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Oda H - - 1986
A female patient had recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) as a late sequela after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and the clinically documented VT could be induced and terminated in a reproducible manner by programmed stimulation. VT was accompanied by fragmented electrical activities when the electrode was positioned at ...
Hodous T K - - 1986
Few studies have examined the response of individuals with restrictive lung disease (RLD) to respirator wear. Such information should be of theoretical and practical interest when the need to determine fitness to wear respirators is considered. Seventeen females performed progressive submaximal treadmill exercise. Twelve control subjects with total lung capacity ...
Buchanan L M - - 1986
This study determined the effects of a 5-second inspiratory hold during ventilatory maneuvers on cardiopulmonary status before, during, and after endotracheal suctioning in an acute lung-injured model. Eight mongrel dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated, and given intravenous oleic acid to produce pulmonary edema. Four protocols were tested in alternate ...
Barnard P A - - 1986
Bellemare and Grassino (J. Appl. Physiol. 53: 1196-1206, 1982) have reported that the diphragmatic time-tension index (TTdi) (i.e., the product of mean transdiaphragmatic pressure/maximum transdiaphragmatic pressure and the inspiratory duty cycle) can be used as a predictor of diaphragmatic fatigue in humans. However, the publications of these authors do not ...
Hastings R H - - 1986
We measured deadspace (VD) in ducks using CO2 expirograms (plots of expired PCO2 vs expired volume) obtained during artificial ventilation at different tidal volumes (VT) and respiratory system volumes (VRS). Conventional analysis of the expirograms for Bohr and Fowler VD indicated both were larger than anatomic VD. Most expirograms at ...
Baydur A - - 1986
In anesthetized humans the nature of tidal volume (VT) compensation during elastic loading (as reflected in the difference between passive and effective respiratory elastances (Ers) and (E*rs), respectively) has not been fully elucidated. We assessed the relative contribution of various mechanisms contributing to VT compensation during linear elastic loading in ...
Singh S H - - 1986
Lung function was studied by forced expiratory spirograms and measurement of peak expiratory flow in fourteen young male subjects of the age 20 to 30 years. Seven of the subjects were cotton spinners in small shops in Paharganj market with the duration of work from 1 to 3 years. The ...
Leblanc P - - 1986
Previous studies have led to the revival of the hypothesis that breathlessness is the perception of respiratory muscle effort and is present when the tension developed by muscles increases, when the muscles are weak, or when both conditions are present simultaneously. Using a category scale, the intensity of breathlessness was ...
Scardella A T - - 1986
The ability of acute, short-term, inspiratory flow-resistive loading to generate endogenous opioids was studied in 6 unanesthetized goats. Endogenous opioid generation was assessed by measurement of immunoreactive beta-endorphin levels in the cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after high (80 cm H2O/L/s) and moderate (50 cm H2O/L/s) resistive loading. The results show ...
Kelling J S - - 1985
This study compared the respiratory responses to ventilatory loading in 8 normal subjects and 11 quadriplegic patients with low cervical spinal cord transection. Progressive hypercapnia was produced by rebreathing. Rebreathing trials were carried out with no added load and with inspiratory resistive loads of 5 and 16 cmH2O. l-1 X ...
Perez W - - 1985
Employment of mouthpiece and noseclips (MP + NC) has repeatedly been shown to increase tidal volume (VT), but its effect on respiratory frequency (f) and its subsets is controversial. The mechanisms accounting for this alteration in breathing pattern are poorly understood and may include stimulation of oral or nasal sensory ...
Haas F - - 1985
Maximal expiratory flow-volume maneuvers were performed by self-trained (FIT) and sedentary (UNFIT) asthmatic subjects. Both groups had similar pre-exercise pulmonary function limitations and attained the same exercising heart rate. The FIT group, however, exercised significantly longer than the UNFIT group. Although expiratory airflow increased in both groups during exercise, the ...
LaFramboise W A - - 1985
Diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) was obtained in eight 48-h-old unanesthetized monkeys while breathing air and then either of two different hypoxic gas mixtures (12 or 8% O2 in N2) for 5 min. Minute ventilation (VI) rose significantly above control levels by 1 min of hypoxemia while animals were breathing either of ...
Hill A R - - 1985
To determine the predominant steady-state ventilatory responses to mild expiratory flow-resistive loads, we subjected 14 normal subjects to expiratory resistances of 0-10 cm H2O/L/sec (R0-R3). Breathing patterns and abdominal muscle activity (EMG) were recorded during quiet breathing, and when ventilation was augmented by dead space breathing (7 subjects) or treadmill ...
Lennox S - - 1985
To quantitate the relative contributions of rib cage and abdomen to the hyperinflation of asthma, we examined chest wall movements during histamine-induced bronchospasm in 7 male asthmatic subjects. A reduction in FEV1 of 28.1 +/- 4.5% (mean +/- 1 SE) was associated with an increase in functional residual capacity (FRC) ...
Flynn C - - 1985
The objective of this study was to determine the role of hilar nerve (lung vagal) afferents in the hyperpnea of exercise. Ten ponies were studied before and 2-4 wk and 3-12 mo after sectioning only the hilar branches of the vagus nerves (HND). After HND, lung volume feedback to the ...
Sadoul N - - 1985
To study the changes in ventilation induced by inspiratory flow-resistive (IFR) loads, we applied moderate and severe IFR loads in chronically instrumented and awake sheep. We measured inspired minute ventilation (VI), ventilatory pattern [inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), respiratory cycle time (TT), tidal volume (VT), mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI), ...
Dillard T A - - 1985
In chronic air-flow obstruction (CAO), inspiratory mechanics constitute a potential mechanism of compensation for limitation of expiratory air flow. We sought to determine whether assessment of inspiratory function could improve our ability to predict ventilation at maximal exercise (Ve max) in patients with CAO. Resting inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary function ...
Bye P T - - 1985
Ventilatory muscle function was examined at rest and during exercise on a cycle ergometer in 8 patients with moderate to severe chronic air-flow limitation (FEV1, 32 +/- 4% predicted) in air and in oxygen. The diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) was measured using an esophageal electrode. In addition, measurements of esophageal (Pes), ...
Morgan M D - - 1985
In tetraplegia there is often paradoxical inward motion of the rib cage during inspiration. The volume of this negative contribution is difficult to estimate but can be obtained by optical mapping. The partitioning of ventilation between the rib cage and abdomen in six normal subjects, 10 stable tetraplegic patients, and ...
Woelfel A - - 1985
The antiarrhythmic efficacy of verapamil was determined by serial treadmill testing in 16 patients with reproducible exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT). Twelve of the 16 patients responded to verapamil, 0.2 mg/kg intravenously; in 8 of these 12 responders, an oral verapamil regimen of 160 to 320 mg given every 8 hours ...
Hussain S N - - 1985
Five healthy males exercised progressively with small 2-min increments in work load. We measured inspiratory drive (occlusion pressure, P0.1), pulmonary resistance (RL), dynamic pulmonary compliance (Cdyn), transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), and diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMGdi). Minute ventilation (VE), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/TI), and P0.1 all increased exponentially with increased work load, ...
Miller J M - - 1985
We studied diaphragm function in a total of 64 normal subjects, who had no past or present respiratory or neuromuscular impairment. We measured transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) during maximal sniffs and compared these values with Pdi during maximal static inspiratory efforts (PImax.). The range of Pdi during maximal sniffs (82-204 cm ...
Gleeson M - - 1985
It has been suggested that avian intrapulmonary CO2-sensitive receptors (IPC) may be capable of monitoring the rate and extent of CO2 washout from the lung during spontaneous breathing. The purpose of this study was to analyse IPC discharge activity (using computerised bin-averaging and counting techniques) in spontaneously breathing domestic fowl ...
Delpierre S - - 1985
The effects of elastase-induced emphysema on vagal pulmonary reflexes were studied in seven rabbits, given 600 IU of porcine pancreatic elastase intratracheally (E group), and eight untreated rabbits (U group) under pentobarbital anaesthesia. The presence of emphysema was confirmed by histological and pathological criteria and by documented changes in lung ...
Dodd D S - - 1985
We studied the effect of abdominal loading on exercise performance in 7 patients with severe chronic air-flow obstruction (CAO). The patients were exercised to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer at a work rate equivalent to 80% of their maximal work rate. Three exercise studies were completed in the same afternoon. ...
Kallay M C - - 1985
Noninvasive rebreathing measurements of pulmonary tissue volume (Vt) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) theoretically and experimentally vary with the rebreathing maneuver. To determine the cause of these variations and identify ways to minimize them, we examined the consequences of varying the volume inspired (VI), rebreathing rate (f), volume rebreathed ...
Hussain S N - - 1985
The effects of selective restriction of rib cage (Res,rc) and abdominal wall (Res,ab) movements on endurance of short-term constant-load heavy exercise and on diaphragmatic function during such exercise were examined in five normal young men. An inelastic surgical corset was used to achieve Res,rc and Res,ab. Subjects exercised on a ...
Hussain S N - - 1985
We assessed the effects of selective restriction of movements of the rib cage (Res,rc) and abdomen (Res,ab) on ventilatory pattern, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi), and electrical activity of the diaphragm (Edi) in five normal subjects exercising at a constant work rate (80% of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer till ...
Burge P S - - 1985
Thirty five printers who had work related wheeze, chest tightness, or breathlessness kept two hourly records of their peak expiratory flow for at least two weeks. They all worked in a factory supplied by air from contaminated humidifiers. The peak flow records showed consistent work related deterioration in 15 workers, ...
Marek W - - 1985
Ventilatory responses to stimulation of chemoreceptor afferents were studied in the anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cat. Short bursts of electrical stimuli were applied, at various times in the inspiratory or expiratory phase of consecutive breaths, to the carotid sinus (CSN) and aortic nerves (AN) and to the ventral medulla (VM), and ...
DeWeese E L - - 1985
To investigate respiratory control during high-frequency oscillation (HFO), ventilation was monitored in conscious humans by respiratory inductive plethysmography during application at the mouth of high-frequency pressure oscillations. Studies were conducted before and after airway and pharyngeal anesthesia. During HFO, breathing became slow and deep with an increase in tidal volume ...
Poole D C - - 1985
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous and interval training on changes in lactate and ventilatory thresholds during incremental exercise. Seventeen males were assigned to one of three training groups: group 1:55 min continuous exercise at approximately 50% maximum O2 consumption (VO2max); group 2: 35 ...
Chapman K R - - 1985
We measured, in 11 healthy volunteers, the contributions of rib cage and abdomen--diaphragm compartments to increased ventilation caused by hypercapnia, hypoxia, and exercise to determine whether different stimuli produce similar or different patterns of ventilation with respect to the motion of rib cage and abdominal compartments. Progressive hyperoxic hypercapnia and ...
Chen H - - 1985
To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle resistive loading training (IMT) on exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 13 patients undergoing standard pulmonary rehabilitation were divided into control (n = 6) and experimental (n = 7) groups. Prior to training, we measured inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, resting ...
Clanton T L - - 1985
We demonstrate the effectiveness of a new conditioning technique for increasing the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles. The technique employs a threshold loading device which allows for maximization of exercise intensity with a minimum of exercise duration. After ten weeks, with approximately 25 minutes of exercise time per ...
Mohsenifar Z - - 1985
In order to assess the effect of breathing pattern on measurements of dead space ventilation (VD/VT) during exercise, we studied 6 patients with the complaint of exertional dyspnea. They had essentially normal resting pulmonary function studies and the only abnormality noted during an initial exercise study was an elevated VD/VT ...
Hedner T - - 1985
The respiratory performance was studied after intraperitoneal administration of the adenosine agonists N6-phenyl-isopropyl-adenosine (PIA) and adenosine-5-ethylcarboxamide to preterm (gestational age 29-30 days) newborn halothane-anesthetized rabbits. Both agonists induced marked hypoventilation and irregular breathing by decreases in the breathing frequency as well as the tidal volume. Expiratory time was markedly prolonged, ...
Zechman F W - - 1985
The purpose of this investigation was to measure changes in transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) developed during graded elastic (E) and resistive (R) loaded breaths and to correlate the emergence of such changes with the load-dependent alterations in latency for detection (Tdet). Five healthy adults were studied using three protocols, i.e., graded ...
Parot S - - 1984
Ventilation and the breathing pattern of 12 intact, unanesthetized, unrestrained kittens, were recorded at intervals from the second postnatal day to the end of the eighth month. Five of the animals were also studied at 12 months of age. Ventilation (VE) became stable by the 5th month, whereas body weight ...
Younes M - - 1984
We looked for evidence of changes in lung elastic recoil and of inspiratory muscle fatigue at maximal exercise in seven normal subjects. Esophageal pressure, flow, and volume were measured during spontaneous breathing at increasing levels of cycle exercise to maximum. Total lung capacity (TLC) was determined at rest and immediately ...
Fleg J L - - 1984
Although exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT), whether sustained or nonsustained, is usually associated with significant organic heart disease, its prevalence, associated characteristics and prognostic significance in an asymptomatic, unreferred community-dwelling population are unknown. Therefore, the prevalence of VT associated with maximal treadmill exercise was assessed in 597 male and 325 female ...
Sorbini C A - - 1984
We compared the ventilatory effects of prenalterol (beta 1-selective adrenoceptor agonist) with those of salbutamol (beta 2-selective adrenoceptor agonist) in 6 healthy volunteers. Two intravenous doses of prenalterol (1 mg/60 min, 2 mg/60 min) and of salbutamol (300 micrograms/60 min, 600 micrograms/60 min) were given in random order in 4 ...
Jammes Y - - 1984
The ventilatory effects of biceps tendon vibration were studied in healthy human subjects at rest and at two levels of light leg exercise. This was performed with intent to add the ventilatory effects of selective stimulation of muscle spindles to nervous and humoral respiratory inputs from contracting muscles. Tendon vibration ...
Lafortuna C L - - 1984
The theoretical estimation of the mechanical work of breathing during inspiration at rest is based on the common assumption that the inspiratory airflow wave is a sine function of time. Different analytical studies have pointed out that from an energetic point of view a rectangular wave is more economical than ...
Brancatisano T P - - 1984
We examined the respiratory activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) simultaneously with the movements of the vocal cords during tidal breathing and panting in four normal seated subjects. A bipolar electrode was constructed to record the surface electromyogram (EMG) of the PCA. The glottis was visualized with a fiberoptic ...
Clanton T L - - 1984
The effects of CO2 concentration on the timing of inspiratory duration (TI) and expiratory duration (TE) and the responses to lung inflation were studied in decerebrate paralyzed cats. With lung volume held at functional residual capacity during the breath cycle, hypercapnia (fractional concentration of inspired CO2 = 0.04) caused variable ...
Lind F - - 1984
We studied changes in breathing pattern and mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) in 11 healthy subjects performing graded steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer up to the maximal load sustainable for 4 min. With increasing work intensity both the tidal volume (VT) and end-inspiratory volume relations to inspiratory (TI) and expiratory ...
Harber P - - 1984
Respirators (respiratory personal protective devices), used for protection against occupational toxic exposures, may impose flow resistance and dead space respiratory loading. Effects of exercise level, a 300 mL deadspace and single respirator cartridge inspiratory load were determined in ten healthy volunteers. Subjects tended to limit peak work rate (pressure generated ...
Weissman C - - 1984
A mouthpiece plus noseclip (MP + NC) is frequently used in performing measurements of breathing patterns. Although the effects the apparatus exerts on breathing patterns have been studied, the mechanism of the changes it causes remains unclear. The current study examines the effects on respiratory patterns of a standard (17-mm-diam) ...
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