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Couroucé A - - 1999
Standardised exercise tests were performed at 2 different tracks and on an uninclined treadmill during the same week to determine the influence of exercise surface on different measured variables such as heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration, packed cell volume, stride frequency, stride length, gait symmetry and regularity and on ...
Art T - - 1999
The effect of a COPD crisis on arterial blood gases, heart rate, lactate and indices of oxidative stress were investigated before, during and 1 h after a 'run up to fatigue' in 6 COPD horses. They were investigated twice, randomly: once in acute crisis (C) and once in clinical remission ...
Duren S E - - 1999
Six Thoroughbreds were used to evaluate time of feeding on changes in exercise response in horses receiving either a textured feed or a fat-supplemented textured feed. Using a crossover design, 3 horses were fed a fat-supplemented diet while 3 horses received a control ration of textured feed. Horses performed a ...
Morrison K E - - 1999
Pulmonary surfactant from bronchoalveolar lavages was obtained from 2 groups of horses. A control group consisting of 6 healthy racehorses that were paddock-rested and lavaged weekly for 6 consecutive weeks were compared with an experimental group of 10 healthy racehorses, lavaged weekly the same period, consisting of a 5 week ...
Benamou A E - - 1999
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents a major cause of loss of performance in the horse. The role of endothelin (ET), a potent bronchoconstrictive and vasoactive peptide, is currently being investigated in asthma and other obstructive respiratory diseases in man. We have previously found elevated systemic and pulmonary endothelin levels ...
Bailey J - - 1999
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a specific beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonist, albuterol sulphate, when delivered by metered-dose inhaler (MDI) would affect the performance of Thoroughbred horses during incremental exercise testing. Six conditioned Thoroughbred horses were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment groups: Group 1 ...
Pagan J D - - 1999
There is considerable debate among horsemen about how to feed horses before exercise. Should horses be fed or fasted before work and when should hay be fed relative to grain and/or exercise? Three experiments were conducted to evaluate if feeding hay with and without grain affects glycaemic and haematological responses ...
Tyler-McGowan C M - - 1999
We sought a physiological marker of overtraining in horses, using commonly practised field and laboratory tests to allow early prediction and treatment of the syndrome. Thirteen Standardbred horses were trained as follows: phase 1 (endurance, 7 weeks), phase 2 (high intensity, 9 weeks) and phase 3 (overload, 18 weeks). In ...
Sampson S N - - 1999
We evaluated the relationships of heart score (HS) and echocardiographic measures to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), maximal cardiac output (Qmax), and maximal stroke volume (SVmax). Six fit, mature Thoroughbred horses weighing (mean +/- s.e.) 487 +/- 11 kg were run 4 times on an inclined (10%) treadmill. Each run consisted ...
Votion D M - - 1999
We hypothesised that scintigraphic imaging of the lungs following injection of 99mTc labelled red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) in the exercising horse might enable exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) quantification. Ideally, to favour detection of bleeding, circulating 99mTc-RBC not involved in the haemorrhage should be removed from the circulation quickly. Altering RBC ...
Keegan R D - - 1999
Six horses were randomly assigned to receive either frusemide (F) (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or an equivalent volume of saline (S) i.v., 4 h prior to treadmill exercise. Horses were instrumented to enable measurement of heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) carotid arterial pressures, pulmonary artery pressure ...
De La Corte F D - - 1999
Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) in Quarter Horses (QH) and QH crosses is a glycogen storage disorder in which blood glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity, following an i.v. or oral glucose challenge, are enhanced. Exercise is known also to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in many animal species. Therefore, the ...
Goetz T E - - 1999
The objective of the present study was to ascertain whether administration of a second dose of frusemide would attenuate exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension more than a single dose. Right atrial, right ventricular and pulmonary vascular pressures were determined in 7 healthy, sound, exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses at rest and during exercise (14.2 ...
Funkquist P - - 1999
In order to evaluate the pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in Standardbred trotters with red cell hypervolaemia (RCHV), 12 horses with RCHV were compared with 9 normovolaemic (NV) horses. VO2 and VCO2 were determined with an open bias flow system. Cardiovascular and haemodynamic data were recorded during exercise at 4 ...
Hinchcliff K W - - 1999
We speculated that frusemide would attenuate the acidosis associated with intense exertion, and that weight carriage would mitigate this effect. Therefore, in each of 2 experiments we measured pulmonary artery and systemic arterial blood pH, PCO2, PO2 and pulmonary artery temperature in 9 horses during exertion on a treadmill after ...
Harris R C - - 1999
Plasma NH3, formed during intense exercise, results principally from the deamination of AMP in muscle. Its formation during exercise may be influenced both by the pool of fibres recruited and by changes in the intracellular environment affecting ADP homeostasis. This study compared incremental and constant speed exercise as possible protocols ...
Birch H L - - 1999
The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) functions as an energy store during high-speed gaits reducing the energetic cost of locomotion. To enable the SDFT to function effectively, the appropriate mechanical properties are essential. We tested the hypothesis that the SDFT does not undergo gross hypertrophy in response to high-intensity ...
Popot M A - - 1999
The cortisol threshold concentration of 1.0 microg/ml in horse urine adopted by the International Federation of the racing Authorities in 1994 is specific. However, an increase in the sensitivity for the detection of cortisol administration would be helpful. Previous studies have shown that 20beta-dihydrocortisol concentration in urine would be a ...
Kallings P - - 1999
An often discussed and controversial issue is the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the NSAID flunixin on the movement pattern and performance capacity of Standardbred trotters using a standardised track model. Five adult Standardbred horses in ...
Tougas G - - 1999
We examined the heart rate response to gastric distension, the involvement of vagal and sympathetic sensory afferents, adrenergic and cholinergic neural pathways, and the effects of capsaicin on this response in anesthetized rats. Gastric distension volume dependently decreased heart rate by 24.5% (resting rate = 219.87 +/- 14.06 beats/min, mean ...
Mehl M L - - 1999
Eight mature mares were exercised for 20 min at 60% VO2max and to fatigue at 95% VO2max. Plasma beta-endorphin (EN) concentrations were determined before exercise, after a 10 min warm-up, and at the end of each exercise test. Mean +/- s.e. beta-endorphin concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) higher following ...
Katz L M - - 1999
Horses exercising at > or = approximately 90% VO2max develop arterial hypoxaemia with concurrent hypercapnoea, whereas ponies exercising at comparative levels become hypocapnoeic and maintain arterial oxygen tensions close to resting values. We sought to investigate the possibility that these differences relate to the ventilatory responses of these animals to ...
Dutton D M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of horses with suprascapular nerve injury treated with stall rest alone. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 8 horses. PROCEDURE: Information on signalment, history, limbs affected, severity of lameness, degree of muscle atrophy, gait abnormalities, and results of radiography and electromyography was obtained from medical records. ...
van Harreveld P D - - 1999
AIM: To review the outcome of cases of left dorsal displacement of the large colon (LDDLC) treated with phenylephrine HCl and mild exercise. METHODS: Physical parameters, laboratory data, ultrasonographic findings and outcome were analysed in a retrospective study of 12 horses with a confirmed diagnosis of LDDLC which were treated ...
Jansson A - - 1999
The effect of feeding frequency and voluntary sodium intake (VSI) on fluid shifts and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were studied at rest and after exercise in six athletic horses. The horses were fed twice a day (2TD) and six times a day (6TD) for 25 days for each protocol, according ...
Horohov D W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare exercise-induced immune modulation in young and older horses. ANIMALS: 6 young and 6 aged horses that were vaccinated against equine influenza virus. PROCEDURE: Venous blood samples were collected for immunologic assessment before and immediately after exercise at targeted heart rates and after exercise for determination of plasma ...
Moran T H - - 1999
We examined the relationships between gastric volume and duodenal glucose load in the regulation of gastric emptying in adult male rhesus monkeys. Intragastric glucose loads (0.125 g/ml) of volumes ranging from 150 to 375 ml empty from the stomach at the same rate from 20 to 120 min. However, to ...
Mills P C - - 1999
The effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition during exercise on lactate production was investigated in five Thoroughbred horses. A standard exercise test (SET), consisting of three canters (approximately 55 per cent VO2max), with walking and trotting between each canter, was performed twice (control and test, in random order) by ...
Sandin A - - 1999
The effect of intramuscular (i.m.) omeprazole (0.25 or 1.0 mg/kg bwt; LD and HD), respectively, on volume, total acid output (TAO) and pH of the gastric juice was studied during 24 h in 5 horses with a chronically implanted gastric cannula. Whether secretion in controls was basal or stimulated with ...
Chiesa O A - - 1999
Percutaneous washes of the guttural pouches were obtained from two groups of 15 clinically normal horses, one lightly exercised and the other heavily exercised. Microbiological and cytological studies showed a wide variation in the differential cell counts. The cytological pattern of the normal lavages (< 5 per cent neutrophils) was ...
Couroucé A - - 1999
This review considers standardized exercise testing which is, routinely used for French Trotters in the field. Track testing provides a more limited range of measurements than treadmill testing, but has the advantage of being performed in the horse's natural environment. Various measurements such as heart rate during exercise and blood ...
Kohn C W - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body temperature of horses exercised in hot, humid conditions and then repetitively washed with cold water will decrease more rapidly than that of horses that are not washed, and to determine whether washing with cold water has deleterious effects on horses. ANIMALS: 5 physically fit Thoroughbred ...
Martin B B BB - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results of cytologic examination of specimens obtained by means of tracheal washes (TW) in 42 horses with a history of poor performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case series. ANIMALS: 42 horses with a history of poor performance. PROCEDURE: A TW was performed via endoscopy before and after horses exercised ...
Warren L K - - 1999
Because exercise fatigue has been associated with the accumulation of lactic acid, factors that influence lactate metabolism during exercise can potentially enhance performance. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental betaine on eight mature Thoroughbred horses before and after 8 wk of conditioning. The effects ...
Mellander A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with ...
Muñoz A - - 1999
The effects of two training programmes in 20 Andalusian and 12 Anglo-Arabian horses were evaluated by an increasing intensity work test at velocities of 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 m sec(-1). Heart rate was monitored and blood samples were drawn at rest and after each velocity to analyse packed ...
Kolkman J J JJ Department of Gastroenterology, Medical Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The - - 1999
Diagnosis of gastric ischaemia is difficult and angiography is an invasive procedure. Angiographic findings may not correlate with clinical importance. To investigate whether tonometric measurement of intragastric PCO2 during exercise can be used to detect clinically important gastric ischaemia. Fourteen patients with unexplained abdominal pain or weight loss were studied. ...
Lester G - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To examine effect of pre-exercise administration of furosemide (FUR) on mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) during work and RBC concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected 40 minutes after exercise. ANIMALS: 10 adult Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURE: A modified 10 X 10 crossover design comprising 10 horses during 10 weeks was ...
Valberg S J - - 1999
Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a distinct cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in Quarter Horses that results in glycogen and abnormal polysaccharide accumulation. The purpose of this study was to determine if excessive glycogen storage in PSSM is due to a glycolytic defect that impairs utilisation of this substrate during exercise. ...
Duvivier D H - - 1999
The present study evaluated ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters during recovery from strenuous exercise in horses suffering from a crisis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to determine whether ipratropium dry powder inhalation (DPI) before exercise has an effect on these parameters. When 6 saddle horses, affected with COPD, ...
Wilson J A - - 1998
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) responses to repeated sprints and to physical conditioning were studied in 10 Quarter Horses. Exercise tests (four repeated sprints on a treadmill) were conducted before and after 12 wk of sprint conditioning. Muscle samples from the middle gluteal muscle were taken before and after each exercise test, ...
Levy B - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of gastric and postpyloric enteral feeding on the gastric tonometric PCO2 gap (tonometric PCO2 - PaCO2). DESIGN: A prospective, clinical trial. SETTING: Two intensive care units in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and enteral feeding without catecholamines, sepsis, or sign of ...
Luiking Y C - - 1998
The migrating motor complex (MMC) shows large variations within an individual and between individuals. This study aimed to investigate, with respect to this variability, the importance of gastric or duodenal origin of phase III activity. Interdigestive 6- to 10-h stationary antroduodenal motility recordings of 19 healthy male subjects were analyzed ...
Aguilera-Tejero E - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of exercise on blood ionized calcium (Ca2+) and plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in horses and to compare the effects of exercise-induced and EDTA-induced hypocalcemia on PTH secretion. ANIMALS: 17 horses entered in a show jumping competition and 5 horses given EDTA. PROCEDURE: Blood Ca2+ and ...
Dyke T M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine effects of walking or standing on hepatic blood flow of horses after brief, intense exercise. ANIMALS: 6 adult Thoroughbreds (4 mares, 2 geldings). PROCEDURE: Horses were preconditioned on a treadmill to establish uniform level of fitness. Once fit, treadmill speed causing each horse to exercise at 120% ...
Luescher U A - - 1998
A researcher-administered survey study was performed involving 769 horses from 32 Thoroughbred, Standardbred, and pleasure horse stables in southwestern Ontario. Data were gathered on individuals (breed, age, and sex) and at the stable level (housing, management). The effects of these factors on cribbing, stall-walking, weaving, stall-kicking, tongue playing, and pawing ...
Doran S - - 1998
The effects of volume and posture on gastric emptying and intragastric distribution of a solid meal and appetite were evaluated. Eight normal volunteers were studied on four occasions, on each of which a meal comprising ground beef mixed with tomato sauce of either 650 g ("large") or 217 g ("small") ...
Gross D K - - 1998
The purpose of this experiment was to determine if exercising horses, infected with influenza virus, exacerbates the severity of clinical disease. Eight horses were trained on a treadmill for 42 days and then challenged with aerosolised influenza A/equine/Kentucky/91 (H3N8). Following challenge, 4 horses (exercise group) continued training for 28 days, ...
Dyke T M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of acute exercise on hepatic blood flow by studying hepatic clearance of bromsulphalein for several submaximal exercise intensities. ANIMALS: 8 adult Standardbred mares. PROCEDURE: Horses were subjected to 4 submaximal exercise intensities (resting and 40, 60, and 80% maximal oxygen consumption). After horses had been ...
Gu C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal and spatial relationship of pylorus to antroduodenal motility in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Eleven healthy subjects (HS) and 14 patients with FD were studied. Antral-pyloro-duodenal manometry was performed for 3 hours fasting and 2 hours after 80 Kcal of solid test meal. RESULTS: (1) The ...
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