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Results 251 - 300 of 822
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Saarinen A - - 2001
Variable extra thoracic obstruction has been found in spirometric studies in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The aim of the study was to further evaluate airflow dynamics in these subjects with body plethysmography and tracheal sound analysis. Ten patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis without a history of chronic ...
Gaskill S E - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised ...
Preas H L HL - - 2001
To evaluate the effects of endotoxemia on respiratory controller function, 12 subjects were randomized to receive endotoxin or saline; six also received ibuprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and six received placebo. Administration of endotoxin produced fever, increased respiratory frequency, decreased inspiratory time, and widened alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient (all p < ...
Akata T - - 2001
An 11-yr-old female without any pulmonary disorders underwent laser resections of laryngotracheal tumors using high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) 6 times over a period of 17 months at our institute. In this series of surgeries, we studied the effects on PaO2 and PaCO2 during HFJV of changes of either frequency or ...
Caretti D M - - 2001
This study evaluated performance of individuals exercising at a fixed workload and wearing full-facepiece respirators modified to provide expiratory resistances of 0.27, 0.47, 1.81, 4.43, and 12.27 cmH20 x s x L(-1). On five separate occasions, 15 volunteers exercised to voluntary endpoint on a treadmill at fixed speeds and grades ...
De Bruin P F - - 2001
Patients with advanced muscular dystrophy frequently develop ventilatory failure. Currently respiratory impairment usually is assessed by measuring vital capacity and the mouth pressure generated during a maximal inspiratory maneuver (PI,max), neither of which directly measures ventilatory capacity. We assessed inspiratory flow reserve in 26 boys [mean (SD) age 12.8 (3.8) ...
Girouard S D - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: The stability of reentry is thought to depend on a critical balance between the spatial extent of refractory tissue in a reentrant wave (i.e., wavelength lambda) and the reentrant path length. Because considerable evidence suggests that lambda changes continuously in space and time during abrupt rate changes associated with ...
Tong T K - - 2001
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to examine whether nostril dilatation would affect the ventilatory muscle (VM) function and the mean power output (PO) during prolonged all-out intermittent exercise. METHODS: Eight untrained young male subjects each completed 30 bouts of all-out exercise 20-sec each on a cycle ergometer interspersed with 40-sec ...
Hart N - - 2001
The Powerbreathe is an inspiratory muscle trainer promoted as improving inspiratory muscle strength (and consequently exercise performance) in athletes and patients with respiratory disease. No published evidence supports its efficacy. We performed a prospective randomized controlled study in which 12 normal subjects received either Powerbreathe training or sham training for ...
Díaz O - - 2001
Expiratory flow limitation (FL) at rest is frequently present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. It promotes dynamic hyperinflation with a consequent decrease in inspiratory capacity (IC). Since in COPD resting IC is strongly correlated with exercise tolerance, this study hypothesized that this is due to limitation of the ...
Strzelczyk T A - - 2001
PURPOSE: Exercise prescription in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is difficult. Exercising beyond ventilatory threshold (VT) can have negative physiologic effects; therefore, exercise prescribed above VT may be detrimental. A majority of cardiac rehabilitation programs use the Karvonen/heart rate reserve (HRR) method, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and/or ...
Lavorini F - - 2001
Fog inhalation induces cough and bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma, but only cough in normal subjects; whether it also influences the pattern of breathing is unclear. Nedocromil sodium (NCS) inhibits the cough response to inhalation of several pharmacological agents but its effects on fog-induced cough and changes in the pattern ...
Lucía A - - 2001
The aim of this longitudinal study was to clarify the changes induced by endurance training on the breathing pattern of 13 professional cyclists (age+/-SD: 24+/-2 years; VO(2 max) approximately 75 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the three periods (rest, precompetition, and competition) of a sports season. Both the volume ...
Gultyaeva V V - - 2001
The aim of this work was to investigate seasonal variations in oxygen consumption, ventilation, lung volumes and their relationships in healthy adult inhabitants of West Siberia. The investigations were performed in Novosibirsk. Thirty healthy male adult volunteers were studied 4 times during a year: in summer (mean monthly temperature +20 ...
Jeng M J - - 2001
To study the effect of ventilation strategy on perfluorochemical (PFC) elimination profile (evaporative loss profile; E(L)), 6 ml/kg of perflubron were instilled into anesthetized normal rabbits. The strategy was to maintain minute ventilation (VE, in ml/min) in three groups: VE(L) (low-range VE, 208 +/- 2), VE(M) (midrange VE, 250 +/- ...
Suman O E - - 2001
Airway function is largely preserved during exercise or isocapnic hyperventilation in humans and guinea pigs despite likely changes in airway milieu during hyperpnea. It is only on cessation of a hyperpneic challenge that airway function deteriorates significantly. We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide, a known bronchodilator that is produced ...
Saba S - - 2001
INTRODUCTION: Discriminating between ventricular tachycardia (VT) with 1:1 ventriculoatrial association and sinus tachycardia can be difficult, even when assisted by intracardiac tracings. In this study, we used a new computer algorithm to perform correlation waveform analyses on intracardiac atrial electrograms to help distinguish between VT and sinus tachycardia. METHODS AND ...
Koga S - - 2001
The dependence of O(2) uptake (V(O(2))) kinetics on the muscle mass recruited under conditions when fiber and muscle recruitment patterns are similar following the onset of exercise has not been determined. We developed a motorized cycle ergometer that facilitated one-leg (1L) cycling in which the electromyographic (EMG) profile of the ...
Borland C - - 2001
Using a rapidly responding nitric oxide (NO) analyzer, we measured the steady-state NO diffusing capacity (DL(NO)) from end-tidal NO. The diffusing capacity of the alveolar capillary membrane and pulmonary capillary blood volume were calculated from the steady-state diffusing capacity for CO (measured simultaneously) and the specific transfer conductance of blood ...
Savourey G - - 2001
To clarify the ventilatory effects of a 5-cm H2O positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) in healthy men during incremental exercise in normoxic conditions, 22 subjects were subjected to a constant workload (0 W, 50 W, 100 W, 150 W and 200 W) on a cycle ergometer for periods of 8 ...
Hayot M - - 2000
The use of esophageal and gastric balloons limits measurement of the tension-time index of inspiratory muscles (TTI) during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess whether a noninvasive tension-time index, TT(0.1), given by P(0.1)/PI(max) x TI/Ttot (where P(0.1) is mouth occlusion pressure, PI(max) is maximal inspiratory pressure, and ...
Derchak P A - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: A significant number of highly trained endurance runners have been observed to display an inadequate hyperventilatory response to intense exercise. Two potential mechanisms include low ventilatory responsiveness to hypoxia and ventilatory limitation as a result of maximum expiratory flow rates being achieved. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that expiratory ...
Kellerman B A - - 2000
PURPOSE: This study investigated effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), magnitude estimation (ME), and load detection (LD) of external resistive loads (deltaR) in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten adult volunteers IMT trained 5 d x wk(-1) for 4 wk. A training set consisted of six inspiratory ...
Tenling A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: A lasting impairment of pulmonary function is common after cardiac surgery. Pain from the sternotomy may contribute to the impairment. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) can efficiently relieve pain in the postoperative phase, but may also affect respiratory muscle function if local anaesthetics are used. We examined the effects of ...
Strauss-Blasche G - - 2000
1. The effect of a variation in inspiration and expiration times on heart rate variability was studied in 12 healthy subjects (mean age 30+/-6 years; five females). 2. Two 2 min trials of controlled breathing, with either short inspiration followed by long expiration or long inspiration followed by short expiration, ...
Winkler G - - 2000
The goal of this study was to show whether a correlation exists between the intensity of specific respiratory muscle training and the improvement of strength and endurance in inspiratory musculature in patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD). Sixteen patients with NMD (13 with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and 3 with spinal muscular ...
Takano N - - 2000
The pulmonary ventilation-O2 uptake (VE-VO2) relationship during incremental exercise has two inflection points: one at a lower VO2, termed the ventilatory threshold (VT); and another at a higher VO2, the respiratory compensation point (RCP). The individuality of RCP was studied in relation to those of the chemosensitivities of the central ...
Manning H L - - 2000
We encountered a young woman with severe central sleep apnea caused by a medullary glioma located slightly dorsal to and to the right of the midline, a region not generally associated with CO(2) chemosensitivity. The patient had normal spirometric readings, lung volumes, diffusing capacity, maximal inspiratory pressure, and alveolar-arterial oxygen ...
Lerman B B - - 2000
Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is characterized by two predominant forms. The most common form originates from the right ventricular outflow tract and presents as repetitive monomorphic VT or exercise-induced VT. The tachycardia is adenosine sensitive and is thought to be because of cAMP-mediated triggered activity. The other major form of ...
Samie F H - - 2000
Abbreviation of the action potential duration and/or effective refractory period (ERP) is thought to decrease the cycle length of reentrant arrhythmias. Verapamil, however, paradoxically converts ventricular fibrillation (VF) to ventricular tachycardia (VT), despite reducing the ERP. This mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that the size and the dynamics of the ...
Bernard P L - - 2000
To characterize the influence of neurological lesion level on the cardiorespiratory and ventilatory responses of two groups of paraplegic athletes during incremental exercise on a treadmill and in the usual conditions for wheelchair exercise. Cardioventilatory responses evaluated in two groups of paraplegic wheelchair sportsmen designated as high paraplegic athletes (HPA) ...
Gardner M N - - 2000
Typhlonectes natans empty their lungs in a single extended exhalation and subsequently fill their lungs by using a series of 10-20 inspiratory buccal oscillations. These animals always use this breathing pattern, which effectively separates inspiratory and expiratory airflows, unlike most urodele and anuran amphibians that may use one to many ...
Krishnan B S - - 2000
We investigated the relationship between minute ventilation (VE) and net respiratory muscle pressure (Pmus) throughout the breathing cycle [Total Pmus = mean Pmus, I (inspiratory) + mean Pmus, E (expiratory)] in six normal subjects performing constant-work heavy exercise (CWHE, at approximately 80% maximum) to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Pmus ...
Vercueil L - - 1999
The improvement in motor performance resulting from levodopa administration in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) provides the opportunity to investigate ventilatory changes brought about by the disease. The aim of this study has been to investigate these changes in order to specify the mechanisms of the impairment in breathing in ...
Dueck R - - 1999
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationships between changes in expiratory flow limitation (FL) during anesthesia and postoperative responses to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). DESIGN: Prospective consecutive case comparison. SETTING: University medical center. PATIENTS: Eight patients with severe emphysema. INTERVENTIONS: General anesthesia with muscle paralysis and thoracic epidural analgesia were ...
Gozal D - - 1999
PURPOSE: Deterioration of respiratory muscle function in patients with neuromuscular disorders is primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. METHODS: The potential benefit of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on preservation of respiratory muscle strength and respiratory load perception (RLP) was examined in 21 children (mean ...
Entin P L - - 1999
During galloping, many animals display 1:1 coupling of breaths and strides. Locomotor respiratory coupling (LRC) may limit respiratory evaporative heat loss (REHL) by constraining respiratory frequency (f). Five sheep were exercised twice each, according to a five-step protocol: 5 min at the walk, 5 min at the trot (trot1), 10 ...
Iizuka M - - 1999
1. We examined whether expiratory activity can be observed when central chemoreceptors are activated by a decrement in the extracellular pH in an isolated brainstem-spinal cord-rib preparation from 0- to 3-day-old rats. Expiratory activity was defined as the burst activity that occurs in an internal intercostal muscle (IIM) during the ...
Weinberg J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the limiting factors of exercise performance and to analyze the respiratory strategies adopted during exercise in postpolio patients with severe inspiratory muscle dysfunction. PATIENTS: Five patients with prior poliomyelitis associated with scoliosis and with respiratory muscle dysfunction (mean vital capacity, 1.74L [range, 1.1 to 2.4]) were studied ...
Savourey G - - 1999
The ventilatory effects of a 5-cm H2O positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and its influence on the breathing pattern during short hypoxic exposure both at rest and during physical exercise were studied. There were 22 healthy subjects who were submitted to normoxia and to 4-h of hypoxia in a hypobaric ...
Sapienza C M - - 1999
A single-subject design was used to determine if inspiratory pressure threshold training increases inspiratory muscle strength and reduces the sensation of dyspnea during exercise and speech. The subject was a 23-year-old female with congenital juvenile papilloma which has been in remission for 10 years. A 4-week inspiratory muscle training program ...
Johnson B D - - 1999
Traditionally, ventilatory limitation (constraint) during exercise has been determined by measuring the ventilatory reserve or how close the minute ventilation (VE) achieved during exercise (i.e., ventilatory demand) approaches the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) or some estimate of the MVV (i.e., ventilatory capacity). More recently, it has become clear that rarely ...
Perret C - - 1999
The use of noninvasive techniques to measure respiratory muscle performance after different types of endurance exercise has not been entirely successful, as the results have not consistently indicated diminished performance for similar types of exercise. The aim of the present study was 1) to compare different, noninvasive methods to assess ...
DeLorey D S - - 1999
To investigate the progressive nature of mechanical ventilatory constraints with aging, we studied 20 young (age 39 +/- 3 yr), 14 senior (70 +/- 2 yr), and 11 elderly (88 +/- 2 yr) men and women during exercise. All subjects had normal pulmonary function and performed graded cycle ergometry to ...
Bayly W M - - 1999
It has been postulated that the hypoxaemia and hypercapnoea that characterize strenuous equine exercise are partly due to flow limitations imposed by high breathing frequencies (fb), and that gas exchange would be improved if fb could be lowered. To evaluate this possibility, 6 Thoroughbred horses underwent 4 incremental treadmill exercise ...
Beaty M M - - 1999
Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis occasionally report shortness of breath during exercise. This symptom may persist in some patients after medialization thyroplasty. A review of the literature revealed no study that objectively evaluated laryngeal dynamics or airway flow characteristics during exercise after medialization thyroplasty for unilateral laryngeal paralysis. This ...
Trittenwein G - - 1999
In 1993, Chevalier published his experiences with tidal flow venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) featuring a single lumen cannula, non-occlusive roller pump, and alternating clamps. Using a neonatal mock circulation (NMC), which enables different hemodynamic states for neonatal ECMO research, the tested hypothesis was that it is possible to create ...
Chung F - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding physiological responses to negative work allows therapists to be more knowledgeable when they prescribe this form of exercise. The physiological responses of 12 men without cardiopulmonary disease, aged 39 to 65 years (X=49.7, SD=9.3), to negative work (eccentric muscle contractions) and to positive work (concentric muscle ...
Lucía A - - 1999
The purpose of our investigation was to analyse the breathing patterns of professional cyclists during incremental exercise from submaximal to maximal intensities. A group of 11 elite amateur male road cyclists [E, mean age 23 (SD 2) years, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) 73.8 (SD 5.0) ml kg(-1) min(-1)] and 14 ...
Appendini L - - 1999
To investigate the physiologic effects of proportional assist ventilation (PAV) in difficult-to-wean, mechanically ventilated patients with advanced COPD, we measured in eight ICU patients the breathing pattern, neuromuscular drive (P0.1), lung mechanics, and inspiratory muscle effort (PTPdi and PTPpl) during both spontaneous breathing (SB) and ventilatory support with PAV, CPAP, ...
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