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Results 201 - 250 of 1083
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Xu Junying - - 2008
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sibutramine on gastric emptying, small-bowel contractions, rectal tone and compliance, and gastrointestinal myoelectrical activity. The study was performed in 14 dogs. It was composed of three separate experiments: gastric emptying of liquids and gastrointestinal slow waves; small-bowel contractions; and ...
Haussler Kevin K - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To measure passive spinal movements induced during dorsoventral mobilization and evaluate effects of induced pain and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on passive vertebral mobility in standing horses. ANIMALS: 10 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES: Baseline vertical displacements, applied force, stiffness, and frequency of the oscillations were measured during dorsoventral spinal ...
Kawasaki Naruo - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility based on differences in the administration site and timing. We sutured strain-gauge transducers to the stomach (three), duodenum (one), jejunum (one), ileum (one), and colon (two) and inserted indwelling tubes into the ...
Barakzai S Z - - 2007
To report ventroaxial luxation of the apex of the left or right corniculate process of the arytenoid cartilage under the contralateral corniculate process during resting endoscopic examination, and morphologic features of the larynx of 1 affected horse. Retrospective study. Horses (n=8). Horses had endoscopic examination as part of a survey ...
Kusch Sigrid - - 2008
Experiments on methanogenesis from horse dung were conducted in laboratory-scale batch reactors in order to determine the substrate performance in a solid-phase digestion process, more specifically in terms of potential energy recovery and suitable process technology. Dung from a horse stable with straw bedding was used. The temperature was kept ...
Delesalle Cathérine - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Intestinal hypoperfusion can lead to increased lactate concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid of horses with colic. HYPOTHESIS: The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate the reliability of the Accusport analyzer to assess peritoneal fluid lactate (PFL) concentrations in healthy horses and those with colic, (2) identify ...
Murray R C - - 2007
Adaptation of osteochondral tissues is based on the strains experienced during exercise at each location within the joint. Different exercise intensities and types may induce particular site-specific strains, influencing osteochondral adaptation and potentially predisposing to injury. Our hypotheses were that patterns of equine distal tarsal subchondral bone (SCB) thickness relate ...
Cotovio Mário M Departamento de Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, - - 2007
In humans and experimental animals, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) causes fibrin deposition in several organs, which eventually leads to ischemia and multiorgan failure. Horses who died or were euthanized for severe gastrointestinal disorders could have fibrin deposits in different tissues. Tissue-organ samples collected during postmortem examinations on 66 colic horses ...
Davidson Elizabeth J - - 2007
CASE DESCRIPTION: 3 racehorses were evaluated because of poor performance or abnormal noise originating from the upper portion of the respiratory tract. CLINICAL FINDINGS: During maximal exercise, initial dynamic videoendoscopy of the upper respiratory tract revealed complete arytenoid cartilage abduction in 2 horses and incomplete but adequate abduction of the ...
Helal Ibrahim E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentrations in response to exercise in horses. ANIMALS: 15 horses in experiment 1 and 27 horses in experiment 2. PROCEDURES: In experiment 1, 15 Thoroughbreds free of orthopedic disease underwent a standardized exercise protocol. Running velocity and heart rate ...
Bell R J W - - 2007
AIM: To establish the prevalence and factors influencing the prevalence and severity of gastric ulceration in racehorses in New Zealand. METHODS: Horses (n=171) in active training for racing by trainers (n=24) located throughout New Zealand were examined using gastroscopy during 2003 and 2004. Images of the examination were recorded and ...
Catalani G - - 2007
During acute exercise several significant cardiovascular alterations take place, along with possible physiopathological consequences, such as Exercise Inducted Pulmonary Haemorrhage (EIPH). Given the relevance of blood rheology in the determination of flow resistance and its supposed participation in the stated events, the present paper focuses on the analysis of modifications ...
Nagell Carl Frederic - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7-36)amide) is an intestinal hormone that is released in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and is believed to inhibit gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 may play a role in hunger and thirst regulation. In vivo, GLP-1 is rapidly (within minutes) ...
Alaei Hojjatallah H Department of Physiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , - - 2007
Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent ...
van de Pol C - - 2007
Measuring the height at the withers of a pony is one of the requirements of the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI), before competitors can participate in an official pony event. A pony has to be measured each year until it is eight years old. With and without shoes the height at ...
Simon Erika L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the amount of time required for surface temperatures of thoracic and pelvic limbs in horses to return to pre-exercise temperatures after high-speed treadmill exercise, as detected via infrared thermographic imaging. DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: 6 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES: All horses had been trained on and conditioned to use ...
Berndt Annerose - - 2007
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is characterized by neutrophilic airway inflammation and obstruction, and stabling of susceptible horses triggers acute disease exacerbations. Stable dust is rich in endotoxin, which is recognized by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. In human bronchial epithelium, TLR4 stimulation leads to elevation of interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression. The ...
Deaton Christopher M - - 2007
Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) has been used as a naturally occurring model of human asthma. However, it is unknown whether there is an early-phase response in RAO. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to organic dust induces immediate changes in lung function in RAO-affected horses, ...
Gentilcore D - - 2006
Scintigraphy represents the 'gold standard' for the measurement of gastric emptying. Recent studies suggest that three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography may allow a precise measure of gastric emptying, given the capacity for accurate volume calculations of the stomach. The aim of this study was to compare measurements of gastric emptying of both ...
Fazio F - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine the daily rhythms in the blood serum of homocysteine in horses. Ten thoroughbred horses, five athletic (trained for 1 h, 6 days a week) and five sedentary, were used. Blood samples were collected on each subject every 4 h for two days ...
Robinson P - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Recent studies have evaluated surgical techniques aimed at reducing noise and improving airway function in horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). These techniques require general anaesthesia and are invasive. A minimally invasive transnasal surgical technique for treatment of RLN that may be employed in the standing, ...
Schaer B L Dallap - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is a need to determine accelerations acting on the equine hoof under field conditions in order to better assess the risks for orthopaedic health associated with shoeing practices and/or surface conditions. OBJECTIVES: To measure the acceleration profiles generated in Thoroughbred racehorses exercising at high speeds ...
Ryan C T - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: A device is needed to safely and wirelessly evaluate accelerations experienced by the horse hoof under a variety of surface conditions with the horse exercising at training or racing speeds. OBJECTIVES: To develop a miniaturised wireless data acquisition system (WDAS) which reliably records hoof accelerations and ...
Naylor Jonathan M - - 2006
The effect of changes in feed intake on auscultatable gastrointestinal sounds has not been systematically studied. Disagreement also is present in the literature about variation in sounds according to the quadrant of auscultation. Gastrointestinal sounds were recorded over the center of the left dorsal, left ventral, right ventral, and right ...
Léguillette Renaud - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) alters respiratory mechanics of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (ie, heaves) over a 48-hour period. ANIMALS: 6 horses affected with heaves. PROCEDURES: Horses were subjected to a complete BAL procedure, which included sedation with xylazine and butorphanol, intratracheal administration of lidocaine, and instillation ...
Florence L - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Despite growing interest in application natural models of hoof-maintenance in domestic horses, little data is available to describe natural conformation and proposed mechanisms of self-maintenance. OBJECTIVES: Quantitatively describe hoof growth and wear during a period of 'self-trimming' within a herd of semi-feral ponies. METHODS: Hoof length, ...
Turner K K - - 2006
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of supplementation of Dynamic Trio 50/50, a bee pollen-based product, to improve physical fitness, blood leukocyte profiles, and nutritional variables in exercised horses. Ten Arabian horses underwent a standardised exercise test (SET), then were pair-matched by sex and fitness and ...
Steingoetter Andreas - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Gastric contents empty from the stomach despite frequent changes in body position. The mechanism that maintains gastric emptying independent of position is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body position on gastric emptying and motor function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve volunteers were ...
Lane J G - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY AND OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of single and complex forms of dynamic airway obstructions within a large group of Thoroughbred horses in training referred for investigation of poor performance. METHODS: Video-endoscopic recordings of the upper respiratory tract made during a standardised treadmill exercise test of ...
Bröjer Johan T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine concentrations of proglycogen (PG), macroglycogen (MG), glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in skeletal muscle of horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) before and after performing light submaximal exercise. ANIMALS: 6 horses with PSSM and 4 control horses. PROCEDURES: Horses with PSSM completed repeated intervals of 2 minutes of ...
Lane J G - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The reliability of diagnoses of obstructive conditions of the upper respiratory tract (URT) based on examinations performed at rest vs. at exercise is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnosis of URT by endoscopy at rest with that achieved during high-speed treadmill exercise (HSTE). HYPOTHESIS: Endoscopy of URT ...
Wada Yoshiyuki - - 2006
We have recently demonstrated in a Phase I/II study that combination chemotherapy with docetaxel (TXT) and S-1 is active against metastatic gastric carcinomas. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the synergistic effects of these drugs, both the growth inhibitory effects and the expression profiles of enzymes involved in fluorouracil (5-FU) metabolism ...
Nankervis K J - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The use of water treadmill exercise in horses is popular, although little is known about the physiological responses to this form of exercise. No information exists regarding the time taken to acclimate to water treadmill exercise compared to that of high-speed treadmill exercise, for both physiological ...
Gramkow H L - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Running ability of Thoroughbred racehorses is correlated with maximal oxygen uptake, and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake is highly correlated with the velocity at maximal heart rate (VHRmax). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between VHRmax and racing performance, expressed as 'peak dollars earned per race ...
Muñoz A - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Trot is a symmetric gait and asymmetry might appear or increase during endurance rides due to lameness, pain or excessive fatigue. HYPOTHESIS: To assess whether trot asymmetry increases during endurance competitions, whether it is possible to discriminate between horses with different performance and also its possible ...
Hoyt D F - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Although there have been reports of oxygen consumption measurements of horses running on the level and incline, there are no measurements during decline locomotion. This may be due, in part, to the potential for muscle damage produced by eccentric contractions. In man, running on a 10% ...
Wickler S J - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The relationship between fatigue and stride and/or muscle stiffness requires further study. OBJECTIVE: To measure stride parameters in horses undergoing fatigue associated with running at submaximal speeds both on a treadmill and in an endurance ride. HYPOTHESIS: Stride frequencies and estimates of hindlimb stiffness would be ...
Gordon M E - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Horses in training tend to become inappetant; however, the mechanism responsible for this training-induced inappetance is not known. HYPOTHESIS: Training and/or ulcers alter the feed intake (FI) and hormonal and/or biochemical (active ghrelin, leptin, glucose, insulin and cortisol) responses to acute high intensity exercise. METHODS: Eight ...
Cayado P - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: It is recognised that the amount of psychological stress that an animal encounters determines the degree of response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In human athletes, the added emotive stress of competition is an important element in the adrenal response. The aim of this study was ...
Graves E A - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Limited information exists about changes in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations during prolonged endurance exercise in horses. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of prolonged exercise on serum iodothyronine concentrations in horses performing endurance exercise of varying distances. METHODS: Serum concentrations of iodothyronines were measured in horses before ...
Waller A - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In human and animal clinical practice, multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is increasingly used as a diagnostic tool to assess hydration of intra-and extracellular fluid compartments. Accurate determination of changes in hydration status within individuals over time has remained problematic due to the requirement for complete ...
McKeever K H - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) causes an increase in red blood cell production and aerobic capacity in other species; however, data are lacking on effects in the horse. HYPOTHESIS: This study tested the hypothesis that rhuEPO administration would alter red cell volume (RCV), aerobic capacity (VO2max) and ...
Weishaupt M A - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Little is known in quantitative terms about the influence of different head-neck positions (HNPs) on the loading pattern of the locomotor apparatus. Therefore it is difficult to predict whether a specific riding technique is beneficial for the horse or if it may increase the risk for ...
Mukai K - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Thoroughbred racehorses often experience interruptions to their training. Identifying the effects of these changes and how they alter athletic performance might provide an insight on to how to prevent these changes from occurring. HYPOTHESIS: Training and detraining young Thoroughbreds alters their aerobic capacities with correlated changes ...
McKeever J M - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: A large percentage of performance horses develop gastric ulcers and many of those horses are treated with omeprazole. Unfortunately, no data have been published on the effects of the drug on markers of performance in animals without ulcers. HYPOTHESIS: Omeprazole would alter markers of aerobic and ...
Art T - - 2006
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: In man, exercise of any type has been shown to induce neutrophil degranulation and respiratory burst activity, as well as an increase in plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Until now, it is not known whether this ...
Foreman J H - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Horses generate considerable internal heat burdens when exercising. Although common practice for a trainer or groom to place a wet blanket or towel on the dorsum of a hot horse post exercise, there are no data supporting the efficacy of this cooling method. OBJECTIVE: To test ...
Holcombe Susan J - - 2006
To determine (1) if the cricothyroid muscle had respiratory-related electromyographic (EMG) activity that increased with respiratory effort and (2) if bilateral cricothyroid myotomy resulted in vocal fold instability and collapse in exercising horses. Experimental. Seven (3 EMG; 4 cricothyroid myotomy) Standardbred horses. Three horses exercised on a treadmill at speeds ...
Treiber K H - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Glucose regulation is critical for health and exercise performance. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effects of exercise and diet on insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (Sg), acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and disposition index (DI) in horses. METHODS: This study applied the minimal model of glucose ...
Castejón F - - 2006
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is limited understanding of the uric acid response to endurance races. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate uric acid increments and its relationship to diverse biochemical and performance parameters, in horses subjected to a prolonged effort, with and without presentation of metabolic alterations. METHODS: Blood samples were taken ...
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