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Results 151 - 200 of 1096
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Stratton E - - 2009
In this study, we aimed to investigate physiological determinants of endurance performance that best predict 5000-m average run velocity before and after endurance training. Thirty-nine previously untrained participants completed a 5000-m run; a constant velocity test (measuring running economy); and an incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, final ...
Utter Alan C - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of quercetin supplementation on ratings of perceived exertion in ultramarathon runners competing in the 160-km Western States Endurance Run (WSER). Sixty-three runners were randomized to quercetin (Q) and placebo (P) groups, and under double blinded methods ingested four supplements per ...
Millet Gregoire P - - 2009
The purpose of this review was to provide a synopsis of the literature concerning the physiological differences between cycling and running. By comparing physiological variables such as maximal oxygen consumption (V O(2max)), anaerobic threshold (AT), heart rate, economy or delta efficiency measured in cycling and running in triathletes, runners or ...
Kemmler Wolfgang - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of below-knee compression stockings on running performance in men runners. Using a within-group study design, 21 moderately trained athletes (39.3 +/- 10.9 years) without lower-leg abnormities were randomly assigned to perform a stepwise treadmill test up to a voluntary maximum ...
Zajac Adam A Department of Sports Training, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg(-1) b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on ...
Coutts Aaron J - - 2010
There is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement during team sports. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and intra-model reliability of different GPS devices for quantifying high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance. Two moderately trained males each completed ...
Blair C - - 2010
To determine if non-elite athletes undertaking short duration running exercise adjacent to a busy roadway experience increased blood levels of common pollutant volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX)). The study was observational in design. Participants (nine males/one female non-elite athletes) ran for 20 min, near a busy ...
Rollo Ian - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on self-selected running speeds during a 30-min treadmill run. Ten endurance-trained men performed 2 trials, each involving a 10-min warm-up at 60% VO2max followed by a 30-min run. The run was performed on an ...
Allison Sarah J - - 2008
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of prolonged static stretching (SS) on running economy. Ten male runners (VO2(peak) 60.1 +/- 7.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 10 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2(peak) before and after SS and no stretching interventions. For the ...
Edge J - - 2009
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of acute whole body vibration (WBV) on recovery following a 3 km time trial (3 km TT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (8 x 400 m). Post-HIIT measures included 3 km time-trial performance, exercise metabolism and markers of ...
Jones Jason N - - 2008
It is established that speed and agility are critical attributes of sports performance. Performance timing of runs during agility course testing can be used to estimate acceleration, speed, or quickness. The authors of this research effort also report the energy of motion, or kinetic energy of the athlete, which considers ...
Rollo Ian - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to determine the repeatability of a running endurance test using an automated treadmill system that requires no manual input to control running speed. On three separate occasions, 7 days apart, 10 experienced male endurance-trained runners (mean age 32 years, s = 10; VO2peak ...
Morin Jean-Benoit - - 2009
Muscle biopsy is a widely used technique in protocols aiming at studying physical capacities and fiber profiles of athletes, and muscular adaptations to exercise. Side effects of biopsy alone on physiological parameters have recently been pointed out, and we sought to determine whether a single biopsy had effects on the ...
Faulkner James - - 2008
This study assessed the relationship of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) with heart rate and pacing strategy during competitive running races of differing distance and course elevation. Nine men and women competed in a 7-mile road race (7-MR) and the Great West Run half marathon (GWR; 13.1 miles). Heart ...
Mierau Andreas - - 2009
Acute exercise has been shown to exhibit different effects on human sensorimotor behavior; however, the causes and mechanisms of the responses are often not clear. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the effects of incremental running until exhaustion on sensorimotor performance and adaptation in a tracking ...
Phillips N - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To compare the temporal effectiveness of landing strategies in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) versus non-injured participants, when they landed on one leg after running or after a single leg hop. DESIGN: Case control study. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 30 ACLD patients and 30 control subjects. MAIN ...
Chakravarty Eliza F - - 2008
Exercise has been shown to improve many health outcomes and well-being of people of all ages. Long-term studies in older adults are needed to confirm disability and survival benefits of exercise. Annual self-administered questionnaires were sent to 538 members of a nationwide running club and 423 healthy controls from northern ...
Reichhold Stefanie - - 2008
During acute and strenuous exercise, the enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species can induce damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an Ironman triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42 km run), as a prototype of ultra-endurance exercise, ...
Coquart J B J - - 2008
The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge of running length (i.e., duration or distance), or the lack of it (unknown endpoint) on the ratings of perceived exertion and estimated time to exhaustion. Fourteen men were recruited for this study. Participants performed 3 tests of ...
Wittekind Anna L - - 2009
It is not known whether warm-up protocols typically employed by athletes are beneficial to performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of warm-up on a perimaximal run to exhaustion, VO2 kinetics, energy metabolism and running economy. Nine male distance runners ran to exhaustion at a speed ...
Pialoux V - - 2008
AIM: This study was performed to determine the relationship between increased fat oxidation and decreased running efficiency following intense cycling exercise. METHODS: Twenty-two middle-level triathletes were studied during submaximal running before and after submaximal cycling exercise. All subjects completed a 13-min run on a track at a velocity corresponding to ...
Siegel Arthur J - - 2008
We measured analytes in collapsed Boston Marathon runners to compare with changes in asymptomatic runners. Of collapsed runners at the 2007 marathon, 18.2% had a measurable cardiac troponin T (cTnT) value with a mean postrace level of 0.017 ng/mL (0.017 microg/L; SD, 0.02 ng/mL [0.02 microg/L]). Three subjects had cTnT ...
Lambert G P - - 2008
This study assessed tolerance to fluid ingestion with repeated sessions of drinking while running. Runners (n = 7; age 22 +/- 2 yr; V O (2max) = 54.4 +/- 7.1 ml/kg/min) performed six 90-min runs (65 % V O (2max); separated by 7 - 11 days). During run 1, subjects ...
Ahmed Syed Ubaid - - 2009
To study the effect of agitation speed (rpm) and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on the production of gamma linolenic acid by Mucor sp. RRL001, a central composite design experiment was performed in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor. The design consisted of a total of 10 runs consisting of runs at ...
Slawinski Jean - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine whether exhaustion modifies the stiffness characteristics, as defined in the spring-mass model, during track running. We also investigated whether stiffer runners are also the most economical. Nine well-trained runners performed an exhaustive exercise over 2000 meters on an indoor track. This exhaustive ...
Papassotiriou I - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The Spartathlon ultra distance running race (246 kilometres) is an exhausting physical exercise leading to a state of systemic inflammation associated with dramatic elevation of interleukin-6 and acute-phase reactants to levels seen only in critically ill or patients near death. We sought to study the effect of this severe ...
Fan Dagong - - 2008
Conventional kinesin is a homodimeric motor protein that unidirectionally transports organelles along filamentous microtubule (MT) by hydrolyzing ATP molecules. There remain two central questions in biophysical studies of kinesin: (1) the molecular physical mechanism by which the kinesin dimer, made of two sequentially identical monomers, selects a unique direction (MT ...
Pietropaolo Susanna - - 2008
There is growing interest in the effects of voluntary wheel running activity on brain and behaviour in laboratory rodents and their implications to humans. Here, the major findings to date on the impact of exercise on mental health and diseases as well as the possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms are summarised. ...
Koepp Kriston K - - 2008
The purpose of this study was to determine differences in VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating. This study also examined VO2max responses during a continuous skating treadmill protocol and a discontinuous skating treadmill protocol. Sixteen male high school hockey players, who had a mean age of ...
Buchheit Martin - - 2008
The objective of this study was to gather evidence supporting the accuracy of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. In 59 young intermittent sport players (age, 16.2 +/- 2.3 years), we observed the relationships between the maximal running speed (MRS) reached ...
Tang Tao - - 2008
The objective of the study was to determine whether strenuous running exercise produces a significant amount of fibrosis in the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) of the knee and whether intraarticular injections of hyaluronan (HA) protect fibrosis in the IFP in a rat running model. Strenuous running exercise was performed on ...
Philp A - - 2008
The present study examined the use of the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) as an exercise training stimulus in moderately trained runners. Fourteen healthy individuals (12 male, 2 female; age 25 +/- 6 years, height 1.76 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 76 +/- 8 kg mean +/- SD) took part ...
Jones Andrew M - - 2008
We tested the hypothesis that priming exercise would speed V(O2) kinetics during treadmill running. Eight subjects completed a square-wave protocol, involving two bouts of treadmill running at 70% of the difference between the running speeds at lactate threshold (LT) and V(O2) max, separated by 6-min of walking at 4 km ...
Scherbarth Frank - - 2008
Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed to artificial short days either with access to a running wheel (RW) or without. Within 6 weeks RW hamsters considerably increased their body mass, whereas controls showed the typical body mass reduction. Estimation of paired testis weights indicated a decelerated testis regression in RW ...
Vuorimaa T - - 2008
In order to study the effects of different athletic backgrounds on exercise-induced hormonal responses, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and cortisol concentrations were measured before and after intensive continuous and intermittent running in well-trained middle-distance runners (MID) and marathon runners (MAR). They performed two 40-min exercises on a treadmill: ...
Hausswirth Christophe - - 2008
This review focuses on strategic aspects that may affect performance in a long-duration Olympic event, the Olympic distance triathlon. Given the variety of races during the Olympic Games triathlon, strategic aspects include improving technological features as well as energetics factors affecting overall triathlon performance. During the last decade, many studies ...
Grau S - - 2008
Patellar-tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury in long distance runners, especially in women. Until today, no definite combinations of clinical, biomechanical, or training variables, or causative factors in the development of PT have been found. This study focused on assessing the differences in biomechanical characteristics between healthy runners (CO) ...
Donoghue Orna A - - 2008
This study examined the kinematic differences between subjects who had a history of chronic Achilles tendon (AT) injury and matched controls during running. Eleven subjects from each group ran barefoot (BF) and shod at self-selected speeds on a treadmill. Three-dimensional angles describing rearfoot and lower limb motion were calculated throughout ...
Lippi Giuseppe - - 2008
BACKGROUND: A caveat to strenuous and medium term physical exercise is the potential cardiovascular damage it may cause. In particular, there is still controversy regarding the behaviour of biochemical markers of heart damage and dysfunction following medium term endurance training. METHODS: Troponin T (TnT) and the N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide ...
Richtig Erika - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Marathon runners seem to have an increased melanoma risk. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential melanoma markers. METHODS: 150 marathon runners volunteered to take part in the skin cancer screening campaign. After the runners completed a questionnaire about melanoma risk factors, types of sportswear and training programs, they received a total ...
Esteve-Lanao Jonathan - - 2008
Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5-100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative ...
Oöpik Vahur V Institute of Exercise Biology and Physiotherapy, Centre of Behavioural and Health Sciences, University of Tartu , Tartu, - - 2008
The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of sodium citrate ingestion on the metabolic response to exercise and performance in a 1500-m competitive run in trained female middle-distance runners in field conditions. Seventeen athletes (mean (± SD) aged 18.6 ± 2.5 years, VO2max 55.2 ± 7.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) ...
Price Mike - - 2007
In this study, we examined the effects of different work:rest durations during 20 min intermittent treadmill running and subsequent performance. Nine males (mean age 25.8 years, s = 6.8; body mass 73.9 kg, s = 8.8; stature 1.75 m, s = 0.05; VO(2max) 55.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), s ...
Høydal Morten A - - 2007
Valid and reliable experimental models are essential to gain insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of lifestyle-related diseases. Studies with large changes, low variation, and reproducible training outcome require individualized training intensity, controlled by direct measurements of maximal ...
Chappell Mark A - - 2007
Relationships among individual variation in exercise capacity, resting metabolism and morphology may offer insights into the mechanistic basis of whole-animal performance, including possible performance trade-offs (e.g. burst versus sustainable exercise, resting ;maintenance' costs versus maximal power output). Although there have been several studies of correlations between performance, metabolism and morphology ...
Carr Christopher E - - 2007
Space suits significantly affect the metabolic cost of human movement during extravehicular activity, a key component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. We hypothesized that space suit legs act as springs during running, thereby lowering cost of transport relative to space-suited walking. METHODS: We transformed data from ...
Hautala Arto J - - 2008
Cardiovascular autonomic function is associated with physical performance and exercise training adaptation. The association between physical performance and sympathetic regulation is not well known. We hypothesized that sympathetic nervous system activity is associated with physical performance among male runners. The study population included 26 healthy male club runners [age 33 ...
Duffield R - - 2008
This study compared VO2, heart rate (HR) and electromyographic (iEMG) responses to speeds above the velocity associated with VO2max (v-VO2max). Eight male, middle-distance runners performed a graded exercise test to determine VO2max and v-VO2max and runs to fatigue at 100 % and 110 % v-VO2max. Breath-by-breath VO2 and HR were ...
Garcin M - - 2008
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of free versus constant pace on perceived exertion (RPE) and estimated time Limit (ETL). Ten athletes performed a graded test aimed to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), a constant run to exhaustion ...
Cox Amanda Julie - - 2007
PURPOSE: To characterize differences in cytokine responses to exercise of different intensities and durations between healthy and illness-prone runners. METHODS: Trained distance runners were classified as healthy (no more than two episodes of upper-respiratory symptoms per year; N = 10) or illness-prone (four or more episodes per year; N = ...
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