Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 1610
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White Lesley J - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to examine whether substituting 50% of run training volume with cycling ("cross-training") would maintain 3,000-m race time and estimated Vo(2)max in competitive female distance runners during a 5-week recuperative phase. Eleven collegiate runners were randomly assigned to either the run training-only (R) group (n ...
Keteyian Steven J - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, enzyme activity, and capillarity contribute to the exercise intolerance that is characteristic of patients with heart failure. To what extent these changes can be reversed with exercise training and whether differences exist in the responses of men and women remains uncertain. We ...
Green H J - - 2003
In this study, we employed single-leg submaximal cycle training, conducted over a 10-wk period, to investigate adaptations in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins and processes of the vastus lateralis. During the final weeks, the untrained volunteers (age 21.4 +/- 0.3 yr; means +/- SE, n = 10) were exercising 5 ...
Hsiao Shu Fang - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have provided little information about the comparative efficacy of treatment with pressure threshold and targeted resistive inspiratory muscle training devices. This study compared the efficacy of these two types of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) devices on inspiratory muscle function, exercise capacity, and quality of life ...
Yatagai Toshimitsu - - 2003
Circulating concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, are increased by thiazolidinediones and by weight reduction, accompanied with improvement in insulin sensitivity. The effect of exercise training, another therapy to increase insulin sensitivity (SI), on adiponectinemia is currently unclear. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether exercise training-induced increase in ...
Ventura N - - 2003
This study was performed to investigate the effect of training under simulated hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia training was integrated into the normal training schedule of 12 endurance trained cyclists. Athletes were randomly assigned to two groups and performed three additional training bouts per week for six weeks on a bicycle ergometer. ...
Côté Marie-Pascale - - 2003
Treadmill training and clonidine, an alpha-2 noradrenergic agonist, have been shown to improve locomotion after spinal cord injury. We speculate that transmission in load pathways, which are involved in body support during stance, is specifically modified by training. This was evaluated by comparing two groups of spinal cats; one group ...
Eijnde Bert O - - 2003
effect of oral creatine supplementation (CR; 5 g/day) in conjunction with exercise training on physical fitness was investigated in men between 55 and 75 yr of age (n = 46). A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled (PL) trial was performed over a 6-mo period. Furthermore, a subgroup (n = 20) completed a ...
van Lunteren Erik - - 2003
This study tested the hypothesis that the action potential properties of the diaphragm muscle are altered by endurance exercise treadmill training. Rats underwent treadmill running or sham training for 8 weeks, and intracellular electrophysiological recordings were subsequently performed in vitro. Diaphragm resting membrane potential was not altered by training. The ...
Ziemba A W - - 2003
AIM: The aim of this study was to find out how early the moderate training effects appear and to check the hypothesis that familiarization with exercise protocol may contribute to an early physiological responses to training in previously sedentary subjects. METHODS: Twelve male, sedentary volunteers (22.0+/-0.7 yrs) were submitted to ...
Vincent Kevin R - - 2003
Sixty-two older adults (68.4+/-6 years) were randomized into a control group (n=16), low-intensity exercise group (n=22, LEX; 50% 1-repetition maximum; 13 repetitions per exercise), or a high-intensity exercise group (n=24, HEX; 80% 1-repetition maximum; eight repetitions per exercise) group. Subjects trained for 24 weeks, performing 1 set for each of ...
Stolen Kira Q - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exercise training on myocardial oxidative metabolism and efficiency in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and mild heart failure (HF). BACKGROUND: Exercise training is known to improve exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with chronic HF. ...
Akimoto T - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The immune system declines in efficiency with advancing age, making the elderly less resistant to pathogenic microorganisms. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a common illness. Recent studies have shown that suppression of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is associated with increased incidence of URTI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect ...
Haff G Gregory - - 2003
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the performance of resistance-training exercises can elicit a significant glycogenolytic effect that potentially could result in performance decrements. These decrements may result in less than optimal physiological adaptations to training. Currently some scientific evidence suggests that carbohydrate supplementation prior to and ...
Crampes Francois - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how training modifies metabolic responses and lipid oxidation in overweight young male subjects. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Eleven overweight subjects were selected for a 4-month endurance training program. Before and after the training period, they cycled for 60 minutes at 50% ...
Puggaard L - - 2003
The aim of the Odense training studies is to elucidate if regular physical training influences the expected decline in physical functional ability in order to assess capacity for postponing dependence in old age. All participants were healthy community-dwelling women representing three different age-cohorts of 65, 75 and 85 year-old subjects. ...
Kirwan Lori D - - 2003
PURPOSE: To examine the central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of exercise training in postmenopausal women with CAD with and without hormone replacement therapy (HRT and N-HRT). METHODS: Thirty-eight female cardiac patients referred for cardiac rehabilitation were divided into HRT ( N= 18) or N-HRT (N = 20) groups. Peak oxygen ...
Izquierdo Mikel - - 2003
Effects of a 16-week progressive strength-training program on blood lactate accumulation (LA), maximal workload (W(max)) attained during progressive cycling exercise, maximum half-squat (1RM(HS)), muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris muscle group (CSA(QF)), and serum hormone concentrations were examined in 11 middle-aged (46 year old [M46]) and 11 older (64 ...
Kavanagh Terence - - 2003
The long-term influence of exercise training after heart transplantation remains unclear. Accordingly, we performed a 12-year follow-up study of 36 patients who underwent heart transplantation. Findings for survivors were compared with those of age-matched controls over the same period. Comparisons were also made between survivors and deceased patients. The sample ...
Baynard Tracy - - 2003
To determine vasodilatory responsiveness we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) following reactive hyperemia (RH), prior to and following a bout of maximal aerobic exercise in endurance- (n=14) and resistance-trained men (n=10). Both groups were similar in height, body mass, and percentage body fat. Using strain-gauge plethysmography, resting FBF was higher ...
McConnell Timothy R - - 2003
PURPOSE: Increased respiratory muscle endurance and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) induced by respiratory muscle training support the relationship between respiratory muscle function and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure. This raises the question whether exercise-training results in increased respiratory muscle function contributing to an increased exercise tolerance, a decreased ...
König D - - 2003
The interrelation between physical exercise and plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B(12), and folic acid has not been examined. Therefore, we investigated the influence of extensive endurance training and acute intense exercise on plasma concentrations of total Hcy, vitamin B(12), and folic acid in 42 well-trained male triathletes. Examinations ...
Sturdy Gavin - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Specific respiratory muscle training can improve respiratory muscle function in patients with COPD, but the magnitude of improvement appears dependent on the magnitude of the training load. High training loads are difficult to achieve using conventional, constant loading techniques, but may be possible using interval-based training techniques. METHODS: To ...
Behnke M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Long-term exercise training is capable of improving exercise performance and quality of life in patients with severe COPD. In the present study we examined the effects of an 18-month home-based training on the rate of hospital admissions and bronchodilator use as primary end-points. Secondary end-points were exercise capacity and ...
Petibois C - - 2003
We studied the effects of a twelve months endurance-training program on exercise-induced change in blood contents in thirteen rowers. A standardized testing-session (18 km rowing at 80 % of VO2max) was performed 19 times during the training program. Capillary blood samples were taken at rest and immediately post-exercise to analyse ...
Moorthy K - - 2003
WebSET is an Internet based educational tool that can be used on any standard personal computer. It has been developed by a European collaboration and integrates high quality courseware, self-assessment exercises, video clips and VR simulation. This pilot study was carried out to validate the lumbar puncture (LP) module in ...
Vaitkevicius Peter V - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of sedentary, frail subjects aged 80 and older to train in a community-based exercise program and to evaluate clinical factors that predict improvements in peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). DESIGN: Pretest, posttest. SETTING: Charlestown Retirement Community, Catonsville, Maryland PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-two (11 male, 11 female; mean age ...
Peters Sarah - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The management of persistent, unexplained physical symptoms is challenging and often unsatisfactory for patients and doctors. Aerobic exercise training has benefited patients referred to secondary care with symptoms of chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia. It is not known if this approach is either possible or beneficial for patients with the ...
Diffee Gary M GM Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. - - 2003
Previous studies have shown that endurance exercise training increases myocardial contractility. We have previously described training-induced alterations in myocardial contractile function at the cellular level, including an increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of tension. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of these changes, oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze the gene ...
Kilgore J Lon - - 2002
This study examined immune cell and blood chemistry changes occurring in trained weightlifters after 1 week of rest followed by 6 weeks of Olympic-style resistance exercise. Blood was drawn weekly after 1 day of rest at the same time and on the same day of the week for 7 weeks. ...
Eliakim A - - 2002
The evaluation of training load and effectiveness in elite athletes is difficult. We determined the effect of a four-week training camp on changes in self-assessment physical conditioning scores, fitness and circulating IGF-I in elite Israeli handball players during their preparation for the 1999 World Junior Handball Championship. Training consisted of ...
Truijens M J - - 2003
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-intensity hypoxic training improves sea-level performances more than equivalent training in normoxia. Sixteen well-trained collegiate and Masters swimmers (10 women, 6 men) completed a 5-wk training program, consisting of three high-intensity training sessions in a flume and supplemental low- ...
Suzuki Junichi - - 2002
This study was designed to examine the changes in capillary geometry, especially the distribution of arteriolar and venular capillaries, in the skeletal muscles of female Wistar rats after endurance training with and without chronic CoCl(2) administration. Four groups of rats were used: non-treated sedentary, non-treated training, Co(2+)-treated sedentary, and Co(2+)-treated ...
Dressendorfer Rudolph H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Unaccustomed intense endurance exercise is associated with short-term suppression of natural immunity. However, it is not established whether intensified endurance training alters resting immune status or increases the risk of upper respiratory infection (URI). PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of intensified endurance training for performance enhancement on resting ...
Colahan P T - - 2002
Physical exertion is a stimulus for the upregulation of cytokine production including IL-1beta, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in horses. To investigate that hypothesis, we initiated training of 5 stall-rested Thoroughbreds. Blood samples were drawn before and weekly during training. The relative transcription of mRNA within the leucocytes ...
McCutcheon L J - - 2002
This study examined changes in skeletal muscle GLUT4 content and glucose transport in isolated muscle membranes (GT) from horses before and 2 min after standardised submaximal exercise tests (SET) prior to and after completion of 6 weeks of training. Seven horses, age 3-9 years, body mass mean +/- s.e. 530 ...
Strong Val V Support Dogs, The John Fisher Centre, Trianco House, Chapeltown, Sheffield, - - 2002
We have previously reported that dogs can be trained to recognize specific changes preceding an epileptic seizure in humans. Such dogs can provide an overt signal that acts as a useful warning to the human. Early observations suggested that seizure frequency might also be reduced. We report a prospective study ...
Clevenger Christopher M - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that regular endurance exercise prevents the age-related decline in insulin action typically observed in healthy, sedentary adults. An index of whole body insulin sensitivity (ISI), obtained from minimal model analysis of insulin and glucose concentrations during a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, was determined in ...
McBride Todd A - - 2002
The aim of this study was to utilize a rodent model of resistance exercise to compare training with creatine supplementation with training alone. We tested the hypothesis that creatine supplementation during high resistance training would result in greater increases in muscle mass, contractile force, and superior resistance to fatigue compared ...
Fabre C - - 2002
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and mental training on cognitive function and to determine if the association of the two techniques shows better results. Thirty-two healthy elderly subjects (60 - 76 years) were assigned to one of four groups: aerobic training, mental training, ...
Howden Reuben - - 2002
Isometric exercise training has been shown to reduce resting blood pressure, but the effect that this might have on orthostatic tolerance is poorly understood. Changes in orthostatic tolerance may also be dependent on whether the upper or lower limbs of the body are trained using isometric exercise. Twenty-seven subjects were ...
Mujika I - - 2002
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of training frequency on performance and some physiological responses during a 6-day taper. After 18 weeks of training, 9 male middle-distance runners were assigned to a high frequency taper (HFT, n = 5) or a moderate frequency taper (MFT, n ...
McKelvie Robert S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise training on functional capacity in patients with heart failure. METHODS: One hundred eighty-one patients in New York Heart Association class I to III, with ejection fraction <40% and 6-minute walk distance <500 meters, were recruited into a ...
Shearman J P - - 2002
Human athletes taper or reduce their training load before a race to enhance performance, apparently because recovery from the effects of fatigue occurs faster than the loss of fitness from the reduced training. However, there appear to be no previous studies of tapering of equine athletes. Our aim in the ...
Kouidi E - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate variability triangular index (HRVI) in elite track and field athletes. Sixty healthy males (mean aged 22.1 +/- 3.5 years) -15 long distance runners (group A), 15 speed runners (Group B), 15 throwers (Group C) and 15 non-trained subjects (Group ...
Vogiatzis I - - 2002
Understanding of what constitutes a training load adequate to induce training effects in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still evolving. The present study investigated whether interval training (IT) is effective in terms of inducing measurable improvements in physiological response and compared its effects on exercise tolerance (ET) ...
Willén Carin C Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden. - - 2002
The purpose of the present qualitative study was to describe how persons with late effects of polio experienced dynamic exercise in water in a group. Semi-structured interviews with 15 participants were carried out and analysed according to the phenomenographic approach. The results showed great variation in the way the participants ...
Kraemer William J - - 2002
Resistance training is recommended by national health organizations for incorporation into a comprehensive fitness program that includes aerobic and flexibility exercise. Its potential benefits on health and performance are numerous; it has been shown to reduce body fat, increase basal metabolic rate, decrease blood pressure and the cardiovascular demands to ...
Martino Marco - - 2002
PURPOSE: To investigate the high VO2max observed occasionally in young men who have no history of training. METHODS: VO2max, blood volume (BV), maximal stroke volume (SVmax), maximal cardiac output (Qmax), and related measurements (reported as mean +/- SEM) were studied in six men (mean age 20.0 +/- 0.5 yr) with ...
Senitko Annette N - - 2002
In sedentary individuals, postexercise hypotension after a single bout of aerobic exercise is due to a peripheral vasodilation. Endurance exercise training has the potential to modify this response and perhaps reduce the degree of postexercise hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise-trained men and women would have blunted postexercise ...
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