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Results 501 - 550 of 826
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Mont L - - 1991
In 37 (70%) of 53 patients with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT), episodes were mainly related to exercise (group 1). These patients were younger (33 +/- 14 vs 44 +/- 18 years, p = 0.015) and more often had dizziness during VT (71 vs 40%, p = 0.003) than the 16 ...
Kearon M C - - 1991
1. Six normal subjects cycled to endurance or for 60 min at four work rates (WR 1-4): mean of 34% working capacity (93 watts for 60 min); 43% (120 watts for 56 min); 63% (177 watts for 37 min); and 84% (233 watts for 12 min), to determine how breathing ...
Bunc V - - 1991
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of increasing specific (paddling ergometer) and non-specific (bicycle ergometer) work load on the parameters at the ventilatory threshold (VT) and on work efficiency (WE) during increasing exercise ergometry. When highly trained male canoeists were given an unspecific exercise load, the ...
Matzen S - - 1991
We evaluated regional electrical impedance (Z degree) at 2.5 and 100 kHz to separate intra- and extracellular fluid changes and correlated Z degree over the thorax (TI) to relative changes in the central blood volume (CBV) induced by head-up tilt. In nine experiments head-up tilt resulted in normotensive central hypovolaemia ...
Fregosi R F - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to determine if the increase in ventilation induced by hypoxic stimulation of the carotid bodies (CB) persists after cessation of the stimulus in humans. I reasoned that a short-term potentiation (STP) of breathing, sometimes called an "afterdischarge," could be unmasked by combining hypoxia with ...
Sari A - - 1991
We investigated the effects of inversed ratio ventilation by altering the inspiratory:expiratory (I:E) ratio and assessing the time course changes in the intrapulmonary shunting (Qs/Qt) in 14 patients with acute respiratory failure. Stepwise prolongation of the I:E ratio from 1:1.9 to 2:1 and then to 2.6 or 4:1 was applied ...
Badr M S - - 1991
We investigated the effect of different levels of hypercapnia on total pulmonary resistance (RL) in 13 subjects ranging from nonsnorers with low RL to snorers with high RL and dynamic narrowing of the upper airway during inspiration. Added CO2 was adjusted to achieve a steady-state increase in PETCO2 of +2, ...
Richard C A - - 1991
We assessed the timing and amplitude characteristics of diaphragmatic muscle activity following administration of intravenous cocaine HCl (10 mg/kg) to awake, unrestrained cats. Cocaine produced a pronounced tachypnea which was interrupted by deep inspiratory efforts coincident with tonic-clonic movements over the first 10 min following cocaine administration. Following that period, ...
Mahler D A - - 1991
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictor variables for breathlessness and to investigate the criteria of reliability and responsiveness for measuring breathlessness during progressive, incremental exercise on the cycle ergometer. We studied a heterogeneous group of patients with stable asthma (mean +/- SEM age, 46 +/- 4 ...
Abbrecht P H - - 1991
Both exercise and inspiratory flow-resistive loading may cause recruitment of expiratory muscles. To evaluate the extent of recruitment in combined exercise and flow-resistive loading, and to estimate the effect on inspiratory muscle work, we studied five men, 26 to 39 yr of age, during mild exercise with different degrees of ...
Sciurba F C - - 1991
The more rapid and shallow ventilation pattern seen during exercise in patients with obstructive and/or restrictive lung disease has been attributed by some investigators to the effects of vagal afferents from intrapulmonary receptors. Recipients of heart-lung transplants (HLTR) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis since they have denervated ...
Chonan T - - 1991
We assessed the effects of negative intrathoracic pressure induced by inspiratory elastic loading on pulmonary, gas exchange with and without electrically induced hindlimb exercise in 8 normal, anesthetized dogs. Two elastic loads (EL) were used; one of 81 and one of 140 cmH2O/liter. These are equivalent to doubling and tripling ...
Insalaco G - - 1991
Previous fiber-optic studies in humans have demonstrated narrowing of the glottic aperture in expiration during application of expiratory resistive loads. Nine healthy subjects were studied to determine the effect of expiratory resistive loads on the electromyographic activity of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle, a vocal cord adductor. Four of the nine ...
Johnson B D - - 1991
In 29 older (69 +/- 1 yr), physically active subjects (VO2max = 44 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1), we determined the effect of an age-related decline in elastic lung recoil (i.e., Vmax50 = 65% of 30-yr-old adults) on the ventilatory response to progressive exercise. More specifically, we assessed if expiratory airflow limits ...
Systrom D M - - 1991
To determine if ammonium ion plays a role in the lactate and ventilatory thresholds of incremental exercise, we investigated the effects on blood lactate and ventilation of NH(4+)-buffering by monosodium glutamate. Six normal volunteers underwent intravenous loading with MSG, 9 g, in a randomized, double-blind, saline placebo controlled crossover study. ...
Schroeder M A - - 1991
To assess the mechanical role of the expiratory musculature during eupnea, we recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the triangularis sterni, the external oblique, and the transversus abdominis in eight supine lightly anesthetized dogs and have measured the volume generated by the phasic activation of the expiratory muscles. Activation of ...
Mulvey D A - - 1991
We have investigated whether the capacity of the inspiratory muscles to generate pressure and flow during a ventilatory load is related to changes in inspiratory muscle relaxation rate. Five highly motivated normal subjects performed voluntary maximal isocapnic ventilation (MIV) for 2 min. Minute ventilation and esophageal, gastric, and transdiaphragmatic pressures ...
van der Kooij A M - - 1991
We have measured the longitudinal dispersion of boluses of helium, acetylene and sulphur hexafluoride in a plastic model of the human airways--generations zero through six--during high frequency ventilation (HFV). HFV was maintained by a piston pump. Frequency f and tidal volume VT ranged from 2.5 to 25 Hz and from ...
Chelucci G L - - 1991
The time-course of thoracic volume changes (respiratory inductive plethysmograph) during relaxed expiration was studied in 11 intubated, paralysed, mechanically ventilated subjects. The semilog volume-time curves show that expiration is governed by two apparently separate mechanisms: one causes emptying of most of the expired volume (approximately 80%) with a time constant ...
Mador M J - - 1991
We examined the breathing pattern during incremental exercise before and after induction of inspiratory muscle fatigue. Our aim was to determine whether induction of fatigue alters the ventilatory response to exercise and in particular whether such changes are most apparent at high levels of exercise when minute ventilation and thus ...
Sweeney T D - - 1991
Does the restraint required for head or nose-only exposure of rodents to inhaled aerosols or gases alter their breathing pattern? And does prior exercise training, which may increase muscle strength, affect this response to restraint? To answer those questions, we measured breathing pattern in 11 adult male hamsters while they ...
Puddy A - - 1991
Because the detection of added loads is a function of the step change in load relative to background level of load (Weber's law), we reasoned that detection may be delayed if the load is increased in very small steps over a protracted period. This would permit the study of subliminal ...
Puri G D - - 1991
Physiological dead space and its components were determined in 27 young, otherwise healthy anaesthetised individuals before start of surgery. A squarewave inspiratory flow pattern and an end inspiratory pause (25 and 10% of cycle time respectively) were used at a respiratory rate of around 16 bpm with minute ventilation adjusted ...
Mahler D A - - 1991
The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the hypothesis that respiration was coupled with the mechanics of the rowing stroke. In the first part of the study, physiologic responses during incremental exercise on the variable-resistance rowing ergometer were compared in 16 untrained female subjects (U), 17 collegiate female rowers ...
Lowry T F - - 1991
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of elevated inspired CO2 on respiratory dead space (VD) of 12 normal, 8 carotid body-denervated (CBD), 7 hilar nerve-denervated (HND), and 6 CBD+HND ponies. The Fowler technique was used to determine VD on a breath-by-breath basis while the ponies ...
Mercier J - - 1991
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth on ventilation and breathing pattern during maximal exercise oxygen consumption (VO2max) and their relationships with anthropometric characteristics. Seventy six untrained schoolboys, aged 10.5-15.5 years, participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements made included body mass, height, armspan, lean body ...
Dekhuijzen P N - - 1991
In target-flow inspiratory muscle training (TF-IMT), the generated inspiratory mouth pressure and the duration of the inspiration and expiration are standardized to given an adequate training stimulus to the inspiratory muscles. The acute effects of TF-IMT on the efficiency of breathing were studied in a group of 12 COPD patients ...
Mekjavic I B - - 1991
Breathing pattern in response to maximal exercise was examined in four subjects during a 7-day acclimatisation to a simulated altitude of 4247 m (barometric pressure, PB = 59.5 kPa). Graded exercise tests to exhaustion were performed during normoxia (day 0), and on days 2 and 7 of hypoxia, respectively. Ventilation ...
McParland C - - 1991
We examined the effects of dead space (VD) loading on breathing pattern during maximal incremental exercise in eight normal subjects. Addition of external VD was associated with a significant increase in tidal volume (VT) and decrease in respiratory frequency (f) at moderate and high levels of ventilation (VI); at a ...
Coast J R - - 1990
Previous investigators have demonstrated that 5-10 min of fatiguing exercise would lead to respiratory muscle fatigue in normal subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a differential inspiratory pressure response to maximal cycle ergometer exercise in trained and untrained subjects. Six highly trained cross country ...
Harber P - - 1990
The effect of exercise on the adaptation to an air-purifying respirator type load (dead space + inspiratory resistance) was studied in a group of 13 volunteers with a rapidly incremental exercise protocol. The difference between loaded and unloaded breathing at each exercise level was determined for each subject for a ...
Sherrill D L - - 1990
A recently developed nonparametric regression technique, called a polynomial smoothing spline, is presented for detecting the ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation (RC) points from gas exchange response data taken during an incremental exercise test. This type of curve fitting has the advantage of not requiring investigators to specify, a ...
Vaitkus P T - - 1990
We undertook this study to determine if the cycle-length response of ventricular tachycardia (VT) to procainamide and amiodarone is similar in the individual patient. We enrolled 40 patients with uniform, monomorphic VT at a baseline, drug-free electrophysiologic study, after procainamide infusion and during oral amiodarone therapy. We found a significant ...
Belknap J K - - 1990
Upper airway flow mechanics and arterial blood gas measurements were used to assess the efficacy of subtotal arytenoidectomy for treatment of induced left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses. Measurements were collected with the horses at rest, and trotting or pacing on a treadmill (6.38 degrees incline) at speeds of 4.2 and ...
Nicholas T E - - 1990
We have used tow previously characterized models of hyperpnea in vivo and different modes of ventilation in the isolated perfused rat lung to investigate changes in the phospholipid content of tubular myelin-rich (PLalv-1) and -poor (PLalv-2) fractions isolated from lavaged material and of two lamellar body subfractions. A vesicular lamellar ...
Scardella A T - - 1990
In a previous study in unanesthetized goats, we demonstrated that continuous naloxone (NLX) administration during inspiratory flow-resistive loading (IRL) significantly increased tidal volume (VT) but not diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi). End-expiratory gastric pressure did increase with NLX, implying that increased abdominal muscle activity may have accounted for the NLX effect. In ...
Cheeseman M - - 1990
Recent evidence from several laboratories suggests that activation of afferents in the diaphragm can reflexly affect inspiratory muscle activation. This study determined whether afferents in the diaphragm contribute to compensatory changes in phrenic motor drive when the operating length of the diaphragm is suddenly increased. Experiments were performed in six ...
Courtney S E - - 1990
To assess the accuracy of a pneumotachometer (PN) for tidal volume (VT) measurements during high-frequency oscillation (HFO), we determined simultaneously VT using a PN and a full body plethysmograph (PL) in 12 rabbits. HFO was delivered with an oscillator at a frequency of 10 Hz, mean airway pressure of 8 ...
Loveridge B M - - 1990
The resting breathing pattern in 14 chronic C6 and C7 traumatic quadriplegics was compared with six age-matched healthy controls. All quadriplegics had complete motor loss below the lesion level and were at least two years postinjury. Tests were performed with subjects seated. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in ...
Wheatley J R - - 1990
To examine the relationship between end-expiratory lung volume and respiratory muscle work during acute bronchoconstriction, we measured the work of breathing in nine asthmatic subjects, in whom bronchoconstriction was induced with histamine aerosol. When the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell below 60% of the control value, work ...
Hillman D R - - 1990
Transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) is lower during maximum inspiratory effort with the diaphragm alone than when maximum inspiratory and expulsive efforts are combined. The increase in Pdi with expulsive effort has been attributed to increased neural activation of the diaphragm. Alternatively, the increase could be due to stretching of the contracted ...
Hesser C M - - 1990
The effects of increased airway resistance on lung volumes and pattern of breathing were studied in eight subjects performing leg exercise on a cycle ergometer. Airway resistance was changed 1) by increasing the density (D) of the respired gas by a factor of 4.2 and changing the inspired gas from ...
Systrom D M - - 1990
The relationships among the lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), and intracellular biochemical events in exercising muscle have not been well defined. Therefore 14 normal subjects performed incremental plantar flexion to exhaustion on 2 study days, the first for determination of LT and VT and the second for continuous 31P ...
Petrozzino J J - - 1990
Shifts in the power spectrum of the diaphragm EMG to lower frequencies may occur in the presence of fatiguing inspiratory flow-resistive loads (IRL). However, such a shift of the centroid frequency (fc) could follow a reduction in central output through a differential reduction in end-inspiratory high-frequency power (HFP). In unanesthetized ...
Frysinger R C - - 1990
We recorded respiratory activity and electrocardiogram (ECG) together with single cell activity from the amygdala and hippocampus of epileptic patients who later received anterotemporal lobectomy. Cross-correlation histograms were used to test for neuronal discharge timing relationships with inspiration or ECG. Linear regression was used to test for correlations of inspiratory ...
De Troyer A - - 1990
To assess the isolated effect of an abnormal increase in abdominal compliance on the pattern of chest wall motion during breathing, we have studied seven patients with complete transection of the midthoracic cord (Th4-Th7). Measurements of chest wall motion were obtained with magnetometers, and concentric needle electrodes were used to ...
Manohar M - - 1990
The present study was carried out on seven healthy ponies to examine the extent of blood flow in various inspiratory and expiratory muscles at rest and during maximal exertion as well as to determine the proportion of cardiac output needed to perfuse respiratory muscles during these conditions. Tissue blood flow ...
Johnson B D - - 1990
We automated the inert gas rebreathe technique for measurement of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) during heavy exercise. We also assessed the use of two gas tracers (He and N2) vs. a single gas tracer (He) for measurement of this lung volume and compared the two-tracer EELV to changes in the ...
Maillard D - - 1990
Effect of He-O2-breathing (79.1%:20.9%) compared to air-breathing on inspiratory ventilation (VI) and its different components [tidal volume (VT), the duration of the phases of each respiratory cycle (tI, tTOT)] as well as on inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1) were studied in six normal men at rest and during 72 constant-load ...
Mercier J - - 1990
The aim of this study was to specify whether exercise hyperpnoea was related to the CO2 sensitivity of the respiratory centres measured during steady-state exercise of mild intensity. Thus, ventilation (VE), breathing pattern [tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (f), inspiratory time (TI), total time of the respiratory cycle (TTOT), VT/TI, ...
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