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Bruce E N - - 1988
1. Power spectral analysis of phrenic and recurrent laryngeal (or efferent vagal) inspiratory discharge activity from anesthetized cats revealed a peak within the 60- to 110-Hz range in all spectra, plus a peak within the 40- to 60-Hz range in the laryngeal (and efferent vagal) spectra, and a peak less ...
Sakurai M - - 1988
In 24 patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT), mechanisms of VT and the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs after induction were studied electrophysiologically, and by exercise testing. VT was induced electrophysiologically in 14 patients. Class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs were effective in 7 of them, which implied that one of the mechanisms ...
Gaudy J H - - 1988
The ventilatory effects of prolonged oxygen administration were examined in seven dogs during thiopentone anaesthesia. Ventilation, tidal volume (VT), ventilatory rate (f), minute ventilation (VE), inspiratory time (TI), expiratory time (TE), period (Ttot), TI/Ttot and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) were measured during the inhalation of room air, after 30 min ...
Shimozaki S - - 1988
Subjective and physiological responses to a variety of respiratory loads were measured in a group of 52 normal volunteers during steady, moderate treadmill exercise. Subjective response (SR) was determined with two visual analogue scales developed for this study: EXERT (perceived limitation of exercise duration) and DISC (perceived discomfort). There was ...
Harber P - - 1988
Loads imposed by industrial respirators include inspiratory flow resistance and dead space. Eleven normal subjects were studied at five levels of treadmill exercise (from resting to peak) with and without a respirator surrogate load (single air-purifying cartridge plus 300 ml dead space). Analysis of variance with linear contrasts was used ...
Savoy J - - 1988
The respiratory response to bronchospasms of the same magnitude induced by inhalation of histamine or methylcholine was measured non-invasively, using bellow pneumographs, in nonsmokers and asymptomatic smokers. In each subject, tidal volume (VT), breathing frequency (f) and inspiratory time (TI) were obtained on two different days, in a randomized crossover ...
Takano N - - 1988
1. The influence of pedal rate on ventilatory response and breathing pattern during cycle exercise was studied in twelve untrained female subjects performing 15 W/min incremental work on a bicycle at 30 and 60 r.p.m. Comparisons were made within the range of aerobic work rate to avoid additional influences of ...
Scano G - - 1988
In ten eucapnic patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) we evaluated the breathing pattern during induced progressive hypercapnia (CO2 rebreathing) and progressive exercise on an ergometric bicycle (30 W/3 min). The time and volume components of the respiratory cycle were measured breath by breath. When compared to hypercapnia, the ...
Art T - - 1988
Exercise-induced variations in their ventilatory mechanics were studied in 8 healthy ponies 4.2 +/- 1.4 years old and weighing 282 +/- 11 kg. Airflow (V), tidal volume (VT), esophageal pressure, mask pressure and electrocardiogram were simultaneously recorded before, during and after a treadmill (incline 8.3 degrees) exercise which consisted of ...
Harber P - - 1988
The relationship between the pattern of breathing in response to respirator-type loads and an individual's psychophysiologic sensitivity to loads (load scaling sensitivity, LSS) was investigated in the study of 11 normal volunteers. LSS was measured by having the subjects numerically rate a series of resistors; Steven's Psychophysical Law was used ...
Grucza R - - 1988
Cardiorespiratory dynamics was tested in 10 men exercising with a relative intensity of 50% VO2max for 10 min. Time constants for cardiac response (SV 21.7 sec, HR 45.8 sec, Q 21.7 sec) were shorter than those for the ventilatory response (of 27.4 sec, VT 70 sec, VE 69.5 sec). Respiratory ...
Gratas A - - 1988
Pattern of breathing and mouth occlusion pressure were investigated during an incremental and exhaustive ergocycle test in untrained and trained 11 to 13 year old boys. At each level of exercise, the trained group had lower ventilation, a lower respiratory equivalent, and a lower respiratory rate. These results suggest that ...
Fukuba Y - - 1988
This study was undertaken to compare and re-examine the relation of lactate threshold (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT), using six objective determination methods proposed previously. Twenty-one young male subjects performed a cycle exercise test in which the work rate was increased by 150 kg.m every 2 min up to his ...
Henke K G - - 1988
We determined the effects of exercise on active expiration and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during steady-state exercise in 13 healthy subjects. We also addressed the questions of what affects active expiration during exercise. Exercise effects on EELV were determined by a He-dilution technique and verified by changes in end-expiratory esophageal ...
Goodman N W - - 1987
We studied the relations between the volume and timing components of ventilation during carbon dioxide rebreathing in conscious subjects and patients anaesthetized with propofol. In conscious responses, breath-by-breath minute ventilation (VI) generally correlated better with end-tidal carbon dioxide than did tidal volume (VT), but VT correlated better than VI in ...
Baker R W - - 1987
The effects of alterations in ventilatory pattern on the simultaneously measured physiologic and anatomic dead-spaces (VDphys and VDan, respectively) and the dead-space to tidal volume ratio (VD-VT) were studied in 17 healthy normal subjects (13 men, four women, ages 21 to 36 years). There were no significant changes in VDan ...
Sharratt M T - - 1987
We used a helium-rebreathe technique in nine healthy subjects to determine the effects of exercise intensity and duration on end-expiratory lung volume (EELV). The rebreathe functional residual capacity (FRC) technique was shown: (a) to be similar to that measured in the body plethysmograph, at rest; (b) to agree closely with ...
Lane R - - 1987
1. The effect of adding low-level (2.7 cmH2O 1(-1) s) external respiratory resistive loads on exercise-induced breathlessness has been examined in naive normal subjects; the intensity of this loading was chosen to simulate that confronting an asthmatic subject during exercise. 2. Each of 18 subjects performed two separate tests in ...
Horie T - - 1987
Effects of tidal volume (VT), end-expiratory pressure (EEP), and environmental temperature (Tenv) on elastic recoil force (Pel) and edema formation were examined in open-chest anesthetized rabbits. Sixty-two rabbits in four groups were ventilated for 3 h with VT of either 10 or 25 ml/kg body wt, EEP of 0 or ...
Poon C S - - 1987
We examined, in five conscious human subjects, the steady-state effects of expiratory resistive loading (ERL; R = 8 cmH2O.l-1.s) on the time course of inspiratory and postinspiratory muscle activities (IA and PIA, respectively) and ventilatory pattern during quiet breathing. Driving pressure (DP) was calculated by means of a respiratory neuromechanical ...
Goldstein S A - - 1987
1. Nine male and six female healthy subjects were studied during supine bicycle exercise at workloads of 12 and 37 W; pedalling rates varied between 30 and 50 cycles/min at each workload. Measurements were made of oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), respiratory ...
Krowka M J - - 1987
The American Thoracic Society recommends that the largest FEV1 be reported from a set of forced expiratory vital capacity maneuvers performed with maximal expiratory effort. However, increased expiratory effort can decrease the FEV1. When we evaluated the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in 5 normal subjects, measured from flow-volume curves, ...
Decramer M - - 1987
We studied chest wall mechanics at functional residual capacity (FRC) and near total lung capacity (TLC) in 14 supine anesthetized and vagotomized dogs. During breathing near TLC compared with FRC, tidal volume decreased (674 +/- 542 vs. 68 +/- 83 ml; P less than 0.025). Both inspiratory changes in gastric ...
Morgera T - - 1987
To determine the antiarrhythmic efficacy of beta-blockers (beta-B) and verapamil (V) in exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia (Ex-VT), nine patients with reproducible Ex-VT (in two consecutive exercise tests) were studied by means of electrophysiologic study (EPS) in basal conditions and serial exercise testing after beta-B (metoprolol 25 mg tid to 100 mg ...
Minetti A E - - 1987
Previous experimental evidence has shown that in healthy humans inspiratory airflow waveform can be optimized according to minimum rate of work criteria when the respiratory energetic requirements become a substantial fraction of the general metabolism (i.e., during exercise hyperpnea and maximum voluntary ventilation). In patients with chronic airway obstruction (CAO) ...
Gallagher C G - - 1987
During progressive exercise ventilation (VI) initially increases through increases in both tidal volume (VT) and respiratory frequency (f) but at high levels of exercise further increases in VI are almost completely due to increases in f and a VT plateau is seen. We wished to determine whether the presence of ...
Garan H - - 1987
Thirteen dogs in whom at least one morphologically distinct sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) could be reproducibly initiated by programmed cardiac stimulation 18 +/- 3 days following experimental myocardial infarction were placed on total cardiopulmonary bypass for detailed study of the endocardial and epicardial activation during VT under hemodynamically stable conditions. ...
Cerny F J - - 1987
Lung volumes in sex-, age-, height-, and weight-matched Black subjects are 10-15% lower than those in Caucasians. To determine whether this decreased lung volume affected the ventilatory adaptation to exercise, minute ventilation (VE), its components, frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT), and breathing pattern were observed during incremental cycle-ergometer exercise. ...
Younes M - - 1987
We describe an apparatus for altering the mechanical load against which the respiratory muscles operate in humans. A closed system incorporates a rolling seal spirometer. The spirometer piston shaft is coupled to a fast-responding linear actuator that develops force in proportion to desired command signals. The command signal may be ...
Revelette W R - - 1987
The objective of this study was to determine the stability of the function describing subjects' magnitude estimates of added inspiratory resistive loads following short-term exposure (STE) to a high but nonfatiguing, inspiratory load. Four inspiratory resistive loads (8.9-35.7 cmH2O X l-1 X s) were presented twice each in random order. ...
Caiozzo V J - - 1987
The intrinsic relationship between ventilation (VE) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) is described by the modified alveolar ventilation equation VE = VCO2 k/PaCO2(1-VD/VT) where PaCO2 is the partial pressure of CO2 in the arterial blood and VD/VT is the dead space fraction of the tidal volume. Previous investigators have reported ...
Axen K - - 1987
First-breath ventilatory responses to graded elastic and resistive loads were obtained from 15 people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), 5 people with facioscapulohumeral MD (FSH), 3 people with Becker MD, and 3 people with limb-girdle MD. For each load tidal volumes from different individuals ranged from relatively small to comparatively ...
Agostoni E - - 1987
Activity of genioglossus muscle (GG) was recorded in anesthetized rabbits at control and under SO2 block of slowly adapting stretch receptors in thoracic airways (T) or in bronchi alone (B). At control peak activity occurred at 10% of inspiratory time, followed by a slight and a marked decrease. T and, ...
Poon C S - - 1987
In five healthy subjects, we studied the effects of controlled mechanical unloading of the respiratory system on ventilatory control during moderate exercise, utilizing a modified positive-pressure ventilator (IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-33: 361-365, 1986). We were especially interested in whether isocapnia was maintained when a portion of the normal ventilatory ...
Watchko J F - - 1987
We examined the effect of inspiratory resistive loaded breathing (IRL) on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the costal and crural diaphragm in nine anesthetized spontaneously breathing piglets (age 10-23 days, weight 2.8-4.4 kg). Bipolar wire electrodes were inserted into the anterior paratendinous costal diaphragm and the midportion of the crural ...
Silva A C - - 1987
Previous studies have described a neurogenic-induced ventilatory tachypneic response during exercise. The present paper compares the breathing pattern of control and myopathic human subjects submitted to exercise. Peripheral neurogenic stimuli (PNS) at the same level of oxygen consumption should be enhanced in myopathic subjects as a consequence of muscular mass ...
Mekjavic I B - - 1987
Breathing pattern was studied in six subjects in normoxia (FIO2 = 0.21) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.12) at rest and during incremental work-rate exercise. Ventilation (V) as well as mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) increased with exercise intensity and were augmented in the hypoxic environment, whereas the ratio between inspiratory (TI) ...
Madsen F - - 1986
Standardization of bronchial challenge (BC) in order to improve repeatability of both non-specific and specific challenges is desirable. In the tidal volume breathing BC (tBC), the patient inhales bronchoconstrictor during the entire inspiratory phase of the tidal volume breathing. We determined 2 min ventilation (VE) at each histamine concentration during ...
Weissman C - - 1986
Low level exercise is frequently used to assess cardiac and pulmonary function. This study examines the differences in both metabolic and respiratory patterns between the sitting and supine position. Six normal male subjects were studied in both positions during four levels of exercise (12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50 W). Oxygen ...
McKeon J L - - 1986
This study was designed to determine whether inspiratory resistive training could improve the exercise performance of patients with severe chronic airflow limitation who had already received optimum conventional therapy with bronchodilators and physiotherapy. Eighteen patients were studied. Ten patients were trained with an inspiratory resistance device for six weeks and ...
Morel D R - - 1986
The authors compared the respiratory effects of an intravenous infusion of ketamine (1 mg X kg-1) with droperidol (0.1 mg X kg-1), or placebo on three different occasions in a double-blind, randomized fashion in eight healthy volunteers. Breathing pattern, thoraco-abdominal motion, end-expiratory positions of the rib cage and abdomen, arterial ...
Crawford A B - - 1986
To examine the effect of changing tidal volume (VT) on ventilation distribution, we studied multiple breath nitrogen washouts in 4 normal subjects breathing with a VT of 0.6, 1.0 or 1.5 L. We used a recently developed technique of analysis (Crawford et al., 1985) that distinguishes inhomogeneity of gas concentrations ...
Jordanoglou J - - 1986
In four normal subjects and 51 patients with chronic bronchitis-emphysema, bronchial asthma and pulmonary fibrosis, the VD/VT ratio was measured by a helium washout technique (wVD/VT) and by the conventional Bohr's method using the arterial CO2 tension (VD/VT). In 16 patients the wVD/VT ratio was compared with that calculated from ...
Gautier H - - 1986
Ventilation and breathing pattern were recorded in a group of seven anesthetized cats during rewarming from 24 to 38 degrees C of esophageal temperature. It was found that at 24 degrees C, ventilation was very much depressed accounting for an alveolar hypoventilation resulting in hypoxia and hypercapnia. During rewarming, ventilation ...
Palevsky H I - - 1986
The effects of acute bronchoconstriction, produced by inhalation of Ascaris suum antigen, on both the amplitude and timing of phrenic nerve activity were studied in anesthetized dogs. Blood gas tensions and inspiratory air flow were maintained constant. Bronchoconstriction resulted in a significant increase in the magnitude and rate of rise ...
Sobush D C - - 1986
This report describes a 6-step process for prescribing resistive inspiratory exercise using the PFLEX device, which is an inexpensive and effective method of enhancing the performance of the vital muscles of respiration. Until further clinical validation of minimal threshold guidelines for prescribing PEPs is achieved, the clinical judgment of the ...
Greenspan A M - - 1986
The major differential diagnosis for VT is supraventricular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex due to aberrant conduction. Although VT may be slightly irregular, gross irregularities, such as those typically seen in atrial fibrillation, are uncommon during VT; such marked irregularities suggest atrial fibrillation. The QRS configuration is helpful in ...
Oda H - - 1986
A female patient had recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) as a late sequela after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot, and the clinically documented VT could be induced and terminated in a reproducible manner by programmed stimulation. VT was accompanied by fragmented electrical activities when the electrode was positioned at ...
Hodous T K - - 1986
Few studies have examined the response of individuals with restrictive lung disease (RLD) to respirator wear. Such information should be of theoretical and practical interest when the need to determine fitness to wear respirators is considered. Seventeen females performed progressive submaximal treadmill exercise. Twelve control subjects with total lung capacity ...
Buchanan L M - - 1986
This study determined the effects of a 5-second inspiratory hold during ventilatory maneuvers on cardiopulmonary status before, during, and after endotracheal suctioning in an acute lung-injured model. Eight mongrel dogs were anesthetized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated, and given intravenous oleic acid to produce pulmonary edema. Four protocols were tested in alternate ...
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