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Results 351 - 400 of 1610
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Desgorces François Denis - - 2008
This study quantified training load of various exercises using a novel method developed by the authors and based on the ratio of work completed: endurance limit, associated with exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness. Exercises were also quantified using the Training Impulse method. 8 runners performed a marathon and a 60-min. run ...
Holland A E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by exertional dyspnoea, exercise limitation and reduced quality of life. The role of exercise training in this diverse patient group is unclear. The aims of this study were to establish the safety of exercise training in ILD; its effects on exercise capacity, dyspnoea ...
Collins Eileen G EG Research and Development (151), Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, IL 60141, USA. - - 2008
Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation contributes to decreased exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether respiratory retraining (ventilation-feedback [VF] training) can affect exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation and increase exercise tolerance. To determine whether patients with COPD would achieve longer exercise duration if randomized to a combination of exercise ...
Marini Marina - - 2008
Enhanced angiogenesis, or capillary growth, has a prominent role among the various beneficial effects of exercise training on the myocardium. The aim of the present study is to assess if training-induced increases in capillarity and vascularization persist after 4 weeks of detraining. Adult male rats were trained to run on ...
Zouhal Hassane - - 2008
Stress hormones, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), are responsible for many adaptations both at rest and during exercise. Since their discovery, thousands of studies have focused on these two catecholamines and their importance in many adaptive processes to different stressors such as exercise, hypoglycaemia, hypoxia and heat exposure, and these ...
Mueller Gabi - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km time-trial performance in wheelchair racing athletes. DESIGN: ...
Carmeli Eli - - 2008
Clinically, adult with intellectual disability (ID) appear less physically fit than people without ID, yet formal endurance evaluation has not been reported previously. We hypothesized that the immune system in adults people with ID can be influenced positively from 4 weeks of endurance training. Healthy subjects with ID ages from ...
Borresen Jill - - 2008
Endurance training decreases resting and submaximal heart rate, while maximum heart rate may decrease slightly or remain unchanged after training. The effect of endurance training on various indices of heart rate variability remains inconclusive. This may be due to the use of inconsistent analysis methodologies and different training programmes that ...
Minetto M A - - 2008
The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strenuous training on the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Exercise tests and saliva collections for analysis of awakening cortisol response (ACR) and midnight cortisol were performed before and after a 7-day period of intensified training in a group of 15 ...
Tokmakidis Savvas P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of a water-based training program as well as the detraining and retraining effects on physiological parameters in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Twenty-one patients were separated in an exercise group (n = 11) and a control group ...
Hewitt Jennifer A - - 2008
Sufficient levels of physical activity provide cardio-protective benefit. However within developed society sedentary work and inflexible working hours promotes physical inactivity. Consequently to ensure a healthy workforce there is a requirement for exercise strategies adaptable to occupational time constraint. This study examined the effect of a 12 week aerobic exercise ...
Stegenga Jan - - 2008
We have studied the effect of imprinting a new stimulus-response (SR) relationship into a neuronal network cultured on a multi electrode array (MEA). We have used the Conditional Repetitive Stimulation (CRS) algorithm introduced by Shahaf et al in 2004. In this algorithm focal electrical stimulation is delivered at a low ...
Iaia F Marcello - - 2008
The present study examined muscle adaptations and alterations in work capacity in endurance-trained runners after a change from endurance to sprint training. Fifteen runners were assigned to either a sprint training (ST, n = 8) or a control (CON, n = 7) group. ST replaced their normal training by 30-s ...
Ferrari Bravo D - - 2008
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 ...
Boon Hanneke - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare substrate source use in older, long-term exercising, endurance-trained males with sedentary controls. METHODS: [U-C]palmitate and [6,6-H2]glucose tracers were applied to assess plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates, and to estimate muscle- and/or lipoprotein-derived triacylglycerol (TG) and muscle glycogen ...
Burgomaster Kirsten A - - 2008
Low-volume 'sprint' interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of ...
Brassard Patrice - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aerobic exercise training on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and exercise capacity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Twenty-three sedentary subjects with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, free of coronary disease and having different degrees of LVDD, participated ...
Bera Sagir G - - 2007
Falls may occur because of a deficiency in the ability to rapidly step in the desired direction. Previous models developed to predict rapid step ability have been based on balance, video analysis, or uniplanar isokinetic performance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of multiplanar velocity-spectrum training ...
Rietbroek Nancy J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether postnatal development of oxidative capacity and capillary supply of skeletal muscle is affected by various movement regimens in horses. ANIMALS: 35 foals. PROCEDURES: Dutch Warmblood foals were allocated into 3 groups (box stall rest, box stall rest with training, and free pasture exercise). Training comprised an ...
Wylegala J - - 2007
Underwater swimming is a unique exercise and its fitness is not accomplished by other types of training. This study compared high intensity intermittent fin-swim training (HIIT) with moderate intensity continuous (MICT). Divers (n = 20; age = 23 +/- 4 yrs; weight = 82.57 +/- 10.38 kg; height = 180 ...
Johnson Johanna L - - 2007
Although exercise improves individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS), there is little research on the effect of exercise on MS as a whole. The objective of this study was to determine how much exercise is recommended to decrease the prevalence of MS. Of 334 subjects randomly assigned, 227 finished ...
Gayda Mathieu - - 2009
Cardiopulmonary and skeletal muscle effects of combined aerobic and resistance training vs. aerobic training were studied in men with coronary heart disease. Sixteen men with coronary heart disease underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise testing and a quadriceps skeletal muscle fatigue assessment. Patients were divided into two groups and trained in a ...
Selivanov V A - - 2008
The biochemical effects of training programmes have been studied with a kinetic model of central metabolism, using enzyme activities and metabolite concentrations measured at rest and after 30 s maximum-intensity exercise, collected before and after long and short periods of training, which differed only by the duration of the rest ...
Stewart Laura K - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a 12-wk exercise training program on inflammatory cytokine and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. A secondary purpose was to determine whether training-induced changes in cytokines and CRP were influenced by age. METHODS: Twenty-nine younger (18-35 yr) and 31 older ...
Laoutaris Ioannis D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The effects of inspiratory muscle training on plasma cytokines, C-reactive protein and the soluble apoptosis mediators Fas and Fas ligand in chronic heart failure are unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with chronic heart failure, age 57+/-2 years, New York Heart Association classification II-III, were assigned to either a ...
Trapp E Gail - - 2007
The metabolic response to two different forms of high-intensity intermittent cycle exercise was investigated in young women. Subjects (8 trained and 8 untrained) performed two bouts of high-intensity intermittent exercise: short sprint (SS) (8-s sprint, 12-s recovery) and long sprint (LS) (24-s sprint, 36-s recovery) for 20 min on two ...
Woorons Xavier - - 2008
This study investigated the effects of training with voluntary hypoventilation (VH) at low pulmonary volumes. Two groups of moderately trained runners, one using hypoventilation (HYPO, n=7) and one control group (CONT, n=8), were constituted. The training consisted in performing 12 sessions of 55 min within 4 weeks. In each session, ...
Dalgas U - - 2008
This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects of physical exercise in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, recommendations are given regarding exercise prescription for MS patients and for future study directions. Previously, MS patients were advised not to participate in physical exercise. During recent years, it has ...
Sigal Ronald J RJ University of Ottawa, Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Health Research Institute, and Prevention and Rehabilitation Centre, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. - - 2007
Previous trials have evaluated the effects of aerobic training alone and of resistance training alone on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, as assessed by hemoglobin A1c values. However, none could assess incremental effects of combined aerobic and resistance training compared with either type of exercise alone. To determine the ...
Gross Micah - - 2007
PURPOSE: We compared the effects of a high-intensity interval training (HIT) program completed on three consecutive or nonconsecutive days per week for 3 wk on VO2peak, peak aerobic power output (PPOa), and 5-km time trial (TT5k) performance in trained cyclists. METHODS: Fifteen trained cyclists completed a TT5k and an incremental ...
Sagiv M - - 2007
AIM: Training during adolescence may influence the myocardium's adaptation. Effects of exercise training on left ventricular function differ depending whether they result from pressure or volume overload. Accordingly, the present study was designed to examine, by echocardiography studies, the effects of endurance versus weight lifting training modes on left ventricular ...
Borresen Jill - - 2007
Heart rate recovery is an indirect marker of autonomic function and changes therein may offer a practical way of quantifying the physiological effects of training. We assessed whether per cent heart rate recovery (HRr%) after a standardized sub-maximal running (Heart rate Interval Monitoring System: HIMS) test, changed with acute changes ...
Mortensen Ole Hartvig - - 2007
We hypothesized that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) family of transcriptional coactivators (PGC-1alpha, PGC-1beta, and PRC) is differentially regulated by training once daily vs. training twice daily every second day and that this difference might be observed in the acute response to endurance exercise. Furthermore, we hypothesized that expression ...
Varga Janos - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Endurance training is an effective component of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. Controversy exists regarding whether different modalities of supervised exercise training (continuous (C) or interval (I)) or self-paced (S) programs are equally beneficial. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with COPD (average FEV(1)=55% predicted) were assigned to 8 weeks of C, I ...
Burgess Katherine E - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to concurrently determine the effect that plyometric and isometric training has on tendon stiffness (K) and muscle output characteristics to compare any subsequent changes. Thirteen men trained the lower limbs either plyometrically or isometrically 2-3 times a week for a 6-week period. Medial gastrocnemius ...
Esteve-Lanao Jonathan - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 2 training programs differing in the relative contribution of training volume, clearly below vs. within the lactate threshold/maximal lactate steady state region on performance in endurance runners. Twelve subelite endurance runners (who are specialists in track events, mostly the ...
Deley Gaëlle - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise training is known to improve exercise tolerance in elderly subjects. Therefore the present study aimed at investigating the effects of one year of combined endurance and resistance training in healthy older people. METHODS: After baseline evaluation, subjects were assigned to either the training group (n=24, age ...
Murray Daniel P - - 2007
Little is known about the velocity-specific adaptations to training utilizing movement velocities in excess of 300 degrees x s(-1). The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of slow (60 degrees x s(-1)) vs. fast (400 degrees x s(-1)) velocity training on rate of velocity ...
Daussin Frédéric N - - 2007
Improvement of exercise capacity by continuous (CT) versus interval training (IT) remains debated. We tested the hypothesis that CT and IT might improve peripheral and/or central adaptations, respectively, by randomly assigning 10 healthy subjects to two periods of 24 trainings sessions over 8 weeks in a cross-over design, separated by ...
Bexfield, Nathan Alex 1980-
Introduction- Exercise-induced plasma volume (PV) expansion is typically associated with an increase in plasma albumin content. Increased hepatic albumin synthesis, a transcriptionally regulated process, is thought to contribute to the increase in albumin content. Objective- We tested the hypothesis that exercise training induces an increase in albumin gene expression in ...
Brixius K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Endurance training may decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. It has been speculated that these effects may be due to an exercise-induced stimulation of angiogenesis. The underlying mechanisms are not yet clear. Therefore, using ELISA, we investigated the plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, angiogenic factor) ...
Kemi Ole J - - 2007
Cardiac adaptation to aerobic exercise training includes improved cardiomyocyte contractility and calcium handling. Our objective was to determine whether cytosolic calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and its downstream targets are modulated by exercise training. A six-week aerobic interval training program by treadmill running increased maximal oxygen uptake by 35% in adult mice, ...
Arnard?ttir Ragnheidur Harpa - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: The effects of different training modes need to be investigated further in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both advanced laboratory tests and field tests are used in patients with COPD to evaluate effects of interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. AIMS: The overall aims of the studies were ...
Maté-Muñoz José L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study reports acute exercise responses in a large (N = 46) series of patients with McArdle disease and responses to exercise training in a smaller (n = 9) set of patients. DESIGN: Patients were studied during both incremental and steady-state cycle ergometer exercise, using cardiopulmonary testing, and the ...
Holtermann Andreas - - 2007
Parallel increases in strength and rate of force development (RFD) are well-known outcomes from the initial phase of resistance training. However, it is unknown whether neural adaptations with training contribute to improvements of both factors. The aim of this study was to examine whether changes in H-reflex amplitude with resistance ...
Zapico A G - - 2007
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate physiological parameters as a control tool for the monitoring of training in a group of elite cyclists during one season of training. METHODS: The study is divided into two periods (winter or ''volume'' mesocycle and spring or ''intensity'' mesocycle) ...
Cha John - - 2007
Studies have shown that treadmill training with body weight support is effective for enhancing locomotor recovery following a complete spinal cord transection (ST) in animals. However, there have been no studies that have investigated the extent that functional recovery in ST animals is dependent on the amount of activity imposed ...
Minami Naoyoshi - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Physical fitness is closely related with cardiovascular health. We examined the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, exercise training and their combination on exercise capacity as well as skeletal muscle fiber type and capillarity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Seven-week-old male SHR were allocated to four groups: sedentary control ...
Laursen Paul B - - 2007
Well-trained endurance athletes undergo periods of high-intensity interval training (HIT) or high-volume training (HVT) to improve exercise performance, but little is known about the mechanistic changes that occur during this time. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of HIT and HVT on the activities of citrate ...
Maciejewski H - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that large increases in blood lactate concentration ([La] (b)) and/or body temperature may occur during an endurance training on a rowing ergometer and disrupt training. The influence of an increase in air convection on the capacity to perform a ...
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