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Results 651 - 700 of 1082
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Mudambo K S - - 1997
The effects of exercise on gastric emptying remain controversial, with some workers reporting that heavy exercise inhibits it to varying degrees whereas others report no effects up to an intensity of 70% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). The state of hydration of the subjects and the environmental conditions may influence the ...
Atkins T W - - 1997
Spherical microporous reservoir-type microcapsules, fabricated using a W/O/W double emulsion technique with solvent evaporation and composed of 330 kD poly(beta-hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate (P(HB-HV)) (10.8% HV)/20% PCL II containing a range of bovine serum albumin (BSA) loadings, were incubated in Hank's buffer, pH 7.4, newborn calf serum (NCS), 1.5% pancreatin and synthetic gastric ...
Christley R M - - 1997
The relationship between different grades of laryngeal function, as assessed by endoscopy at rest, and the measurements of indices of gas exchange and exercise capacity was assessed during a standardised treadmill exercise test in 149 horses. Horses with abnormalities other than idiopathic laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) were excluded from the study ...
Mills P C - - 1997
Allopurinol was administered to six horses in a cross-over study to determine the relative contribution of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the horse during intense exercise. Exercise increased the mean (SEM) plasma lipid hydroperioxide concentration to a maximum of 492.7 (33.4) microM ...
Kobluk C N - - 1996
This article deals with the presenting histories, clinical examinations, and therapies of the causes of poor performance and exercise intolerance in the western performance horse and the sprint racehorse. The veterinarian's ability to diagnose and treat various pathophysiologic conditions that affect these horses is crucial to the major goals of ...
Moore B R - - 1996
Lower respiratory tract disease is an important source of poor performance and exercise intolerance in racehorses and middle-aged sport horses. Horses that perform high-intensity exercise are predisposed to development of infectious and noninfectious respiratory disease. Diagnostic aids for investigation of lower respiratory tract disease include thorough thoracic auscultation with rebreathing, ...
Valberg S J - - 1996
The muscular system of the horse is remarkable in its athletic scope and capacity to adapt to the demands placed on it. Muscular fatigue often causes exercise intolerance in horses as a primary muscular dysfunction or secondary to abnormalities in other integrated systems such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, or skeletal ...
Mitten L A - - 1996
Exercise intolerance, due to cardiovascular disease in horses, may be caused by cardiac arrhythmias, valvular regurgitation, congenital abnormalities, myocardial dysfunction, pericardial disease, and vascular thrombosis. The most common cardiovascular cause of exercise intolerance in horses is atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular abnormalities such as cardiac arrhythmias or murmurs, however, are common in ...
Lilich J D - - 1996
The diagnostic approach to the exercise intolerant racehorse depends on sound, fundamental steps to allow complete examination of the entire horse in a logical, time-efficient fashion. Availability of referral diagnostic modalities should not overshadow the need for collecting a clinical history or performing a complete physical examination. The diagnostic approach ...
Hendrickson D A - - 1996
The determination of poor performance in the young or unproven horse can be a difficult experience for the practitioner. This article describes an incremental exercise test that may be helpful in determining the cause of poor performance in horses when a complete physical examination and a lameness examination fail to ...
Foreman J H - - 1996
Metabolic causes of exercise intolerance can be subtle and difficult to document in horses. Because of increased metabolic rate in exercising muscle, most metabolic causes of exercise intolerance are clinically manifested by muscle abnormalities such as ER. Newer causes of ER are being documented by current research and are summarized ...
Tetens J - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty with and without bilateral ventriculocordectomy for treatment of experimentally induced left laryngeal hemiplegia (LLH). ANIMALS: 15 adult Standardbreds. PROCEDURE: Horses were allotted to 3 equal groups. Sham operation (group 1), prosthetic laryngoplasty (group 2), or prosthetic laryngoplasty with bilateral ventriculocordectomy (group 3) ...
Ainsworth D M - - 1996
Horses chronically-instrumented with costal diaphragmatic electromyographic electrodes were studied during exercise while unencumbered by a breathing mask. Exercise-associated changes in esophageal (Pes), gastric (Pga) and transdiaphragmatic (Pdi) pressures were measured and related to diaphragmatic electromyographic activity (CS EMG) and to left forelimb impact. In all breaths examined, CS EMG always ...
Hinchcliff K W - - 1996
We theorized that furosemide-induced weight reduction would reduce the contribution of anaerobic metabolism to energy expenditure of horses during intense exertion. The effects of furosemide on accumulated O2 deficit and plasma lactate concentration of horses during high-intensity exercise were examined in a three-way balance randomized crossover study. Nine horses completed ...
Gonvers J J - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: This prospective study tested the appropriateness of referrals for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in an open-access endoscopy unit, using the criteria of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. It also examined whether there was any relationship between appropriateness of use and the presence of significant lesions detected ...
Mills P C - - 1996
1. The effects of exercise on the production rate of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled air (VNO) and the effects of inhaled NO (80 p.p.m.) on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were investigated in five Throughbred horses. 2. The concentration of NO ([NO]) in exhaled air collected from within the nasal ...
Weiss D J - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pentoxifylline treatment altered hematologic, rheologic, electrolyte, or blood gas test results of Thoroughbreds during submaximal treadmill exercise. ANIMALS: 5 healthy Thoroughbreds that had raced within the past year and had no history of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. PROCEDURE: Mixed venous blood samples were obtained before exercise, at ...
Manohar M - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of phenylbutazone administration on heart rate and right atrial and pulmonary vascular pressures in Thoroughbreds during rest and during exercise performed at maximal heart rate. ANIMALS: 7 healthy, exercise-conditioned Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURE: Horses were studied on 3 occasions: without medication [control], after i.v. administration of phenylbutazone ...
Chen J D - - 1996
Gastric myoelectrical activity modulates gastric motor activity. Abnormalities in gastric myoelectrical activity may be associated with gastric motility disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of gastric myoelectrical activity with gastric emptying in symptomatic patients with and without gastroparesis. Ninety-seven patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis ...
Waran N K - - 1996
The effects of transporting horses facing either forwards or backwards were compared by transporting six thoroughbred horses in pairs in a lorry on one journey facing in the direction of travel, and on another journey facing away from the direction of travel, over a standard one-hour route. Heart rate monitors ...
Saville W J - - 1996
The clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics of fatal necrotizing enterocolitis were examined in 16 horses (age 4 months to 12 years). At initial presentation, 8 of 16 horses were pyrexic (median temperature, 38.4 degrees C; range, 33.8 to 40.6 degrees C); all 16 were tachycardic (median heart rate, 93 bpm, range, ...
Gauvreau G M - - 1996
A valved gas collection system for horses was validated, then used to examine the relationship between the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and plasma and muscle lactate in exercising horses. Four healthy Standardbred horses were trained to breathe through the apparatus while exercising on a treadmill. Comparisons of arterial blood gas ...
Williamson L H - - 1996
Blood samples were collected 12-16 h before the Speed and Endurance test, immediately after steeplechase, midway through Phase C (4 km marker), at the end of Phase C and immediately after cross-country from 36 horses that completed a 3-day-event at the CCI* (n = 19) or CCI** (n = 17) ...
Kirberger R M - - 1996
Twelve horses were injected intra-articularly into the metacarpophalangeal joint and extra-articularly in the region of the lateral palmar digital nerve with 1 ml air and local anaesthetic to simulate gas accidentally introduced during regional anaesthesia. Half the horses underwent limited exercise after which all horses were radiographed at 15 and ...
Scott C M - - 1996
Modification of a ventilated capsule technique for the measurement of sweating rate (SR) is described for application in an exercising horse. The plastic capsule was sealed against the coat of the horse. Dry air was blown through the capsule over the skin and the change in absolute humidity (g/m3) between ...
Schroter R C - - 1996
Heart rate and gait characteristics (stride length and frequency) were studied in 6 horses subjected to a standardised incremental exercise test, involving moving at the trot and increasing speeds up to a fast gallop and subsequently during the steeplechase phase of a 3-day-event. The studies were performed in hot conditions. ...
Marlin D J - - 1996
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different environmental conditions on physiological response to exercise. Four winter acclimatised, nonheat acclimated horses of different breeds were exercised at 20 degrees C/40% RH (CD), 30 degrees C/40% RH (HD) and 30 degrees C/80% RH (HH). The exercise ...
Hyyppä S - - 1996
Nine adult riding horses performed on a treadmill a competition exercise test (CET) and 24 h later a standardised exercise test (SET) at mean temperature 28 degrees C and relative humidity 58%. Each horse performed the tests 5 times at 2 week intervals. The horses were given isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution ...
Bagley J S - - 1996
Change itself is distressing and today changes are coming from all directions. There has been a great deal of horse trading over the transitional arrangements but, now this is complete, there are grounds for optimism over the future of surgical training in the UK. I hope we can use the ...
Clark C K - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide antacid and bismuth subsalicylate on gastric pH in clinically normal horses and to develop guidelines on the use of these agents for treatment of peptic ulcer disease in horses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. ANIMALS: 5 clinically normal adult horses with ...
Otto K A - - 1996
The effects of noxious surgical stimulation on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 15 horses anesthetized with isoflurane were evaluated during orthopedic (group 1) and soft tissue (group 2) procedures. The quantitative EEG variables theta/delta ratio (T/D), alpha/delta ratio (A/D), beta/delta ratio (B/D), median power frequency (MED), and 80% spectral edge frequency ...
Rao S S - - 1996
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Duodenal infusion of HCl or lipid delays gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to assess whether this delay was in part caused by mechanical activity of the duodenum. METHODS: Synchronized videofluoroscopy and manometry was used in 8 volunteers (5 men and 3 women) to examine ...
Scheffer C J - - 1996
In the horse, it is important to make a reliable ECG recording during exercise as cardiac arrhythmia is one of the possible causes of poor performance. The purpose of the present study was to obtain a satisfactory, standardized method for ECG recording by computer during a standardized treadmill exercise test ...
Theoret C L - - 1996
The reparative ability of equine synovium was determined by gross, histological, and ultrastructural examination. The functional potential of the synovium was estimated by examination of synovial cell organelles with transmission electron microscopy. Results from rested and exercised horses were compared to determine the effect of exercise on synovial healing. The ...
Kuwabara M - - 1996
Hotbred (Thoroughbred) horses were grouped into three classes according to the levels of constant physical exercise (foals, 6 months old; racing horses, 5 years old; horses for breeding, 6-10 years old), and lipid peroxide levels in their sera were measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. No significant differences were observed among ...
Stolk M F - - 1996
Impaired postprandial gallbladder emptying may be an important factor in cholesterol crystals precipitation and subsequent gallstone formation. We previously found strongly increased bile salt concentrations in gallbladder bile of gallstone patients with weak (< 50% fasting volume) postprandial gallbladder contraction compared to patients with strong (> 50%) postprandial contraction. Therefore, ...
Desmecht D - - 1996
Fifty-eight healthy horses were studied during five sporting events of various intensities and durations, namely show-jumping (n = 6), cross-country in a three-day event (n = 30), trotting races (n = 7), galloping races (n = 7) and endurance rides (n = 8). Venous blood samples were collected at rest ...
Escribano B M - - 1995
A study has been made of the variations experienced by the hemogram and blood volume indices in 16 Andalusian horses after carrying out an exercise test of increasing intensity consisting of 3 sequences of 1000 m each, before and after being subjected to a daily exercise programme for two months. ...
Palmer J L - - 1995
The relevance of site and the influence of exercise on third carpal articular cartilage proteoglycan (PG) were assessed in 16 horses. Six horses were exercised (exercised group) for 30 minutes, 3 times/wk, for 6 weeks. The other 10 horses (nonexercised group) were housed in box stalls for the same 6-week ...
Karaus M - - 1995
We investigated the relationship between absorption rate, flow rate, fluid load and colonic motor activity in an in vivo isolated colonic loop model. Motor activity was recorded by implanted strain gauge transducers. Two electrolyte solutions were perfused at 0.4 and 1.6 mL min-1 through the open colonic loop (distal end ...
Lund R J - - 1995
This study determined the maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) of Thoroughbred horses acclimatised to mild hypobaric conditions using a standard exercise test on a treadmill inclined at a 7% slope. The O2 uptake (VO2) versus speed relationship was linear below the exercise intensity required to attain VO2max. The VO2max of individual ...
White S L - - 1995
The exercise intensity of horses competing in 3-day combined training events at 3 different levels of competition (CCI, n = 7; CCI, n = 11; CCI, n = 23) was investigated. Environmental conditions during all events were cool with 100% cloud cover. Heart rates were continuously recorded at 5 s ...
Harris P A - - 1995
Four horses (H, J, N and M) undertook a treadmill competition exercise test (CET), designed to simulate the physiological and metabolic stresses of the Speed and Endurance phase of a 3-day-event, under 3 different environmental conditions: 20 degrees C/40% relative humidity (RH) (cool, dry [CD]: 2 sessions); 30 degrees C/40%RH ...
Harris P A - - 1995
Four horses (H, J, N and M) undertook a simulated competition exercise test (CET), designed to simulate physiological and metabolic stresses of the Speed and Endurance (S & E) test of a 3-day-event, under 3 different environmental conditions: 20 degrees C/40% relative humidity (RH) (cool, dry [CD] 2 sessions); 30 ...
Art T - - 1995
The purpose of this study was 1) to measure and compare some physiological parameters in horses during a standardised treadmill exercise performed either in temperate atmospheric conditions (TC) (ambient temperature: 15 degrees C; relative humidity: 55%), or in hot and humid conditions (HHC) (ambient temperature: 30 degrees C; relative humidity: ...
Andrews F M - - 1995
Thirty-four horses competing in the Endurance Test of a 3-day-event were divided into 3 groups: horses in Group 1 (n = 15) competing in a 3.5 min steeplechase phase; horses in Group 2 (n = 13) in a 3 min steeplechase phase (Phase B) and horses in Group 3 (n ...
Ecker G L - - 1995
Loss of total body water and ions during prolonged exercise can predispose the horse to health and performance problems. This study examined total body water (TBW) losses and extracellular (ECF) ion losses during the cross-country (XC) phase of Preliminary, Intermediate and Advanced Horse Trials and CCI level 3-day-events. Jugular venous ...
Aramaki S - - 1995
The effects of exercise on the metabolism of caffeine (CA) were studied 3h after administration of the drug to race horses which then underwent exercise sets (1000-m gallop). Analysis was made of pharmacokinetics of CA, changes in its plasma concentrations, its metabolites, i.e., theophylline (TP), theobromine (TB) and paraxanthine (PX), ...
Kohn C W - - 1995
Physiological data were collected during two 3-day-event competitions: one (H) held in hot and the other (CL) in cool conditions. During H, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 2.5 degrees C-35 degrees C and 74-36% respectively, while during CL, ambient temperature and relative humidity were 7.8 degrees C-8.3 degrees C ...
Scheffer C W - - 1995
A method for the continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) of horses at rest and during exercise was evaluated in five healthy horses. The horses spent 24 hours in a loose box and performed a standardised exercise test on a treadmill during this period. Two bipolar leads were recorded, lead ...
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