Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1097
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Hussain S O - - 2001
Rat genetic models of intrinsic (i.e., untrained) low-capacity runners (LCR) and high-capacity runners (HCR) are being developed by artificial selective breeding for treadmill running. At generation 3, these lines differed in running capacity by 114%. We used generation 3 rats to test the hypotheses that HCR, relative to LCR, have ...
Palmer C D - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-volume high-intensity resistance training session influenced running economy during a subsequent aerobic treadmill run. Nine well trained distance runners (mean +/- SD; VO2max, 66.6 +/- 10.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); weight, 65.8 +/- 10.2 kg; height, 173.4 +/- 7.8 ...
Hue O - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between alterations in pulmonary function (i.e., diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and pulmonary volumes) and the ventilatory response elicited during the cycle-run succession in triathletes. Ten well-trained triathletes performed three exercises: 1) 30 min cycling plus 20 min of ...
Billat V L - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study compares the physical and training characteristics of top-class marathon runners (TC), i.e., runners having a personal best of less than 2 h 11 min for males and 2 h 32 min for females, respectively, versus high-level (HL) (< 2 h 16 min and < 2 h 38 ...
Hue O - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We still know relatively little about the factors that define the ability to perform a good run after cycling in triathlon, however, and the perception of discomfort during the first minutes of this post-cycling running has yet to be satisfactorily explained. The pulmonary diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ...
Garcin M - - 2001
The present purpose was to study the relationships between perceived exertion (RPE, ETL) and exercise duration for all-out runs eliciting vVO2 max. 12 endurance-trained men performed three exhausting exercises on an indoor track. The first test was an incremental exercise to measure their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the velocity ...
Billat V L - - 2001
PURPOSE: This study tested the hypothesis that free versus constant pace enhanced the performance (i.e., distance run) in suprathreshold runs between 90 and 105% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption determined in an incremental test (v.VO(2max)). Moreover, we hypothesized that variable pace could decrease the slow phase ...
Krustrup P - - 2001
To examine the activity profile and physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing, we performed computerized time-motion analyses and measured the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of 27 referees during 43 competitive matches in the two top Danish leagues. To relate match performance to physical capacity and training, several physiological ...
Marino F E - - 2001
This study examined the effects of heat stress on the accumulation of plasma ammonia, lactate, and urate during prolonged running. Nine highly trained endurance runners completed two running trials in a counterbalanced fashion in cool (15 degrees C) and in hot (35 degrees C) humid (60% relative humidity) conditions. Subjects ...
Zamparo P - - 2001
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the self selected speed in running (vss) is dependent upon the same factors that determine maximal speed in endurance events (e. g. the anaerobic threshold). Experiments were carried out on 8 recreational long distance runners (42.1 +/- 8.6 years ...
Zhou B - - 2001
Stroke volume (SV) responses during graded treadmill exercise were studied in 1) elite male distance runners (N = 5), 2) male university distance runners (N = 10), and 3) male untrained university students (N = 10). METHODS: Cardiac output (Q) and SV were determined by a modified acetylene rebreathing procedure. ...
Aoyama K - - 2001
Three experiments tested the hypothesis that habituation contributes to the regulation of wheel running. Rats ran in a wheel for 30-min sessions. Experiment 1 demonstrated spontaneous recovery. Rats ran more and the within-session decreases in running were smaller after 2 days of wheel deprivation than after 1 day. Experiment 2 ...
Nelson A G - - 2001
Research demonstrates an inverse relationship between the range of motion of selected joint movements (flexibility) and running economy. Since stretching exercises have been shown to increase joint range of motion, stretching exercises may be contraindicated for endurance running performance. Hence, this study investigated the influence of a 10-week program of ...
Choi S C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Exercise-related gastrointestinal symptoms are not uncommon among athletes. The occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding has been reported, especially in long-distance runners. We studied gastrointestinal mucosal damage, using gastrointestinal endoscopy, in competitive long-distance runners. Gastrointestinal blood loss and anaemia before and after running were also assessed. METHODS: Sixteen competitive long-distance runners ...
Ramsbottom R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to investigate changes in physiological, metabolic and performance parameters resulting from an intense 6 week training programme. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers were divided into a control (CN; 4 men and 2 women) and training group (TR; 6 men and 4 women). Laboratory measures ...
Hue O - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determined the pulmonary responses elicited by multi-cycle-run exercise in triathletes and to compare them to those elicited during a simple cycle-run succession. METHODS: Twelve male triathletes underwent three successive laboratory trials: 1) an incremental cycle test, 2) 30 min of cycling followed by 20 ...
Hütler M - - 2001
Levels of alpha-tocopherol (alphaT) in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) are assumed to be modulated by exercise. The mechanisms involved remain to be established. We examined the influence of different running bouts on the content of alphaT in RBC (alphaT(RBC)), the concentration in plasma (alphaTplasma), and their relationship with ...
Millet G P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Non-experienced triathletes use to complain about the difficulty to run after cycling. We tested the hypothesis that elite triathletes have lower and/or shorter alterations in running mechanics following a maximal cycling exercise than their less efficient counterparts. METHODS: The mechanical alterations in running after exhaustive cycling exercise were studied ...
Baldari C - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study examines the fitness level of a rhythmic gymnasts group and a young female classical dancers group. METHODS: Aerobic power (VO2max), individual ventilatory (IVT) and anaerobic thresholds (IAT) were assessed in 12 elite rhythmic gymnasts, eight elite ballet dancers and 12 sedentary female subjects in the same age ...
Heise G D - - 2001
It was hypothesized that certain ground reaction force (GRF) variables are positively correlated with running economy (RE; the aerobic demand at a single speed of running). Excessive momentum changes, quantified by linear impulse measures, as well the free moment applied to the running surface could be considered potentially wasteful efforts ...
Chang Y H - - 2001
The chronic exposure of astronauts to microgravity results in structural degradation of their lower limb bones. Currently, no effective exercise countermeasure exists. On Earth, the impact loading that occurs with regular locomotion is associated with the maintenance of bone's structural integrity, but impact loads are rarely experienced in space. Accurately ...
Choi S C - - 2001
The effects of different grades of running on esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux in the fed state were evaluated. We studied healthy volunteers (male: 12, age: 27 +/- 5 yr) using ambulatory esophageal manometry, pH catheter and portable digital data recorder. Each exercise was performed 30 min after meal, with ...
Slawinski J - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of endurance training on the relationship between mechanical stride descriptors (stride rate and stride rate variability) and the aerobic energy cost that would be decreased by training in an all-out supra-lactate threshold run. Six long distance runners (175 +/- 6 ...
Burns A S - - 2001
Deep water running (DWR) has become a well-recognized from of cardiovascular conditioning for injured athletes and has been used successfully to maintain running performance. DWR provides for decreased stress and weightbearing to injured tissue and joints, allows for maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and a training effect, and offers greater specificity ...
Hausswirth C - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were first to compare the physiological responses during a triathlon where cycling was performed alternatively with another cyclist (alternate draft triathlon, ADT) or continuously behind him (continuous draft triathlon, CDT), and second to study the incidence of these two drafting modalities in cycling on ...
Calbet J A JA Department of Physical Education, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. - - 2001
The main purpose of this study was to test the effects of a duathlon competition on running economy. METHODS. A prospective study. University. nine male and six female physical education students, which mean (SEM) age was 24.0 (1.3) years. Subjects participated in two competitive duathlons: D1 and D2 (5 km ...
Lohman M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI changes in the ankle and foot after physical exercise. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Nineteen non-professional marathon runners and 19 age- and sex-matched controls volunteered for the study. All had ankle and foot MR images (1.5 T) taken in three perpendicular planes (STIR, T2F and T1FS sequences) within ...
Edwards E B - - 2001
Previous research has shown that the energetic expense per unit distance traveled for one bout of short-duration activity is much greater than the energetic expense associated with long-duration activity. However, animals are often seen moving intermittently, with these behaviors characterized by brief bouts of activity interspersed with brief pauses. We ...
Diot P - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The interpretation of 99mTc diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) aerosol clearance is based on the hypothesis that the 99mTc-DTPA complex is not altered by the nebulization process. OBJECTIVES: To characterize (1) the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-DTPA and the stability of labeling after jet nebulization, and (2) the particle size ...
Demarie S - - 2001
All studies on the oxygen uptake (VO2) slow component have been carried out for the sporting disciplines of cycling or running, but never for swimming. Considering that front crawl swimming is a sport discipline that is fundamentally different from both running and cycling, the aim of this study was to ...
Ftaiti F - - 2001
This study examined the combined effect of exercise induced hyperthermia and dehydration on neuromuscular function in human subjects. Six trained male runners ran for 40 min on a treadmill at 65% of their maximal aerobic velocity while wearing a tracksuit covered with an impermeable jacket and pants to impair the ...
Tanaka T - - 2001
A malfunction detection system based on fuzzy inference, in which a fermentation process is categorized into three states (normal, intermediate and abnormal) according to the computation of malfunction degree, was modified to reduce the supervision tasks required for an industrial-scale production of alkaline cellulase. The time lag of the culture, ...
Laursen P B - - 2001
In the recent past, researchers have found many key physiological variables that correlate highly with endurance performance. These include maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), economy of motion and the fractional utilisation of oxygen uptake (VO2). However, beyond typical endurance events such as the marathon, termed 'ultraendurance' (i.e. >4 ...
Chu K S - - 2001
The increased number of people taking part in deep water running (DWR) is attributable to the weight-independent characteristic of this form of exercise. Deep water runners should, however, be aware of the respiratory and cardiovascular repercussions that result from exercising in water. It has been well documented that water immersion ...
Hausswirth C - - 2001
The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms ...
Blondel N - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to explain the inter-individual variability in running time to exhaustion (tlim) when running speed was expressed as a percentage of the velocity, associated with maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max). Indeed for the same percentage of vVO2max the anaerobic contribution to energy supply is different ...
Frangolias D D - - 2000
The primary aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses to prolonged treadmill (TM) and water immersion to the neck (WI) running at threshold intensity. Ten endurance runners performed TM and WI running VO2max tests. Subjects completed submaximal performance tests at ventilatory threshold (Tvent) intensities under TM and ...
Iemitsu M - - 2000
We attempted to visualize dynamic adjustment of glucose utilization in humans in the whole-body organs during physical exercise by using three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D-PET) and [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG). Twelve healthy male volunteers collaborated on the study; six subjects were assigned to the resting control group (C) and the other six ...
Havas E - - 2000
This study was designed to find out if the lymph flow, indicated as albumin clearance, from active skeletal muscle is maintained constant during a prolonged steady-state exercise. 99mTc-labelled albumin was injected bilaterally into the vastus lateralis muscles of eight endurance-trained men. The radioactivity at the injection site was monitored by ...
Keefer D J - - 2000
Few studies have been conducted documenting the length of time required for young children to achieve stable measures of running economy. Hence the purpose of this study was to quantify within- and between-day stability in running economy among young children. To address this issue, 30 6-year olds (16 girls, 14 ...
Millet G - - 2000
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue induced by a 65-km ultramarathon on the oxygen cost of running (Cr) and cycling (Ccycl). The day before and immediately after the race, a group of nine well-trained male subjects performed two submaximal 4-min exercise bouts: one cycling ...
Rice A J - - 2000
The effect of both training discipline and exercise modality on exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH) was examined in seven runners and six cyclists during 5 min high intensity treadmill and cycle exercise. There were no significant interactions between training discipline, exercise modality and arterial P(O(2)) (Pa(O(2))) when subject groups were considered separately ...
Jonsdottir I H - - 2000
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine a) the relationship between running distance (km x d(-1)) and b) the duration of exercise training in weeks on the effects on natural immune function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Exercise consisted of voluntary running in wheels for 5 or ...
Garside I - - 2000
It is perceived that, during the triathlon or duathlon, cycling with a steep (> 76 degrees) rather than a shallow (< 76 degrees ) frame geometry might attenuate the fatigue associated with progression from the cycle to run disciplines and improve subsequent 10-km running performance. This is based on anecdotal ...
Millet G P - - 2000
Current knowledge of the physiological, biomechanical, and sensory effects of the cycle to run transition in the Olympic triathlon (1.5 km, 10 km, 40 km) is reviewed and implications for the training of junior and elite triathletes are discussed. Triathlon running elicits hyperventilation, increased heart rate, decreased pulmonary compliance, and ...
Rand M K - - 2000
Open and cross maneuvers for changing running direction were studied to characterize selective EMG activity between the maneuvers. Eleven subjects turned towards the right or the left during running. The gluteus medius modified foot trajectory of the leading leg during the open maneuver, whereas the sartorius worked modestly during the ...
Giacomoni M - - 2000
Long-term oral contraceptive (OC) use is known to be associated with changes in haemostasis, cardiovascular dynamics, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Less well documented are the short-term variations in cardiorespiratory responses to exercise during the menstrual cycle of OC users. In this study the short-term effects of the usage of ...
Knitter A E - - 2000
This study examined the effects of supplemental beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle damage as a result of intense endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 13) were paired according to their 2-mile run times and past running experience. Each pair was randomly assigned a treatment of either HMB (3 g/day) or a placebo. ...
Hue O - - 2000
PURPOSE AND METHODS: This study was designed to determine whether the physiological responses elicited during the run part of repeated bouts of cycle-run exercise are similar to those required during the run segment of a cycle-run succession. Thirteen male triathletes underwent four successive laboratory trials: 1) an incremental treadmill test, ...
Liew C V - - 2000
The occurrence of material adhesion and formation of oversize particles in the product yield during one-pot spheroid production by rotary processing leads to a less predictable process and a decrease in the usable portion of the total product yield obtained from each production run. The use of variable speeds of ...
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