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Jakobsen Markus Due - - 2011
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent exercise performed as soccer training or interval running in comparison with continuous endurance running exercise on postural balance in young healthy untrained males. Young sedentary men were randomized to soccer training (SOC, n = 10), continuous running (RUN; n = 9), ...
Schneider Stefan - - 2010
The frequency for movements along the longitudinal axis during running peaks at approximately 3 Hz. Other physiological systems (e.g. heart rate and brain cortical activity) are known to show a dominant frequency of ~3 Hz connected to exercise. As recent studies have proposed a clear correlation between musical tempo, mood, ...
Winger James M - - 2011
Background Exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) is a dilutional hyponatraemia that is caused primarily by the intake of hypotonic fluid beyond the dictates of thirst and exacerbated by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as well as an inability to mobilise osmotically inactive sodium stores. Runners who drink more than to ...
Fukuda David H - - 2010
Preexercise nutritional investigations have recently become a popular avenue of examining the interaction of multiple ingredients on exercise and training methods. The critical velocity (CV) test is used to quantify the relationship between total running distance and time to exhaustion (TTE), yielding aerobic (CV) and anaerobic parameters (anaerobic running capacity ...
Wilson Jacob M - - 2010
Stretching before anaerobic events has resulted in declines in performance; however, the immediate effects of stretching on endurance performance have not been investigated. This study investigated the effects of static stretching on energy cost and endurance performance in trained male runners. Ten trained male distance runners aged 25 +/- 7 ...
Sahlén Anders - - 2010
Prolonged exercise has been shown to lead to elevated levels of cardiac troponin and altered cardiac function on echocardiography. It is not known if cardiac synchrony is altered by prolonged exercise. The aims of this study were to assess changes in intra-left ventricular mechanical synchrony and circulating levels of cardiac ...
Petri Ines - - 2010
Energy demands of gestation and lactation represent a severe challenge for small mammals. Therefore, additional energetic burdens may compromise successful breeding. In small rodents, food restriction, cold exposure (also in combination) and wheel running to obtain food have been shown to diminish reproductive outcome. Although exhibited responses such as lower ...
Carpes Felipe P - - 2010
This review summarizes the effects of bilateral asymmetry on running and cycling performance and risk of injury in healthy subjects and the influence of leg preference. We define the term leg preference derived from lateral preference as representative of the choice for one side of the body to perform a ...
Smith J Carson - - 2010
The use of arterial spin labeling to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exercise has not been reported. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the optimal inversion time to detect changes in CBF after acute exercise and (2) if acute exercise alters CBF in the motor ...
Willick Stuart E - - 2010
The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which ...
Sear Joshua A - - 2010
The current study investigated the effects of wearing whole-body compression garments (WBCGs) on prolonged high-intensity intermittent exercise (PHIIE) performance. Eight male team-sport athletes ([X +/- SD] 20.6 +/- 1.2 years; 72.9 +/- 5.9 kg; 57.5 +/- 3.7 ml.kg.min) completed a prescribed 45-minute PHIIE protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in randomly ...
Fukuda David H - - 2010
Creatine (Cr) loading consists of short-term, high-dosage Cr supplementation and has been shown to increase intramuscular total Cr content. Increases in body weight (BW) have been shown to result from Cr loading, with differences by gender, and increased BW may impact weight-bearing exercise. The critical velocity (CV) test is used ...
Suriano Robert - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cycle intensity on subsequent running performance and combined cycle-run (CR) performance. Seven triathletes undertook a cycling graded exercise test to exhaustion, an isolated 500-kJ cycle time trial (CTT) and an isolated 5-km running time trial. Then they performed a ...
Ross Emma Z - - 2010
PURPOSE: Prolonged exercise reduces the capacity of the neuromuscular system to produce force, which is known as fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of neural and contractile processes during a 20-km running bout. METHODS: Eight experienced runners (mean T SD: age = 31 T ...
Aziz Abdul Rashid - - 2010
This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on endurance performance. Using a crossover design, 10 moderately trained, active Muslim men performed 60 min runs on a treadmill in the fasted (Ramadan, RAM) and non-fasted (Control, CON) state on two separate counterbalanced occasions. After familiarization, four subjects performed their CON ...
Baquet Georges - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to show if the use of continuous-running training vs. intermittent-running training has comparable or distinct impact on aerobic fitness in children. At first, children were matched according to their chronological age, their biological age (secondary sexual stages), and their physical activity or training ...
Buchheit M - - 2010
This study investigated the influence of 180 degrees changes of direction during a repeated-sprint running test on performance, cardiorespiratory variables, muscle deoxygenation and post-exercise blood lactate ([La] (b)) levels. Thirteen team-sport athletes (22+/-3 yr) performed 6 repeated maximal sprints with (RSS, 6 x[2 x 12.5 m]) or without (RS, 6 ...
Rife Rachel K - - 2010
To establish water treadmill running parameters with shoes (WTR-S) and without water shoes (WTR-NS) needed to obtain known land treadmill running (LTR) cardiorespiratory responses. Eighteen trained college-aged runners participated in three running conditions (LTR, WTR-S, and WTR-NS) where cardiorespiratory responses were measured. The primary variables of interest were VO2, HR, ...
Ali Ajmol - - 2010
This study examined the effect of wearing different grades of graduated compression stockings (GCS) on physiological and perceptual measures during and following treadmill running in competitive runners. Nine males and one female performed three 40-min treadmill runs (80 +/- 5% maximal oxygen uptake) wearing either control (0 mmHg; CON), low ...
Luden Nicholas - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 3-wk taper on the physiology of competitive distance runners. We studied seven collegiate distance runners (20+/-1 yr, 66+/-1 kg) before and after a 3-wk taper. The primary measures included 8-km cross-country race performance, gastrocnemius single muscle fiber size ...
Mingels Alma M A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise is frequently associated with cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations, otherwise corresponding to minor myocardial infarction. However, research on the underlying mechanisms has been limited because of assay restraints in the low concentration range. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the pre-commercial, highly sensitive hs-cTnT assay, cTnT concentrations were measured in ...
Chapman Andrew R - - 2010
Previous studies have shown that cycling can directly influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running in some highly trained triathletes. A relationship between this altered neuromuscular control of running and musculoskeletal pain and injury has been proposed; however, this link has not been investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the ...
Gaustad Svein Erik - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Physiological studies of long-term cardiovascular adaptation to exercise require adequate testing procedures to quantify the outcome. Such test procedures are well established in rats and mice. However, the use of these species may have limitations, and to study several physiological parameters mimicking 'the human adaptation' larger animal models may ...
Capostagno Benoit - - 2010
This study examined the differences in fat and carbohydrate oxidation during running and cycling at the same relative exercise intensities, with intensity determined in a number of ways. Specifically, exercise intensity was expressed as a percentage of maximum workload (WL(max)), maximum oxygen uptake (%VO(2max)), and maximum heart rate (%HR(max)) and ...
Carling Chris - - 2010
In an analysis of the physical demands when running with the ball in professional soccer, this study (1) determined activity profiles during match-play, (2) examined effects of fatigue, and (3) investigated differences according to playing position. Thirty French League 1 matches from two competitive seasons (2007-2008, 2008-2009) were analysed using ...
Scerbo Filippe - - 2010
Research consistently demonstrates that a bout of moderate exercise alleviates cravings to smoke among abstaining smokers. The aims of this study were to examine whether doses of exercise (moderate or vigorous) reduced cravings differently, and whether reductions in cravings were associated with changes in cortisol concentration. Using a within-participant, crossover ...
Fitch Kenneth D - - 2010
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is experienced by the majority of an estimated 300 million individuals who have asthma, a condition that affects all ages and is increasing globally. Respiratory water loss with dehydration of the airways causing mediator release and airway narrowing is considered the cause of EIB, the severity of ...
Lipari Elvira Farina - - 2010
Many studies have demonstrated the involvement of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and vasopressin (VP) in the homeostasis of body fluids, but few studies have regarded the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system during physical exercises. The aim of the present immunohistochemical work is to study the activity of ANP and VP secreting ...
Rapoport Benjamin I BI Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2010
Each year in the past three decades has seen hundreds of thousands of runners register to run a major marathon. Of those who attempt to race over the marathon distance of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 kilometers), more than two-fifths experience severe and performance-limiting depletion of physiologic carbohydrate reserves ...
Knechtle Beat - - 2010
We investigated in 11 female ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run, the association between fluid intake and prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in a cross-sectional study. Athletes drank ad libitum and recorded their fluid intake. They competed at 8.0 (1.0) km/h and finished within 762 (91) min. Fluid intake was 4.1 ...
Damirchi A - - 2010
Oral peroxidase, one of the most important salivary antioxidant enzymes, is subjected to alternation due to various body conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise intensity on salivary peroxidase activity. Using a randomized design, ten healthy male university students (mean age, 23.22; s (x) ...
Buchheit Martin - - 2010
The aims of the present study were to (1) assess relationships between running performance and parasympathetic function both at rest and following exercise, and (2) examine changes in heart rate (HR)-derived indices throughout an 8-week period training program in runners. In 14 moderately trained runners (36 +/- 7 years), resting ...
Hausswirth Christophe - - 2010
The aim of the present study was to determine the best pacing strategy to adopt during the initial phase of a short distance triathlon run for highly trained triathletes. Ten highly trained male triathletes completed an incremental running test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, a 10-km control run at free ...
Lima-Silva Adriano E - - 2010
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the performance level of athletes on pacing strategy during a simulated 10-km running race, and the relationship between physiological variables and pacing strategy. Twenty-four male runners performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill, three 6-min bouts of running ...
Pepe Hamdi - - 2009
It has been difficult to determine, from the published literature, whether men or women have higher levels of exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare variations between the sexes in lipid hydroperoxide (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after ...
Wakefield Benjamin R - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of work-interval duration (WID) and intensity on the time spent at, or above, 95% VO2max (T95 VO2max) during intermittent bouts of supramaximal exercise. Over a 5-week period, 7 physically active men with a mean (+/-SD) age, height, body mass, and ...
Legaz-Arrese A - - 2009
The aim of this study was to determine if possible, with the resources available in Ethiopia, to make significant associations between racing performance and laboratory physiological test results in elite young African runners. Twenty-four young Ethiopian runners (12 males and 12 females) attended the physiology laboratory of the Addis Ababa ...
Behm David G - - 2009
Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) ...
Pawlowicz Artur - - 2010
Stereotyped motor behaviors are a common consequence of environmental restriction in a wide variety of species. Although environmental enrichment has been shown to substantially reduce stereotypy levels, the various components of enrichment have not been evaluated independently to determine which is responsible for this effect. Exercise, particularly voluntary wheel running, ...
Billaut F - - 2010
AIM: The reduction in cerebral oxygenation (Cox) is associated with the cessation of exercise during constant work rate and incremental tests to exhaustion. Yet in exercises of this nature, ecological validity is limited due to work rate being either fully or partly dictated by the protocol, and it is unknown ...
Saraslanidis Ploutarchos J - - 2009
A 400-m runner relies primarily on the lactate system for energy production. Although several running distances and schemes are used in training for this event, it is not clear which one(s) causes maximal activation of the lactate system so as to optimize adaptations of the lactic capacity. This study examined ...
Sch?cker Linda - - 2009
In research on motor control, the detrimental effect of an internal focus of attention on movement execution of well-learned motor skills is a frequently replicated finding. This experimental study was designed to determine whether this effect is observed with physiological variables during endurance exercise. We examined whether the focus of ...
Loftin Mark - - 2009
PURPOSE: The aim of this investigation was to compare gender differences in physiologic and perceptual responses during a 1-h run at recent marathon pace and running economy at three speeds in recreational marathon runners. METHODS: In a counterbalanced design, 10 men and 10 women completed a 1-h treadmill run and ...
Chen Trevor C - - 2009
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2(max))] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2(max)) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2(max) (5 ...
Havermans Remco C - - 2009
In the present study, it was investigated whether humans acquire an aversion for a flavor paired with a single bout of exercise, and if so, to what degree this effect requires the experience of gastrointestinal distress. To this end, a total of 58 participants either consumed or merely tasted a ...
Legrand Fabien D - - 2009
In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that telic dominance is one of the psychological variables that may influence the exercise-affect relationship according to the dual-mode model of exercise and affect (Ekkekakis, 2003). Thirty-three participants with high or low telic dominance rated their affect at 3-min intervals as they ran ...
Tolfrey Keith - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of an on-demand motorised treadmill to measure 2-mile (3.2 km) race performance and to examine the physiological variables that best predict this free-running performance in active men. Twelve men (mean (SD): age, 28 (9) years; stature, 1.79 (0.05) m; body ...
Boullosa Daniel A - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to compare jumping capacity after performing the "Université de Montréal Track Test" (UMTT) and the time limit (Tlim) at maximal aerobic speed. At the end of the competitive season, 12 well-trained male endurance runners performed the UMTT and Tlim tests on 2 different days ...
Kipps Courtney - - 2011
Exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) is a potentially fatal cause of collapse in endurance exercise. It is understood to be a dilutional hyponatraemia caused by an increase of total body water relative to the amount of exchangeable sodium stores. Fourteen runners presented to one London hospital with symptomatic EAH several hours after ...
Sotero R C - - 2009
This study analyzed if the running speed corresponding to glucose minimum (GM) could predict the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen physically active men (25.2+/-4.2 years, 73.4+/-8.0 kg, 180.0+/-1.0 cm) completed three running tests on different days: 1) a 1 600-m time trial to calculate the average speed; 2) after ...
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