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Crognale Domenico D School of Physiotherapy and Performance Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. - - 2009
Previous research has shown that a novel form of neuro-muscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used to bring about aerobic training effects in sedentary adults and in patients with heart failure. However, it is not clear whether this form of NMES could induce a significantly strong cardiovascular exercise effect in ...
Lamberts Robert P - - 2009
Heart rate recovery (HRR) after submaximal exercise improves after training. However, it is unknown if this also occurs in already well-trained cyclists. Therefore, 14 well-trained cyclists (VO(2max) 60.3 +/- 7.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); relative peak power output 5.2 +/- 0.6 W kg(-1)) participated in a high-intensity training programme (eight sessions ...
Lira F S - - 2009
White adipose tissue (WAT) is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and recently, it has been recognized as an important source of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Acute physical exercise is known to induce an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, however, the effect of chronic physical exercise on the production of IL-10 by ...
Haram Per Magnus - - 2009
AIMS: The recent development of a rat model that closely resembles the metabolic syndrome allows to study the mechanisms of amelioration of the syndrome by exercise training. Here, we compared the effectiveness for reducing cardiovascular risk factors by exercise training programmes of different exercise intensities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome ...
Soufi Farhad G - - 2008
The aim of this study was to test the effects of age and long-term exercise training on antioxidant, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and apoptosis by comparing the hearts of sedentary and trained rats. Training groups went under 3-, 6- and 9-months of regular exercise (25 m/min with a ...
Liu-Ambrose T - - 2009
In recent years, there has been a strong interest in physical activity as a primary behavioural prevention strategy against cognitive decline. A number of large prospective cohort studies have highlighted the protective role of regular physical activity in lowering the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Most prospective intervention studies ...
Ballaz Laurent - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the hemodynamic adaptations after home-based passive leg cycle exercise training in person with paraplegia. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial (small cohort). SETTING: University department of physical medicine and rehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample of people with paraplegia (N=17). INTERVENTION: Subjects within the experimental group performed 36 passive ...
Saito Mitsuru - - 2009
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was investigated 1 week before (pre-training), 1 week after, and 4-6 weeks after strength training using fatigue-inducing handgrip exercises and post-exercise forearm occlusion. Eighteen volunteers underwent forearm training, which consisted of 30 maximal effort, 10-s-duration static handgrips, 4 days per week for 4 weeks. A ...
Ichinose Tomoko K - - 2009
We investigated the effects of short-term endurance training and detraining on sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during exercise in young women, taking into account changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the phase of the menstrual cycle. Eleven untrained women participated in endurance training; cycle exercise at approximately 60% VO2max for ...
Befroy Douglas E DE Departments of Internal Medicine, Diagnostic Radiology, Cellular and Molecular Physiology, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, - - 2008
Endurance exercise training is accompanied by physiological changes that improve muscle function and performance. Several studies have demonstrated that markers of mitochondrial capacity are elevated, however, these studies tend to be performed ex vivo under conditions that yield maximal enzyme activities or in vivo but monitoring the response to exercise. ...
Radak Zsolt Z Institute of Sport Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Semmelweis University, H-1123 Budapest, Hungary. - - 2009
Exercise has been shown to modify the level/activity of the DNA damage repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (OGG1) in skeletal muscle. We have studied the impact of regular physical training (8 weeks of swimming) and detraining (8 weeks of rest after an 8-week training session) on the activity of OGG1 in ...
Yoshizawa M - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Resistance training has been increasingly incorporated into the overall exercise programme because of its effect on muscle strength, functional capacity and osteoporosis. High-intensity resistance training increases arterial stiffness. However, the effect of moderate-intensity resistance training on arterial stiffness is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity resistance ...
Iaia F Marcello - - 2009
We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; ...
Maeda S - - 2009
Habitual aerobic exercise results in a significant increase in central arterial compliance. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide and could play a role in mediating the habitual aerobic exercise-induced increase in central arterial compliance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ET-1 is involved in ...
Chicco A J - - 2008
Physical activity is a well-established means of reducing the risk and consequences of nearly all forms of cardiovascular disease. Several exercise training regimens have been utilized with varying degrees of success on selected outcomes, which was led to the question of which training regimen provides optimal benefits. Just as cardiovascular ...
Sveen Marie Louise - - 2008
Studies in a dystrophinopathy model (the mdx mouse) suggest that exercise training may be deleterious for muscle integrity, but exercise has never been studied in detail in humans with defects of dystrophin. We studied the effect of endurance training on conditioning in patients with the dystrophinopathy, Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). ...
Willardson Jeffrey M - - 2008
PURPOSE: This study compared failure versus nonfailure training with equated intensity and volume on lower body muscular endurance in trained men. METHODS: Each subject performed one lower body workout per week for 6 weeks; the Failure group performed 3 sets of the squat, leg curl, and leg extension exercises to ...
Capitanini Alessandro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Physical and aerobic capacity are extremely limited in dialysis patients, but it is uncertain whether or not exercise training is safe or has beneficial effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life of hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Ten hemodialysis patients ...
Bloomer Richard J - - 2008
Sex and lifestyle factors are known to influence the oxidation of protein, lipids, and DNA. Biomarkers such as protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) have been commonly used in an attempt to characterize the oxidative status of human subjects. This study compared resting blood oxidative stress biomarkers, in ...
McNicol Ashleigh J - - 2009
"Progressive overload" is regarded an important principle to consider in maximising endurance training adaptations, yet little scientific evidence supports this concept. The aim of the present study was to compare differences in endurance performance after a training regime where treadmill-running intensity was incrementally elevated to a regime where running intensity ...
Miura Hajime - - 2008
We evaluated the effects of different training frequencies on arterial stiffness. 77 elderly women (mean 68.8 years and 7.0 SD) were divided into two training (1DW and 2DW) and a CONTROL group (n = 23). 1DW (n = 29) participated in 90-min group training once a week for 12 weeks, ...
Ravier G - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding a high-intensity intermittent session twice a week during a 7-week karate training (KT) on markers of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms in elite class karate athletes. Two groups were studied: a KT group (n=8, age 20.1+/-0.9 years, 70.0+/-8.8 kg) ...
Tong Tom Kwokkeung - - 2008
The effects of inspiratory muscle (IM) training on maximal 20 m shuttle run performance (Ex) during Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and on the physiological and perceptual responses to the running test were examined. Thirty men were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups. The experimental group underwent a 6 week ...
Yeldan Ipek - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of home training programmes, threshold inspiratory muscle training and breathing exercise on spirometry and maximal pressures in patients with muscular dystrophy. DESIGN: Prospective blinded 12-week study. SETTINGS: Cardiopulmonary department of university hospital. SUBJECTS: Twenty-three patients with muscular dystrophy (17 patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy ...
Alon Gad - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: This nonblinded, block-randomized clinical trial tested the hypothesis that task-oriented functional electrical stimulation (FES) can enhance the recovery of upper-extremity volitional motor control and functional ability in patients with poor prognosis. DESIGN: Ischemic stroke survivors (FES + exercise group, n = 13, 17.4 +/- 7.6 days after stroke, and ...
Aasa Ulrika - - 2008
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the ...
Rämson Raul - - 2008
The aim of this study was to investigate plasma IL-6, TNF-alpha, leptin and ghrelin concentrations during high-volume training. Eight trained male rowers participated. Fasting blood was sampled before (T1) and after (T2) increased training volume and after recovery period (T3). Two-hour rowing was performed at T1, T2 and at T3 ...
Hayashi Koichiro - - 2008
In men, regular aerobic exercise increases central arterial elasticity, but it is decreased by resistance training. We determined the relation between the type of exercise training and arterial elasticity in healthy young women: 26 healthy young women who were sedentary (CO, n = 9), endurance-trained (ET, n = 9), and ...
Goosey-Tolfrey V - - 2010
There is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in ...
Silva T S - - 2008
The activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is usually modulated by several stress factors, including exercise. Different responses are induced by physical training according to duration and intensity of exercise. During prolonged training, cortisol remains normal or decreased as a consequence of altered cortisol secretion, metabolism and excretion, and possibly by ...
Heylen E - - 2008
AIM: Exercise training is known to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation in the coronary and skeletal muscle arteries. However, the effects of exercise training on peripheral nonworking tissue, including microcirculation, are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chronic and regular aerobic exercise on cutaneous microvascular endothelial function in rats. METHODS: ...
Barauna Valerio G - - 2008
Resistance training is accompanied by cardiac hypertrophy, but the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in this response is elusive. We evaluated this question in 36 male Wistar rats divided into six groups: control (n=6); trained (n=6); control+losartan (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n=6); trained+losartan (n=6); control+high-salt diet (1%, n=6); and trained+high-salt diet ...
Oberbach Andreas - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in patients with type 2 diabetes. Changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum concentrations in response to training could contribute to these beneficial effects. However, there are heterogeneous data on whether circulating IL-6 is altered by exercise training. We therefore hypothesize that ...
Rakobowchuk Mark - - 2008
Low-volume sprint interval training (SIT), or repeated sessions of brief, intense intermittent exercise, elicits metabolic adaptations that resemble traditional high-volume endurance training (ET). The effects of these different forms of exercise training on vascular structure and function remain largely unexplored. To test the hypothesis that SIT and ET would similarly ...
Daussin Frédéric N - - 2008
The goal of the study was to determine the effects of continuous (CT) vs. intermittent (IT) training yielding identical mechanical work and training duration on skeletal muscle and cardiorespiratory adaptations in sedentary subjects. Eleven subjects (6 men and 5 women, 45 +/- 3 years) were randomly assigned to either of ...
Madanmohan - - 2008
The present study was designed to test whether yoga training of six weeks duration modulates sweating response to dynamic exercise and improves respiratory pressures, handgrip strength and handgrip endurance. Out of 46 healthy subjects (30 males and 16 females, aged 17-20 yr), 23 motivated subjects (15 male and 8 female) ...
Gibala Martin J - - 2008
High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a potent time-efficient strategy to induce numerous metabolic adaptations usually associated with traditional endurance training. As little as six sessions of HIT over 2 wk or a total of only approximately 15 min of very intense exercise (approximately 600 kJ), can increase skeletal muscle oxidative ...
Meka Naga - - 2008
Contrary to the age old taboo of exercise in cardiac patients, resistance training has been gaining importance recently as a safe, healthy fitness option in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the leading killer disease in the population above 45 years in the United States. Endurance or aerobic exercise helps improve overall ...
Davis Michael S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of training and sustained submaximal exercise on hematologic values in racing sled dogs. DESIGN: Cohort study. ANIMALS: 39 Alaskan sled dogs bred for endurance racing. Procedures-Blood samples were collected prior to initiation of a 7-month training regimen (n=39), after completion of the training regimen (19), ...
Such L - - 2008
AIM: To determine whether chronic physical training increases atrial and ventricular refractoriness in isolated rabbit heart. METHODS: Trained rabbits were submitted to a protocol of treadmill running. The electrophysiological parameters of refractoriness investigated in an isolated heart preparation were: (1) atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and atrial functional refractory period ...
Namura Mari - - 2008
Although orthodontic treatment improves dentoalveolar problems, the facial profile seldom changes because the perioral muscles do not easily adapt to the new morphological circumstances. We employed proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), which is training with added resisted movement to motions such as lifting the upper lip, lowering the lower lip, and ...
Ingham Stephen A - - 2008
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of low-intensity and a mixture of low- and high-intensity training on physiological and performance responses in rowing. METHODS: Eighteen experienced rowers undertook a 12-wk program of 100% < or = lactate threshold (LT) training (LOW) or 70% training at < or = LT and 30% ...
Haff G Gregory - - 2008
The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of an 11-week training period performed by female weightlifters. Two weeks before this investigation, baseline measures for total testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol ratio were collected. The 11-week training program consisted of the core exercises (i.e., clean, clean and jerk, and ...
Edwards A M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is a useful additional technique with which to augment cardiovascular exercise training adaptations. METHODS: 16 healthy untrained males agreed to participate in the study and were randomly assigned to training (TRA; n = 8) and placebo (PLA; n = 8) groups. Pre- ...
Pogrzebna M - - 2008
AIM: The influence of 4 weeks treadmill training on the contractile properties of motor units (MUs) in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle was investigated. METHODS: A population of 18 Wistar rats was divided into two groups: trained on a treadmill (n = 7, locomotion speed 27 cm s(-1), 1 km ...
de Groot S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a 7-week low-intensity hand rim wheelchair training on the submaximal metabolic cost, mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique in able-bodied participants. METHODS: Participants were randomly divided over an experimental group (n=14) and a control group (n=7). The experimental group received 7 weeks wheelchair training (3 ...
de Lira Claudio Andre Barbosa - - 2008
This study investigated the influence of a moderate exercise training program on the intestinal contractility based on the hypothesis that this organ may endure repetitive periods of ischemia-reperfusion events during moderate aerobic training (10, 25, 40, and 55 days of 60-min treadmill running at 13-21 m/min, 5 days/week). The adaptation ...
Buchheit Martin - - 2008
Repeated supramaximal exercise training is an efficient means of improving both aerobic and anaerobic energy system capacities. However, the influence of different levels of supramaximal training on parasympathetic function is unknown. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of repeated-sprint (RS) versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on performance and postexercise parasympathetic reactivation ...
Bjørnstad Hans H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. Some reports suggesting that exercise training may have net anti-inflammatory effects in heart failure patients exists, although the results are somewhat conflicting. METHODS: Fifteen patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure underwent an exercise training program of 20 ...
Maeda Seiji - - 2008
High physical activity or aerobic exercise training increases central arterial distensibility in older humans. However, the effect of a single bout of exercise on central arterial distensibility in older humans is unknown. Furthermore, the effect of exercise training on central arterial distensibility during exercise is unclear. We investigated whether systemic ...
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