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Schott H C HC - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Limited information exists about the physiological changes and clinical problems that occur in elite horses competing in high-speed 160 km endurance races. OBJECTIVES: To provide initial data describing changes in physiological and laboratory measurements in horses competing in a high-speed, 160 km endurance race under temperate ...
Hada T - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Heart rate (HR) recovery immediately after exercise is controlled by autonomic functions and the time constant (T) calculated from HR recovery is thought to be an index of parasympathetic activity in man. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether it is possible to evaluate autonomic function using the time ...
Takahashi T - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: One cause of overstrain injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in horses is the force loaded on the SDFT during repeated running. Therefore, decreasing this force may reduce SDFT injury. It has been reported that strain on the SDFT decreases with a toe-wedge shoe. ...
Matsui A - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In man, muscle protein synthesis is accelerated by administering amino acids (AA) and glucose (Glu), because increased availability of amino acids and increased insulin secretion, is known to have a protein anabolic effect. However, in the horse, the effect on muscle hypertrophy of such nutrition management ...
Epp T S - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Maximally exercising horses achieve mean pulmonary artery pressures (Ppa(mean)) that exceed the minimum threshold (75 mmHg) estimated for pulmonary capillary rupture and exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). EIPH is not expected to occur during moderate submaximal exercise (i.e. 40-60% VO2max) since Ppa(mean) remains well below this threshold. ...
Franklin S H - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Videoendoscopy of the upper respiratory tract (URT) during high-speed treadmill exercise has proved to be invaluable in the assessment of URT dysfunction in racehorses. However, very little information exists regarding dynamic airway collapse in other sport horses used in nonracing equestrian disciplines. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ...
Cotrel C - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: A close relationship between limb and respiratory rhythms has been shown in clinically healthy galloping horses due to mechanical constraints in the thoracic region. This synchronisation leads to a 1/1 ratio between stride frequency (SF) and respiratory frequency (RF) during galloping. Very little is known about ...
Colahan P T - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Adrenergic activity accompanies intense exercise and mediates physiological and metabolic responses to exercise. Guanabenz, an antihypertensive drug marketed for human usage, depresses brain vasomotor and cardioaccelerator centres, blocks peripherally adrenergic neurons and is reportedly used as a calming agent in horses but little is known of ...
Tennent-Brown B S - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Hyperhydration, prior to prolonged moderate-intensity exercise simulating the 2nd day of a 3-day equestrian event (E3DEC), may induce arterial hypoxaemia detrimental to performance. OBJECTIVES: Because moderate-intensity exercise does not induce arterial hypoxaemia in healthy horses, the effects of pre-exercise hypervolaemia on arterial oxygenation were examined during ...
de Graaf-Roelfsema E - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: To study the possible long-term effect of improved glucose tolerance in horses after long-term training, as the impact of exercise training on glucose metabolism is still unclear in the equine species. It is not known whether there is a direct long-term effect of training or if ...
Buhl R - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Although valvular regurgitation is diagnosed frequently by colour Doppler echocardiography in racehorses at rest, there is currently no information about the effect of exercise on valvular regurgitation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of light exercise on valvular regurgitation in a population of trotters. METHODS: Standardbred trotters ...
Sandersen C - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Stress echocardiography could be a useful diagnostic test in horses suspected to suffer from exercise-induced myocardial dysfunction as a cause of exercise intolerance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treadmill exercise and pharmacological stress test on left ventricular echocardiographic parameters. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 2 ...
Ohmura H - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is no good method for measuring net anaerobic power in exercising horses to allow accurate estimates of total metabolic power. HYPOTHESIS: The increase in VO2max when breathing hyperoxic (HO) gas should be accompanied by a stoichiometrically equal (in terms of ATP turnover, i.e. energy equivalents) ...
Vengust M - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Horses develop high pulmonary pressures during exercise, which force fluid out of pulmonary capillaries. Specific airway diseases in horses, especially those associated with hypoxaemia, hypercapnoea and acidosis may influence pulmonary haemodynamics and pulmonary interstitial fluid equilibrium. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine fluid flux (J(V-A) ...
Zawadzkas X A - - 2006
Prerace administration of frusemide to horses has been linked with a significant improvement in racing performance, but the basis for this improvement is unclear. To test whether improved performance with prerace administration of frusemide is due to the drug's diuresis-induced weight loss rather than its apparent alleviation of exercise-induced pulmonary ...
Jose-Cunilleras E - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The prevalence and severity of cardiac arrhythmias during exercise in athletic horses presented for poor performance is not well described. OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence and severity of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias immediately before, during and immediately after standardised incremental treadmill exercise tests (IET) to fatigue in ...
Holbrook T C TC Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, - - 2006
Information is lacking regarding the influence of long distance exercise on the systemic concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in horses. To determine if the concentration of cTnI in horses competing in 80 and 160 km endurance races increases with exercise duration and if cTnI concentrations can be correlated with ...
Lindner A A Arbeitsgruppe Pferd, Jülich, - - 2006
There is limited published work on the effect of training using intensive and short intervals of exercise to condition horses for racing. To examine the effect of conditioning horses 1, 2 or 3 x a week using 2 short fast exercise intervals on blood lactate (LA), plasma ammonia (NH3) and ...
Padilla D J DJ Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, - - 2006
During high intensity exercise, the very high pulmonary artery pressure (Ppa) experienced by Thoroughbred horses is considered a major factor in the aetiology of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Recently, endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictive hormone, has been found to increase Ppa in horses at rest via binding to its ET-1A ...
Boyle A G AG Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 382 W Street Road, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania 19348, - - 2006
Dynamic pharyngeal collapse (PC) is a condition seen in racehorses that can be career-ending. To characterise and grade PC and describe the effects of PC on athletic performance. Medical records were reviewed for 828 horses, of which 49 (6%) records were identified as horses with a primary diagnosis of PC. ...
Davis Michael - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the appearance and function of gastrointestinal mucosa are common after strenuous exercise. However, the duration of exercise required to alter the gastrointestinal mucosa has not been reported. HYPOTHESIS: We used 42 sled dogs to test the hypothesis that the magnitude of exercise-induced gastrointestinal mucosal dysfunction is related ...
de Grauw Janny C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether reported alterations in metabolism of cartilage matrix in young (0 to 24 months old) horses with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) may also be found in older (24 to 48 months old) horses with clinical signs of OCD and to investigate the role of eicosanoids in initiating these ...
Dahlberg Jessica A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To measure alterations in lameness severity that occur following use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in horses with naturally occurring unilateral forelimb lameness. DESIGN: Nonrandomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: 9 horses with unilateral forelimb lameness. PROCEDURES: Force platform gait analysis was performed prior to administration of any treatments (baseline) ...
Burn J F - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The presence of abnormal respiratory sounds is commonly associated with obstructions of the upper respiratory tract. In order to establish their clinical significance measurements are required of both normal and abnormal respiratory sounds produced by horses exercising over-ground. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether high quality recordings of ...
Christ-Crain Mirjam - - 2006
Neurotensin is produced mainly in the N cells of the ileum and has a role in appetite regulation; levels are decreased in obese subjects and increase after bariatric surgery. Mature neurotensin is very unstable, with a short half-life. The objective of this study was to compare baseline and postoperative levels ...
Soulsby Clare T CT Centre for Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, Barts and The London Medical School, London, - - 2006
Continuous nasogastric infusion is commonly used to deliver enteral feed but current methods used to assess tolerance based on aspiration and measurement of gastric residual volume have been criticised. Electric impedance tomography (EIT) measures gastric emptying by monitoring changes in epigastric impedance when a meal progressively empties from the stomach. ...
Tennent-Brown B S - - 2006
Dehydration and the associated impairment of cardiovascular and thermoregulatory function comprise major veterinary problems in horses performing prolonged exercise, particularly under hot and humid conditions. For these reasons, there is considerable interest in using pre-exercise hyperhydration to help maintain blood volume in the face of the excessive fluid loss associated ...
Xu Xiaohong - - 2006
Previous studies have shown that sildenafil inhibits the esophageal motility in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sildenafil on intestinal myoelectrical activity and motility. The study was composed of 2 experiments and performed in 7 healthy female dogs with a duodenal ...
Binn M - - 2006
Ghrelin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in animals where its effect appeared mediated through the vagus nerve. We aimed to verify the gastrokinetic capacity of ghrelin in human. Patients with gastroparesis attributed to a neural dysregulation by diabetes (n = 5) or surgical vagotomy (n = 1) were ...
Haussler K K - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: An objective measure of neck, back and croup pain is needed in horses with musculoskeletal injuries, vague upper limb lameness or poor performance. OBJECTIVES: To establish mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) within the axial skeleton and evaluate the effects of subject status and ridden exercise. METHODS: Thirty-six ...
Kedzierski W - - 2006
The objective of the present study was to compare changes of blood parameters induced by the same work and performed in the same conditions in two racehorse breeds, Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise was studied in 20 stallions--ten Thoroughbreds, aged 2-3 years and the same number ...
Jonderko K - - 2005
AIM: To check on reproducibility of parameters of the cutaneous electrogastrogram registered at a close or a distant time span. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers recruited by an advertisement (11 females and 11 males, median age 25 years, range: 18-35) underwent three surface electrogastrography examinations of which two were taken on consecutive ...
Padilla, Danielle Jessica
The components of the O2 transport pathway can be divided into (along with their respective circulations) the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems. They must operate in tight conjunction with one another, especially during dynamic exercise, to sustain ATP production within muscle mitochondria. Any limitation placed on the O2 transport ...
Gehlen Heidrun - - 2006
The heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PWP) was measured in 10 healthy warmblood horses and in six warmblood horses with atrial fibrillation (AF) at rest and during standardised treadmill exercise. During treadmill exercise, the increase in heart rate was significantly higher in the horses with AF than ...
Sun Ying - - 2006
Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has recently been explored as a therapeutic option for gastrointestinal motility disorders or obesity. The mechanism behind it is not fully elucidated. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of GES with different parameters on antral tone and to explore the involvement of ...
Eliashar E - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Desmopathy of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon (ALDDFT) in the hindlimb is an unusual cause of lameness in horses, and reports of the condition are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical and ultrasonographic findings, therapy and outcome of 23 horses treated for ...
Firshman Anna M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of dexamethasone on insulin sensitivity, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity 4 hours after exercise, and muscle glycogen concentration in Quarter Horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). ANIMALS: 4 adult Quarter Horses with PSSM. PROCEDURE: A 2 x 2 crossover design was used with dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) ...
Wyse C A - - 2005
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of changes to the stable environment on exhaled markers of respiratory inflammation in six horses with clinical histories of recurrent airway obstruction. The horses were maintained for two weeks under conventional stable management (straw bedding and hay) and for two ...
Barakzai S Z - - 2005
Race records were obtained for 31 thoroughbred racehorses that were treated conservatively (rest, improvement of fitness and/or use of a tongue tie) for dorsal displacement of the soft palate, and for 62 matched control horses. Their racing performance, based on prize money won, was compared for three races run before ...
McClure Scott R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether conditions representing activities that are typical in the recreational use of horses, including transport to and from show grounds, stall confinement in unfamiliar surroundings, and light exercise, are associated with increased incidence of gastric ulcers in horses. DESIGN: Randomized controlled study. ANIMALS: 20 client-owned horses. PROCEDURE: ...
Verheyen K L P - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Dorsometacarpal disease (DMD) is common in young Thoroughbred (TB) racehorses, often interfering with their training programme. No reports exist on incidence rate or associated risk factors in the UK. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence rate of DMD in TB horses in training for flat racing in ...
Woodie J B - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Correct placement of sutures ('laryngeal tie-forward') in experimentally created dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) has been observed to replace the function of the thyrohyoideus muscles and prevent DDSP. HYPOTHESIS: The 'laryngeal tie-forward' procedure would prevent or delay the occurrence of DDSP during exercise in ...
Woodie J B - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) is a common condition in racehorses for which various surgical treatments are often performed. In light of recent findings that suggested the position of the larynx may influence the occurrence of DDSP, we investigated whether a noninvasive mean of ...
Brown J A - - 2005
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Little information is available regarding the prevalence of abnormalities of the upper airway and their association with performance in the general population of Thoroughbred racehorses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of selected abnormalities of the upper airway and their association with performance in Thoroughbred racehorses in ...
Burtscher Martin M Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Fürstenweg 185 , Innsbruck, - - 2005
L-arginine-L-aspartate is widely used by athletes for its potentially ergogenic properties. However, only little information on its real efficacy is available from controlled studies. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of prolonged supplementation with L-arginine-L-aspartate on metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal exercise in healthy athletes by a double blind placebo-controlled ...
Klein C - - 2006
AIM: To improve the outcome of parameters measured by the impulse oscillometry system (IOS) in horses by separate assessment of inspiratory and expiratory impedance spectra in the frequency range between 1 and 10 Hz. As basis for further studies, the influence of sedation with xylazine on respiratory impedance was also ...
Hebenbrock M - - 2005
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are considered suitable to monitor the position and velocity of horses during cross-country competition or in training. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of life data such as heart rate could be useful to assess the horse's condition during exercise. To test the suitability and reliability of a commercially ...
Suwannachot Pisit - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of moderate short-term training on K+ regulation in plasma and erythrocytes during exercise and on skeletal muscle Na+,K(+)-ATPase concentration in young adult and middle-aged horses. ANIMALS: Four 4- to 6-year-old and four 10- to 16-year-old Dutch Warmblood horses. PROCEDURE: The horses underwent a 6-minute exercise ...
Koenig Judith - - 2005
The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained ...
Collinder E - - 2005
The opioid neuropeptide haemorphin-7 was measured, by immunoreactivity, in Standardbred horses during low-speed (7 m/s) and high-speed (10 m/s) endurance exercises, lasting 49-58 and 12-16 min respectively. In parallel, heart rate, muscle temperature and plasma lactate concentrations were measured. The profile of the low-speed exercise showed significantly increased heart rate ...
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