Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1082
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Gerard Mathew P - - 2005
To determine whether recombinant equine growth hormone (rEGH) would alter the in vitro biomechanical properties of the forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in exercising young Standardbred horses. Randomized complete block design. Twelve Standardbred yearlings. Horses were trained for 12 weeks on a high-speed treadmill (10% positive incline). rEGH was ...
Brown Jennifer A - - 2005
To report the effect of unilateral laser vocal cordectomy on respiratory noise and airway function in horses with experimentally induced laryngeal hemiplegia (LH). Experimental study. Six Standardbred horses without upper airway abnormalities at rest or during high-speed treadmill exercise. Respiratory sounds and inspiratory trans-upper airway pressure (P(Ui)) were measured before ...
van den Boom R - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The importance of osteoarthritis (OA) in the horse and the difficulty in its early diagnosis have led to a search for potential biomarkers of joint disease. If the levels of such markers are to be interpreted accurately, clinicians and researchers need to know whether they are ...
Tessier C - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a need to understand the process which leads to failure of recruitment of the stylopharyngeus muscle in clinical cases of nasopharygeal collapse. We therefore studied the timing and intensity of stylopharyngeus muscle activity during exercise in horses. OBJECTIVE: To measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity ...
Caminoto Elisa H - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on affected ligaments in the hind limbs of horses with experimentally induced suspensory ligament desmitis by use of ultrasonographic, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical techniques. ANIMALS: 10 horses. PROCEDURE: Suspensory ligament desmitis was induced in both hind limbs of each horse ...
Edwards Lindsey J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific treadmill exercise regimens would accelerate age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendon (CDET) of the forelimbs of young Thoroughbreds. ANIMALS: 24 female Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURE: Horses were trained for 18 weeks (6 horses; short term) or 18 months (5 horses; ...
Savage Kathleen A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a dose of caffeine (2.5 mg/kg, IV) administered to physically fit Thoroughbreds during incremental exercise testing to fatigue on a treadmill. ANIMALS: 10 conditioned Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURE: Horses were randomly assigned to receive caffeine or a control solution. Each horse received both treatments in a ...
Hinchcliff Kenneth W - - 2005
OBJECTIVE:To determine the interobserver variability of assessment of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) during tracheobronchoscopic examination in horses. ANIMALS: 747 Thoroughbred racehorses. Procedures-850 tracheobronchoscopic examinations were performed within 2 hours of racing for the horses. Examinations were recorded on videotape, and EIPH and its severity were assessed independently by 3 veterinarians. ...
Rogers C W - - 2005
AIM: To examine the effect of race training on kinematic parameters of the trot in a sample of 2-year-old Thoroughbred fillies. METHODS: Two-year-old Thoroughbred fillies that had been either trained for racing (n=7) or left untrained in small paddocks (n=7) were examined for lameness, and linear and temporal kinematic data ...
Vervuert I - - 2005
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oral tryptophan (Trp) supplementation on exercise capacity and metabolic responses in horses. Three horses had to perform an exercise test: a 15-min warm-up followed by a 60-min walk (1.7 m/s, W1), a 10-min trot (3.1 m/s, T1), a second 60-min walk ...
Curtis R A - - 2005
This study investigated the reliability of measurements with a new equine ergospirometer (Quadflow). Heart rate and blood lactate responses during exercise in horses wearing the Quadflow and an open flow mask were also compared. The mean percentage error of the oxygen uptake measurements was 8.2% (range 2.1-12.5%). Percent error for ...
Escribano B M - - 2005
The aim of the present paper was: (1) to find out if there were any differences in the nonspecific immunological pattern of peripheral blood neutrophil between two breeds of horses (AA and SA); (2) to evaluate the effects of an exercise in the aerobic-anaerobic threshold. This has been observed in ...
Wittek Thomas - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an ultrasonographic method for measuring abomasal volume, location, and emptying rate in suckling calves. ANIMALS: 9 male Holstein calves < 40 days of age. PROCEDURE: Before and after calves were fed different volumes of milk replacer or 2 L of oral electrolyte solutions, ultrasonographic measurements ...
Jose-Cunilleras Eduard - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To clone and sequence cDNA for equine insulin-responsive glucose transporter (glucose transporter type 4 [GLUT-4]) and determine effects of glycogen-depleting exercise and meal type after exercise on GLUT-4 gene expression in skeletal muscle of horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: Muscle biopsy specimens from 7 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES: Total RNA was ...
Oikawa M - - 2005
The effects of various factors on the inflammatory and stress response in horses during transportation were examined in Experiments 1 and 2, carried out in April and August, respectively. In Experiment 1, three groups (G1-G3) of four Thoroughbreds were used, and in Experiment 2, two groups (G4, G5). G1 animals ...
Escribano B M - - 2005
Using simple techniques, the neutrophil function, in its phagocytosis and oxidative metabolism stages, was evaluated in horses. This was done before and after moderate exercise at the aerobic-anaerobic threshold (standardized heart rate 150 beats/min and lactate level of 3.07 +/- 0.21 mmol/L). The objective was to determine whether regular training ...
Art, Tatiana
Among athletic/sports animals, the horse has a unique ability to increase its oxygen uptake by a factor of 60 during heavy exercise. This is achieved by physiological adaptations of all the links in the oxygen chain. Ventilation is increased by a factor of 30. Since the horse is a compulsory ...
Davis Michael S - - 2005
We assessed gastric and intestinal permeability and performed gastroscopy to evaluate the effects of sustained strenuous exercise on the gastrointestinal tract in racing sled dogs. Three teams of racing Alaskan sled dogs were examined approximately 1 week before and 24 hours after the 2003 Iditarod sled dog race (1,100 miles ...
Bowers J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of girth construction and tension on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange during supramaximal treadmill exercise in horses. METHODS: Six healthy detrained Thoroughbred horses were exercised on a treadmill inclined at 10% at 110% VO2max. Horses were instrumented for respiratory mechanics and gas exchange studies, and ...
Burn Jeremy F - - 2006
The equine carpus has a well-defined limit to joint extension at approximately 180 degrees . During locomotion however, the carpus hyperextends during stance phase. Hyperextension is resisted by the carpal bones and ligaments, and it has been proposed that large increased hyperextension might relate to potentially damaging stress levels in ...
Gehlen H - - 2004
In 12 healthy warmblood horses and 10 horses with mitral valve insufficiencies (MVI) of various degrees heart rate and pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP) was measured at rest and during standardised exercise on a high speed treadmill. There was a significant increase in PWP with each change in speed of ...
Licka T - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Equine lameness is commonly evaluated when the horse is being ridden, but the influence of the rider on the lameness has not been documented. OBJECTIVE: To document the effect of 2 riders of different training levels on the vertical movement of the head and croup. METHODS: ...
Chateau H - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Understanding of the biomechanical effects of heel elevation remains incomplete because in vivo studies performed with skin markers do not measure the actual movements of the 3 digital joints. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effects of 6 degree heel wedge on the 3-dimensional movements of the 4 ...
Malinowski K - - 2004
Effects of longitudinal exercise training and acute intensive exercise (simulated race test) on immune function have not been reported in horses. Clenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic agonist, is used to manage inflammatory airway disease in horses. This study investigated the interaction of 8 wk of exercise training with or without 12 wk ...
Wickler S J - - 2004
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: It is well known that adding a load to a horse's back increases its energetic costs of locomotion, but the magnitude of increase obtained by loading the most distal portion of limb has not been measured. OBJECTIVES: To measure oxygen consumption in horses with mass added ...
Weishaupt M A - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The compensatory mechanisms of horses with weightbearing hindlimb lameness are still not fully understood. HYPOTHESIS: That weightbearing, unilateral hindlimb lameness would not only alter stride characteristics to diminish structural stress in the affected limb but also induce compensatory load adjustments in the other supporting limbs. OBJECTIVE: ...
Keegan K G - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Subjective neurological evaluation in horses is prone to bias. An objective method of spinal ataxia detection is not subject to these limitations and could be of use in equine practice and research. HYPOTHESIS: Kinematic data in the walking horse can differentiate normal and spinal ataxic horses. ...
Gustås P - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The transmission of shockwaves following hoof impact is proposed to be one major source of stress to the limb. In the forelimb, there are indications that the period of horizontal deceleration of the hoof is related to the attenuation of shockwaves. In the hindlimb, information about ...
Cole F L - - 2004
The proportion of the horses, of both sexes and of different ages, breeds and levels of activity, owned by a stratified random sample of Australian owners, which had suffered one or more episodes of exertional rhabdomyolysis during the previous 12 months was determined. The proportion in the general population was ...
Stull C L - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Little information exists on the immunological effects of transport or the use of supplements to minimise transport stress. OBJECTIVES: To establish baseline ranges and evaluate immunophenotypic and functional changes associated with transport and a nutritional 'adaptogen' supplement. METHODS: Horses received either supplement (n = 10) or ...
Sarnelli Giovanni - - 2004
After a meal, the proximal stomach relaxes probably through the activation of nitrergic neurons in the gastric wall. Nitric oxide-induced smooth muscle relaxation involves activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, with cGMP production, which is then degradated by phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...
Rötting Anna K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of phenylbutazone, indomethacin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutamine, and butyrate on restitution of oxidant-injured right dorsal colon of horses in vitro. SAMPLE POPULATION: Right dorsal colon from 9 adult horses euthanatized for reasons other than gastrointestinal tract disease. PROCEDURES: Mucosal segments from the right dorsal colon ...
Hill Ashley E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess concurrently the effects of moderate ligamentous suspensory apparatus injury (MLSAI), racing-speed exercise, and horseshoe characteristics on risk of catastrophic suspensory apparatus failure (SAF) or metacarpal condylar fracture (CDY) in forelimbs of racehorses. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cadavers of 301 Thoroughbred racehorses (108 with SAF, 33 with CDY and 160 ...
Franklin S H - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: To develop the technique of respiratory sound analysis for the diagnosis of dorsal displacement of the equine soft palate. OBJECTIVES: To show that 1) the displaced soft palate can spontaneously vibrate in the presence of expiratory airflow; 2) the observed frequency of vibration can be detected ...
O'Connor C I - - 2004
Ten horses of Thoroughbred or Standardbred breeding were used to study the effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on the metabolic response to a high-intensity incremental exercise test. Horses were assigned to either a fish oil (n = 6) or corn oil (n = 4) treatment. The fish oil (Omega ...
Kawaguchi K - - 2004
A donkey developed abdominal discomfort and distension together with cardiovascular collapse and gastric reflux 24 to 36 hours after ingesting a large amount of poultry feed. Rectal findings prompted a laparotomy that identified extensive gastric dilation, an empty, atonic small intestine, dry colonic content and an easily corrected caecal displacement. ...
Perkins N R - - 2004
AIM: To investigate training location (horses trained in Matamata vs those trained at all other venues in New Zealand), and time period (1996-1997 and 1998-1999), while controlling for other horse- and race- or trial-related factors, as a means of assessing the possible impact of construction of a new training surface ...
Rogers C W - - 2004
AIM: To identify the magnitude and sources of error involved in simply quantifying the workload of a group of Thoroughbred racehorses in training. METHODS: Data were obtained from seven 2-year-old fillies trained for 13 weeks on sand and grass tracks at various cantering velocities, and at the gallop in the ...
Manohar Murli - - 2005
Recently, it was reported that acute hypervolemia improves arterial oxygen tension in human athletes known to experience exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia. Since exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia is routinely observed in racehorses and is known to limit performance, we examined whether pre-exercise induction of acute hypervolemia would similarly benefit arterial oxygenation in maximally ...
Tan Rachel H H - - 2005
The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of upper airway abnormalities and establish if any significant associations existed between study variables and the two most frequently identified disorders; axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds and dorsal displacement of the soft palate. The clinical records and video-recordings of ...
Wilson D V - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Acupuncture may be recommended for horses with 'heaves' because it is being increasingly applied to treat human asthma. Therefore, its efficacy was investigated in horses with this asthma-like disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a single acupuncture treatment for the relief of airway obstruction in ...
Lightowler Carlos - - 2004
Prediction of potential performance is one of the goals of exercise physiology investigations. When Selecting a horse for competition, one of the main objectives is to choose the one that predictably will reveal a competitive aptitude above the average. The horses used in this study underwent a two-dimensional echocardiography study ...
Marino B - - 2004
It has been postulated that a viscerosomatic reflex activated by gut distension and inhibiting abdominal wall muscle tone may be one of the mechanisms underlying functional abdominal distension. Any demonstration of such a reflex has to take into account the fact that gut distension may increase abdominal girth as a ...
Hopper B J - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Sclerosis of the third carpal bone is a common radiographic finding in both lame and sound racehorses, but there are no guidelines correlating degree of sclerosis and incidence of lameness. OBJECTIVES: To develop a protocol for describing subchondral bone sclerosis in C3 on dorsoproximal-dorsodistal oblique (DPr-DDiO) ...
Brown J A - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Laryngoplasty is the technique of choice for treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia, with the aim of improving airway function and/or eliminating respiratory noise. However, there are no quantitative data in the literature describing the effect of laryngoplasty on upper airway noise or its relationship to upper airway ...
Kang Yu-Ming - - 2004
In the present study we examined the effects of acute thermal and chemical stimuli and gastric ulceration on mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferent fibers. Single-fiber recordings were made from the cervical vagus nerve. Mechanosensitive afferent fibers were identified by response to gastric distension (GD). Intragastric pressure was maintained below 3 mmHg ...
Allocca M - - 2004
We hypothesized that transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is triggered by a discrete motor event, i.e., a phasic contraction or a tonic change of the proximal stomach. The combined esophageal manometry-gastric barostat tracings obtained from 11 healthy subjects during 2-hr continuous isobaric gastric distension were reviewed. Volume waves, i.e., ...
Crowe O M - - 2004
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Proximal suspensory desmitis (PSD) is diagnosed with increasing frequency in horses and radial pressure wave therapy (RPWT) is a widely used therapy for painful orthopaedic conditions in man and dogs. There are, however, few published data as to the outcome of its use in PSD. OBJECTIVE: ...
Assenza A - - 2004
During long-distance exercise, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism could lead to an increase in the blood tryptophan/BCAA ratio and an early onset of 'central fatigue'. Based on these considerations, we studied the modifications of blood serum BCAA and tryptophan (Try) levels in 30 endurance horses competing in rides varying in ...
van Nieuwenhoven Michiel A - - 2004
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter involved in the brain-gut axis. It is possible to lower the 5-HT level in the body by means of a nutritional intervention using an amino acid mixture; the acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) method. We studied the effect of ATD on gastric emptying in healthy ...
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