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Nishino Takashi - - 2007
We evaluated the sensation of dyspnea induced by hypercapnia alone and a combination of hypercapnia and flow-resistive loading by the use of visual analogue scale (VAS) and the use of 13 listed descriptors in 23 healthy subjects. Hypercapnia alone caused a modest degree of dyspnea characterized by both air hunger ...
Tong Tom K - - 2006
The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) warm-up on the maximum dynamic IM function and the maximum repetitions of 20-m shuttle run (Ex) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test were examined. Ten men were recruited to perform identical IM function test and exercise test in three different trials randomly. The control ...
Oliveira Ricardo Brandão - - 2006
Physical exercise inhibits cardiac vagal activity. To study the relationship between heart rate (HR) and respiratory pattern, we applied the 4-s exercise test (4sET) and measured cardiac vagal index (CVI) in 30 healthy subjects who served as their own controls, using the standard plus three additional variations, essentially respiratory, of ...
Deruelle Fabien - - 2006
To analyze the influence of step-duration protocol (1 vs. 3 min) on breathing strategy according to the physical fitness of healthy elderly subjects, this study compared the ventilatory responses and exercise tidal flow-volume loops (ETFVL) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT(1) and VT(2)). Nineteen master athletes (mean age ...
Charron Cyril - - 2006
Respiratory-related variabilities in stroke volume and arterial pulse pressure (Delta%Pp) are proposed to predict fluid responsiveness. We investigated the influence of tidal volume (Vt) and adrenergic tone on these variables in mechanically ventilated patients. Cyclic changes in aortic velocity-time integrals (Delta%VTI(Ao), echocardiography) and Delta%Pp (catheter) were measured simultaneously before and ...
Neder J Alberto - - 2006
PURPOSE: To analyze the limits of agreement between exercise ventilatory threshold values (VT1 and VT2) estimated from a combination of pulmonary gas exchange and ventilatory variables (cardiopulmonary exercise testing) and those derived from an alternative approach based on the ventilatory response only (V(E), ventilometry). METHODS: Forty-two nontrained subjects (24 males, ...
Miller Jordan D - - 2006
We determined the effects of augmented expiratory intrathoracic pressure (P(ITP)) production on cardiac output (Q(TOT)) and blood flow distribution in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic heart failure (CHF). From a control expiratory P(ITP) excursion of 7 +/- 2 cmH2O, the application of 5, 10, or 15 cmH2O expiratory threshold ...
Enright Stephanie J - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous investigations have demonstrated that a regimen of high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (IMT) resulted in changes in ventilatory function and exercise capacity in patients with chronic lung disease, although the effect of high-intensity IMT in subjects who are healthy is yet to be determined. The purpose of ...
de Bisschop Claire - - 2006
The recruitment of expiratory muscles during exercise might be altered by the application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) inducing a feature of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) called muscle EFL. To check this hypothesis EFL and expiratory muscle EMG (ExpEMG) were measured at rest and during exercise in eight healthy subjects. ...
Pejic Zoran - - 2006
Introduction: Fusion exercises have been used in the management of intermittent exotropia (X(T)) for over one hundred years. The opinions regarding their efficacy are controversial. Patients and Method: Dynamics of binocular status were investigated retrospectively in ninety-six patients with X(T). Forty-eight subjects had specific orthoptic treatment (treatment group). Forty-eight had ...
Heimdal John-Helge - - 2006
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the diagnostic feasibility and patient acceptance of a new developed diagnostic test for exercise induced upper airway flow limitation. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case control study including evaluation of contemporary ergo-spirometry and laryngoscopy continuously performed during exercise. METHODS: Twelve nonsymptomatic controls and four young females with documented dyspnea ...
Lampotang Samsun - - 2006
Self-inflating manual resuscitators (SIMRs) can mislead caregivers because the bag, unlike a Mapleson-type device, reinflates even without patient exhalation. We added a whistle as an audible indicator to the exhalation port of a SIMR. In randomized order, each participant provided two sets of breaths via mask ventilation with a SIMR, ...
van 't Hul A - - 2006
This study evaluates the effects of training with noninvasive ventilatory support in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a randomised, controlled, observer-blinded trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with a ventilatory limited exercise capacity (forced expiratory volume in one second < 60% predicted, breathing reserve at ...
Sheiner Eyal - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the acoustic output of clinical ultrasound instruments, as expressed by the thermal index (TI) and mechanical index (MI), during routine obstetric examinations. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted. Sonographers were unaware of the data being sought. Data were collected regarding ...
Wyatt Frank - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to establish an objective method for identifying the heart-rate threshold (HRT) in cyclists. Fifty-six male cyclists were tested on a cycle ergometer to volitional fatigue. Identification of the HRT used a heart-rate increase above a logarithmic regression line of best fit, coupled with the ...
Moalla W - - 2005
The aim of this study was to assess respiratory muscles deoxygenation and to determine ventilatory threshold using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in children during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise. Fourteen healthy children with a mean +/- SD age of 12.8 +/- 1.4 yrs performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. ...
Nourry Cédric - - 2005
We studied mechanical ventilatory constraints in 13 aerobically trained (Tr) and 11 untrained (UT) prepubescent children by plotting the exercise flow-volume (F-V) loops within the maximal F-V loop (MFVL) measured at rest. The MFVL allowed to determine forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximal expiratory flows. Expiratory and inspiratory reserve volumes ...
Omar Tariq - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The duration of postinspiratory pause prior to forced expiration may significantly influence the peak expiratory flow (PEF) measured during maximal forceful expirations. In comparison with maneuvers without a postinspiratory pause, maneuvers with 4 to 6-s pause at total lung capacity (TLC) result in decreased PEF values. The extent to ...
Komiya Norihiro - - 2005
BACKGROUND: T-wave alternans (TWA) is an important noninvasive measurement of ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) and is known to be influenced by the sympathetic nervous system. We examined the correlation between TWA measurement and the sympathetic nervous system in patients with and without VT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (28 men, 7 ...
Ozkaplan Atila - - 2005
Exercise-induced inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) has been reported in males but there are few reports of IMF in females. It is not known if a gender difference exists for inspiratory muscle strength following heavy exercise, as is reported in locomotor muscles. Therefore, the relationship between fatigue and subsequent recovery of ...
Finucane Kevin E - - 2005
We evaluated an index of diaphragm efficiency (Eff(di)), diaphragm power output (Wdi) relative to electrical activation, in five healthy adults during tidal breathing at usual end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and diaphragm length (L(di ee)) and at shorter L(di ee) during hyperinflation with expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). Measurements were repeated ...
Sun Qi-Jian - - 2005
Central apnea is common in the premature newborn. To explain the upper airway findings in different clinical conditions characterized by central apnea, we made single unit recordings from laryngeal motoneurons during normal and hyperventilation. Posterior cricoarytenoid (n = 4) and cricothyroid (n = 4) motoneurons displayed an inspiratory pattern during ...
Allen Gilman B - - 2005
The mechanical derangements in the acutely injured lung have long been ascribed, in large part, to altered mechanical function at the alveolar level. This has not been directly demonstrated, however, so we investigated the issue in a rat model of overinflation injury. After thoracotomy, rats were mechanically ventilated with either ...
Pearse David B - - 2005
Ventilation (V) increases lung lymph flow (Ql), but the separate effects of tidal volume (Vt) and frequency (f) and the role of V-induced changes in edema formation are poorly understood. An isolated, in situ sheep lung preparation was used to examine these effects. In eight sheep with f = 10 ...
Puckree Threethambal - - 2005
Thoracolumbar corsets are used to manage stable uncomplicated injuries of the spine. The effects of these corsets on breathing pattern either in normal individuals or in patients with spinal injuries are not known. This study determined the effects of wearing a thoracolumbar corset on breathing patterns. Eight healthy, young, non-smoking ...
Kaufman Jonathan - - 2005
Protection afforded by a respirator filter depends on many factors, among them chemical or biological agent and flow rate. Filtration mechanisms, such as chemical adsorption, depend on sufficient residence time for the filter media to extract noxious agents from the airstream. Consequently, filter efficiency depends on inspiratory air velocities, among ...
Naranjo J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the breathing patterns of trained athletes under different conditions. The hypothesis is that the breathing pattern during a progressive treadmill exercise is independent of the protocol, at least in healthy people, and can be assessed using a nomogram. METHODS: A total of 43 male and 21 female ...
Mentzelopoulos S D - - 2005
Based on lung parenchyma-airways' interdependence, the present authors hypothesised that prone positioning may reduce airway resistance in severe chronic bronchitis. A total of 10 anaesthetised/mechanically ventilated patients were enrolled. Partitioned respiratory system (RS) mechanics during iso-flow experiments (flow = 0.91 L x s(-1), tidal volume (VT) varied within 0.2-1.2 L), ...
Santos Edil Luis - - 2004
The aim of this study was to compare computerized automatic methods to detect the ventilatory threshold (VT). Thirty apparently healthy and physically active volunteers [22.5 (6.5) years; 1.72 (0.08) m; 71.9 (8.5) kg] were submitted to a progressive and maximal cycle exercise. The gas exchange was monitored breath-by-breath with a ...
Prinianakis George - - 2005
INTRODUCTION: The cuff-leak test has been proposed as a simple method to predict the occurrence of post-extubation stridor. The test is performed by cuff deflation and measuring the expired tidal volume a few breaths later (VT). The leak is calculated as the difference between VT with and without a deflated ...
Heus Ronald - - 2004
Due to more stringent requirements to protect personnel against hazardous gasses, the inspiratory resistance of the present generation of respiratory protective devices tends to increase. Therefore an important question is to what extent inspiratory resistance may increase without giving problems during physical work. In this study the effects of three ...
Gomez Patrick - - 2004
Previous research has demonstrated covariation of physiological responding with judgments of valence and arousal. However, until now links between these affective dimensions and respiratory measures have not been extensively investigated. In this study, eight picture series of different affective valence and arousal level were shown to 30 subjects, while respiration, ...
Jonville S - - 2005
The present investigation was intended to assess the consequences of an inspiratory load on the diaphragm central component of fatigue during exercise. We recorded the motor potential evoked (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in 10 subjects. The diaphragm and rectus femoris were studied before and 10, ...
Ruddy Bari Hoffman - - 2004
Paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction (PVFD) with high effort exercise can result in disruptions to ventilation, dyspnea, inspiratory stridor, elevated heart rate, and syncope. This single subject study experimentally tested an inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST) program with behavioral therapy on a 15-year-old male crew member. Outcome variables were maximum inspiratory ...
Tada Hiroshi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and ECG characteristics of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia originating in the free wall of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) require further clarification, which was the aim of the present study of 110 patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (n=34) or premature ventricular contraction (n=76; OT-VT/PVC) who underwent successful ...
Brancaleone Pierre - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: We evaluated the clinical consequences of inspiratory muscle impairment on exercise tolerance and quality of life in 34 sarcoid patients compared with 19 controls. METHODS: We measured pulmonary function tests, inspiratory muscle strength by maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) and inspiratory muscle endurance (IME) by ...
Simsek Gonul - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of peripheral chemoreceptor activity on the hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory drives in rabbits with induced hypothyroidism. Experiments were carried out in control and hypothyroid rabbits. Hypothyroidism was induced by an administration of an iodide-blocker, methimazole in food (75 mg/100 g ...
Kallet Richard H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The ratio of pulmonary dead space to tidal volume (VD/VT) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is reported to be between 0.35 and 0.55. However, VD/VT has seldom been measured with consideration to the evolving pathophysiology of ARDS. METHODS: We made serial VD/VT measurements with 59 patients who required ...
Bänsch Dietmar - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The tachycardia detection interval (TDI) in implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) is conventionally programmed according to the slowest documented ventricular tachycardia (VT), with a safety margin of 30 to 60 ms. With this margin, VTs above the TDI may occur. However, longer TDIs are associated with an increased risk of inappropriate ...
Chaunchaiyakul Rungchai - - 2004
We investigated the effects of aging on the elastic properties of lung tissue and the chest wall, simultaneously quantifying the contribution of each component to static inspiratory muscle work in resting and exercising adults. We further evaluated the interaction of aging and habitual physical activity on respiratory mechanics. Static lung ...
Aiba Takeshi - - 2004
Although chronic amiodarone has been proven to be effective to suppress ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), how we predict the recurrence of VT/VF after chronic amiodarone remains unknown. This study evaluated the predictive value of the QT interval, spatial, and transmural dispersions of repolarization (SDR and TDR) for ...
O'Donnell D E - - 2004
This study examined the effects of bronchodilator-induced reductions in lung hyperinflation on breathing pattern, ventilation and dyspnoea during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Quantitative tidal flow/volume loop analysis was used to evaluate abnormalities in dynamic ventilatory mechanics and their manipulation by a bronchodilator. In a randomised double-blind crossover ...
Coast J Richard - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Subjects with restrictive pulmonary disease exhibit a decreased exercise capacity compared to non-diseased subjects, as do subjects in certain workplace situations, for example when wearing bullet-proof vests. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of varying degrees of chest wall restrictive loading on exercise performance. We ...
Dellacá R L - - 2004
We studied the respiratory output in five subjects exposed to parabolic flights [gravity vector 1, 1.8 and 0 gravity vector in the craniocaudal direction (Gz)] and when switching from sitting to supine (legs bent at the knees). Despite differences in total respiratory compliance (highest at 0 Gz and in supine ...
Wang Li-Ying - - 2004
INTRODUCTION & PURPOSE: Obesity-related increases of weight on the chest wall are known to decrease lung volume and chest wall compliance, but the effect of this mass loading, independent of other obesity-related complications on the ventilatory response to exercise is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ...
Robertson H Thomas - - 2004
Patients with chronic heart failure have an abnormal pattern of exercise ventilation (Ve), characterized by small tidal volumes (Vt), increased alveolar ventilation, and elevated physiological dead space (Vd/Vt). To investigate whether increased lung water in isolation could reproduce this pattern of exercise ventilation, 30 ml/kg of saline were rapidly infused ...
Mark Butala
You will implement a fourth-order, elliptical, low-pass infinite impulse-response (IIR) filter as a cascade of two second-order sections.
Cleuziou Christophe - - 2004
Inconsistencies about dynamic asymmetry between the on- and off-transient responses in VO2 are found in the literature. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine VO2 on- and off-transients during moderate- and heavy-intensity cycling exercise in trained subjects. Ten men underwent an initial incremental test for the estimation of ...
Wysocki Marc - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Proportional-assist ventilation (PAV) is able to unload respiratory muscles in proportion to the subject's inspiratory effort. However, leak-related alterations in the flow signal, effort-induced modifications in respiratory mechanics, or approximate adjustment of PAV could jeopardize such a theory. The aim of this study was to compare noninvasive PAV and ...
Romagnoli I - - 2004
The present study was designed to verify whether during hypercapnic stimulation, as we had previously found during exercise or walking, the partitioning of the respiratory motor output is equally distributed to the muscles of chest wall compartments to assist diaphragm function. We studied chest wall kinematics and respiratory muscle recruitment ...
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