subjected to 30 min of running, either at middle (supra-LT, 25 m min(-1)) ...
Helgerud Jan - - 2007
PURPOSE: The present study compared the effects of aerobic endurance training at different intensities and with different methods matched for total work and frequency. Responses in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), stroke volume of the heart (SV), blood volume, lactate threshold (LT), and running economy (CR) were examined. METHODS: Forty healthy, ...
Contarteze Ricardo Vinícius Ledesma - - 2008
The objective of the present work was to compare stress biomarkers (serum ACTH and corticosterone hormones) during known intensity swimming and treadmill running exercises performed by rats. Adult Wistar rats (n=41) weighing 320-400 g at the beginning and 420-500 g at the end of the experiment, previously adapted to exercise ...
Kilding A E - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between on- and off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and other measures of aerobic fitness in middle-distance (MD) and long-distance (LD) runners. 16 MD and 16 LD runners participated and each completed a series of tests to determine their maximal oxygen ...
Ploughman Michelle - - 2007
Exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and synapsin-I, each of which has been implicated in neuroplastic processes underlying recovery from ischemia. In this study we examined the temporal profile (0, 30, 60 and 120 min following exercise) of these proteins ...
Davis J Mark - - 2007
Downhill running is associated with fiber damage, inflammation, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and various functional deficits. Curcumin, a constituent of the Indian spice turmeric has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity and may offset some of the damage and functional deficits associated with downhill running. This study examined the effects of ...
Ali A - - 2007
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of wearing graduated compression stockings on physiological and perceptual variables during and after intermittent (Experiment 1) and continuous (Experiment 2) running exercise. Fourteen recreational runners performed two multi-stage intermittent shuttle running tests with 1 h recovery between tests (Experiment 1). ...
Rozenek Ralph - - 2007
Previous research has indicated that short-duration, high-intensity work intervals performed at velocities associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) combined with active recovery intervals may be effective in eliciting improvements in endurance performance. This study was designed to characterize selected physiological responses to short-duration (< or = 60 seconds) interval work ...
Leddy John J - - 2007
The effects of voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) training (10 h over 4 weeks, 30 min/day) on ventilatory system and running performance were studied in 15 male competitive runners, 8 of whom trained twice weekly for 3 more months. Control subjects (n = 7) performed sham-VIH. Vital capacity (VC), FEV1, maximum ...
Fudge Barry W - - 2007
Previous investigations have reported that accelerometer counts plateau during running at increasingly faster speeds. PURPOSE: To assess whether biomechanical and/or device limitations cause this phenomenon and the feasibility of generating oxygen uptake (.VO2) prediction equations from the combined use of accelerometry and heart rate during walking and running. METHODS:: Sixteen ...
Nummela Ari - - 2007
To develop a track version of the maximal anaerobic running test, 10 sprint runners and 12 distance runners performed the test on a treadmill and on a track. The treadmill test consisted of incremental 20-s runs with a 100-s recovery between the runs. On the track, 20-s runs were replaced ...
Spriet Lawrence L - - 2007
The energy required to run a marathon is mainly provided through oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria of the active muscles. Small amounts of energy from substrate phosphorylation are also required during transitions and short periods when running speed is increased. The three inputs for adenosine triphosphate production in the mitochondria ...
González-Alonso José - - 2007
Marathon running poses a severe challenge to multiple regulatory systems and cellular homeostasis, especially when performed in hot environments without fluid replacement. During exercise in the heat, the ensuing dehydration causes hyperthermia and the synergistic effects of both stressors reduce cardiac output and blood flow to muscle, skin, brain and ...
Forristall J R - - 2007
Voluntary exercise by rats running in a freely rotating wheel (free wheel) produces conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) of a flavored solution consumed before running [e.g., Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L., 1996. Wheel running induces conditioned taste aversion in rats trained while hungry and thirsty. Physiol. Behav. 59, 699-702]. Forced exercise, swimming ...
Edworthy Judy - - 2006
This study examined the effects of loudness and tempo of background music on exercise performance. A total of 30 volunteers performed five 10-min exercise sessions on a treadmill. The music listened to whilst exercising was either fast/loud, fast/quiet, slow/loud, slow/quiet or absent. Measures of running speed, heart rate, perceived exertion ...
Bernard Thierry - - 2007
The aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic responses to variable versus constant-intensity (CI) during 20-km cycling on subsequent 5-km running performance. Ten triathletes, not only completed one incremental cycling test to determine maximal oxygen uptake and maximal aerobic power (MAP), but also three various cycle-run (C-R) combinations ...
Fortescue Elizabeth B - - 2007
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Studies indicate that running a marathon can be associated with increases in serum cardiac troponin levels. The clinical significance of such increases remains unclear. We seek to determine the prevalence of troponin increases and epidemiologic factors associated with these increases in a large and heterogeneous cohort of marathon ...
Denadai Benedito S - - 2006
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programs on selected aerobic physiological indices and 1500 and 5000 m running performance in well-trained runners. The following tests were completed (n=17): (i) incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), ...
McMurray Robert G - - 2006
Seven highly trained male triathletes, aged 18 to 35 years, were tested during two simulated Olympic distance triathlons to determine whether run performance was enhanced when consuming 177 ml of water at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kilometers (Early Trials) compared to consumption at 10, 20, 30, and 40 kilometers ...
Bakos J - - 2007
We hypothesized that voluntary wheel running results in increased secretion of oxytocin, a peptide involved in the stress response. An additional hypothesis was that prolonged exercise affects oxytocin levels in the heart, which is in line with the potential role of oxytocin in cardiovascular functions. Voluntary wheel running lasted 3 ...
Miller Ross H - - 2007
Injury patterns in distance running may be related to kinematic adjustments induced by fatigue. The goal was to measure changes in lower extremity mechanics during an exhaustive run in individuals with and without a history of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). Sixteen recreational runners ran to voluntary exhaustion on a treadmill ...
Racinais S - - 2007
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the modulations in H-reflex and V-wave responses (spinal loop properties) induced by prolonged locomotion activities. The second purpose was to compare the development of central fatigue between continuous and intermittent running modes. Eleven males randomly performed two 90-min running exercises either ...
Sanada Kiyoshi - - 2007
The present study developed nonexercise models for predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using skeletal muscle (SM) mass and cardiac dimensions and to investigate the validity of these equations in healthy Japanese young men. Sixty healthy Japanese men were randomly separated into two groups: 40 in the development group and 20 ...
Snyder Gregory K - - 2008
Rates of oxygen consumption were measured for two bipedal runners (two species of quail) and two quadrupedal runners (two small species of rodents), with average body masses that ranged from 0.035 to 0.217 kg, trained to run on a treadmill set to horizontal and then to a 10 degrees incline. ...
Ghio Andrew J - - 2006
We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was evident on gross inspection of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, examination ...
Williams Paul T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Prior randomized and non-randomized training studies have failed to establish a dose-response relationship between vigorous exercise and weight loss; this failure may be due, in part, to their short durations and small sample sizes. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exercise reduces body weight and to ...
Genc Kerim O - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: During treadmill exercise on the International Space Station (ISS), a restoring load from a subject load device (SLD) is applied through a shoulder-and-waist harness to pull the exercising crewmember toward the treadmill surface. The capacity of this arrangement to provide 1-g-like reaction forces may be critical for effective use ...
Ambros-Rudolph Christina M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Marathon running has surged in popularity; it is generally believed to be healthy, but may be associated with medical risks. Over the past decade, we observed 8 ultramarathon runners with malignant melanoma. UV exposure, immunosuppression due to long-term intensive exercise, or both have been discussed as potential triggers in ...
Paradisis Giorgos P - - 2006
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3 degrees ) on selected kinematic and physiological variables. Thirty-five sport and physical education students were randomized into 4 training groups (uphill-downhill, downhill, uphill, and horizontal) and a control group, with 7 participants ...
Killgore Garry L - - 2006
The purpose of this investigation was to identify a deep-water running (DWR) style that most closely approximates terrestrial running, particularly relative to the lower extremities. Twenty intercollegiate distance runners (women, N = 12; men, N = 8) were videotaped from the right sagittal view while running on a treadmill (TR) ...
Kristensen Geir Olav - - 2006
A comparison of resistance running, normal sprint running, and supramaximal running was performed. Nineteen young, generally well-trained subjects were divided into 3 training groups: resistance, normal, and supramaximal groups. Resistance and supramaximal training was done using a towing device, providing extra resistance or propulsion forces, resulting in running speed differences ...
Ogawa Takeshi - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the metabolic response and running performance during intermittent graded sprint running were affected by moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H; 2,500 m above sea level) in competitive middle-distance runners. Nine male runners performed intermittent graded sprint running until exhaustion, to evaluate the metabolic ...
Midgley A W - - 2007
Previous studies have reported large between-subject variations in the time to exhaustion during intermittent running at the velocity at V(.-)O (2max) (vV(.-)O (2max)). This study aimed to determine which physiological factors contribute to this variability. Thirteen male runners (age 38.9 +/- 8.7 years) each completed five treadmill running tests; two ...
Lucia Alejandro - - 2006
Despite their young age, limited training history, and lack of running tradition compared with other East African endurance athletes (e.g., Kenyans and Ethiopians), male endurance runners from Eritrea have recently attained important running successes. The purposes of our study were (i) to document the main physical and physiological characteristics of ...
Midgley Adrian W - - 2006
This study investigated the utility of a verification phase for increasing confidence that a "true" maximal oxygen uptake had been elicited in 16 male distance runners (mean age (+/-SD), 38.7 (+/- 7.5 y)) during an incremental treadmill running test continued to volitional exhaustion. After the incremental test subjects performed a ...
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