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Results 401 - 450 of 1106
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Dixon Curt B - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a resistance exercise bout on percent body fat (%BF) measured by leg-to-leg and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA; SBIA) in adults. Eighty-six volunteers (45 women; 41 men) reported to the weight training facility on 2 separate occasions. After an ...
Fragasso Gabriele - - 2011
To assess the ischemic threshold and stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction after high fat (HFM) and high carbohydrate (HCM) meals in patients with stable coronary disease. Twelve patients (68±7years) underwent stress (treadmill exercise testing) echocardiography after fasting (8h), after HFM and HCM (2h). Time to 1mm ST-segment depression (time to 1mm) ...
Pedersen Bente K - - 2009
Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, dementia and depression constitute a cluster of diseases, which defines 'a diseasome of physical inactivity'. Both physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity, reflecting accumulation of visceral fat mass, are associated with the occurrence of the diseases within the diseasome. Physical inactivity appears ...
Habedank Dirk - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Renal transplantation (RTx) restitutes the function of the failing organ and induces convalescence of the entire organism. Our study investigates whether this is accompanied by improvements in cardiovascular function and structural changes. METHODS: A total of 25 Caucasian patients (14 male, median age 44.2 +/- 9.2 years, BMI 23.7 ...
Greene Nicholas P - - 2009
PURPOSE: No known previous research has been published to explore the efficacy of underwater treadmill (UTM) exercise training for the obese. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare changes in physical fitness, body weight, and body composition in physically inactive, overweight, and obese adults after 12 wks of ...
Janyacharoen Taweesak - - 2009
Research in Western populations has demonstrated a gender effect on substrate metabolism during exercise. Women have been shown to use more lipid and less carbohydrate as energy sources during endurance exercise, compared with their male counterparts. Nutritional status influences fuel utilization during exercise. Thai men and women routinely ingest a ...
van der Heijden Gert-Jan - - 2010
The rise in obesity-related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, only limited data are available on the effects of exercise programs on insulin resistance, and visceral, hepatic, and intramyocellular fat accumulation. We hypothesized that a 12-week controlled aerobic exercise program without weight loss reduces ...
Monninkhof Evelyn M - - 2009
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a 1-year exercise intervention on sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women and whether any effects are mediated by changes in body fat composition. METHODS: We randomly assigned 189 sedentary postmenopausal women (age 50 to 69 years, body mass index of 22 to 40 kg/m(2)) ...
King Neil A - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Exercise could contribute to weight loss by altering the sensitivity of the appetite regulatory system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 12 wk of mandatory exercise on appetite control. DESIGN: Fifty-eight overweight and obese men and women [mean (+/-SD) body mass index (in ...
Halet Kristin A - - 2009
The purposes of this study were to determine the relationships among pull-ups, lat-pull repetitions, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) lat-pull in elite women swimmers and to assess the effect of various anthropometric dimensions on each exercise. Women members (n = 28) of an elite National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division ...
Chenevière Xavier - - 2009
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model (sine model, SIN) to describe fat oxidation kinetics as a function of the relative exercise intensity [% of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max)] during graded exercise and to determine the exercise intensity (Fatmax) that elicits maximal fat oxidation (MFO) ...
Coker Robert H - - 2009
To examine the influence of moderate-intensity (50% of VO(2peak)) exercise training (MI) versus high-intensity (75% of VO(2peak)) exercise training (HI) on regional fat distribution and plasma adiponectin, we randomized 18 overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 30 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) elderly (71 +/- 1 years) to HI, MI, or a ...
Chenevière Xavier - - 2009
The present study aimed to examine the effects of a prior 1-hour continuous exercise bout (CONT) at an intensity (Fat(max)) that elicits the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) on the fat oxidation kinetics during a subsequent submaximal incremental test (IncrC). Twenty moderately trained subjects (9 men and 11 women) performed a ...
Bahadori Babak - - 2009
From the standpoint of promoting leanness, exercise is of most value if oxidation of stored fat is maximized during and following the exercise sessions. Bahadori has proposed that this can best be achieved if prolonged exercise of moderate intensity is performed during a 12-14 h "mini-fast" that entails skipping a ...
Lee Man-Gyoon - - 2009
PURPOSE: 1) To examine the effect of a 12-wk endurance exercise training program on RMR and 2) to provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for alterations in RMR that may occur after exercise training. METHODS: Male participants (19-32 yr) in an exercise group (EX; n = 9) performed jogging and/or ...
Vocks S - - 2009
The effects of a physical exercise session on state body image and mood were examined. In a cross-over design, participants were randomised to two groups starting either with physical exercise (PE; experimental condition) or with reading a newspaper (RN; control condition). Before and after PE and RN, participants (N = ...
Velthuis Miranda J - - 2009
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary postmenopausal women (age 50-69 y, body mass index 22-40 ...
Barwell Nicholas D - - 2009
Fat loss in response to exercise training varies between individuals, even when differences in compliance to the exercise program are accounted for. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual variation in change in fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) after exercise training contributes to this interindividual variability. Fifty-five premenopausal ...
Numao Shigeharu - - 2009
The aim of this study was to compare substrate oxidation during aerobic exercise in obese men and postmenopausal obese women. Ten obese men (mean age, 55.4 +/- 2.2 years; body mass index, 27.5 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2); peak oxygen uptake [Vo(2)peak], 44.4 +/- 1.9 mL/kg fat-free mass/min; mean +/- SE] and ...
Rankinen Tuomo - - 2010
The fat mass (FM) and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is the first obesity-susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association scans and confirmed in several follow-up studies. Homozygotes for the risk allele (A/A) have 1.67 times greater risk of obesity than those who do not have the allele. However, it is not known ...
Andersen Susanne T - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, ...
Westcott Wayne L - - 2009
When physicians advise patients to attain more physical activity, they usually recommend a walking program. However, in a similar way to no exercise, those embarking on a walking program will typically lose 4 to 6 lb of lean weight and reduce their resting metabolic rate 2% to 3% every decade. ...
Ferland A - - 2009
AIMS: A decrement in blood glucose (BG) may be observed in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) when exercise is performed after a meal, in contrast to fasting. We determined the impact of different pre-exercise meal macronutrient compositions with modulation of the glycaemic index (GI) on glucose regulation during exercise ...
MacEneaney Owen J - - 2009
Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is associated with impaired endothelial function and inflammation. Acute exercise reduces PPL in adults. This investigation examined the effect of an acute bout of exercise on postprandial changes in triglycerides (TG), glucose, insulin, inflammation [white blood cell count (WBC), interleukin-6 (IL-6) tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein (CRP)] ...
Alentorn-Geli Eduard - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic whole-body vibration exercise on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: A randomized controlled two-factor mixed experimental design was used. Twenty-four women with fibromyalgia (age +/- standard error of the mean, ...
Woods Jeffrey A - - 2009
Exercise has beneficial effects on chronic disease, and the drive to understand the mechanisms of these benefits is strong. This article presents several compelling potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, including reduced percentage of body fat and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, muscle-released interleukin-6 inhibition of tumor necrosis ...
Campbell Jonathan E - - 2009
Glucocorticoids (GCs) have long been thought to be lipolytic in nature. Recently, however, increased exposure to GCs in insulin-sensitive tissues has been associated with lipid accumulation and metabolic complications, regardless of plasma concentrations. Intracellular GC action is determined by both 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) and the GC receptor ...
Harrison Michael - - 2009
Triglyceride-rich postprandial lipoproteins are known to activate endothelial cells in vitro, contributing to atherosclerosis. Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are membranous vesicles released into the circulation from vascular endothelial cells that permit cell activation to be monitored in vivo. The objective of the study was to examine changes in EMP following a ...
Melanson Edward L - - 2009
Despite decades of research into the effects of exercise on fat metabolism, there is still no clear understanding of how exercise helps to regulate fat mass. Although exercise improves the capacity of muscle to oxidize fat, our studies suggest that moderate duration exercise (< or =1 h) has little impact ...
Stevenson Emma J - - 2009
Consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) before endurance exercise results in increased fat oxidation during exercise in trained men and women. It is not known if this phenomenon occurs during low intensity exercise and in untrained participants. We examined the effects of breakfasts containing high-GI (HGI) or LGI foods on ...
Nehrenberg Derrick L - - 2009
Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected ...
Ormsbee Michael J - - 2009
The effect of acute resistance exercise (RE) on whole body energy expenditure (EE) and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) regulation of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) was determined in sedentary lean (LN) and obese (OB) men. Lipolysis was monitored using microdialysis in 10 LN [body mass index (BMI) 20.9 +/- ...
Nicolaï S P A - - 2009
AIM: The prevalence of obesity is rising. Because obesity is positively associated with many health related risks and negatively associated with life expectancy this is a threat to public health. Physical exercise is a well known method to lose fat mass. Due to shame of their appearance, bad general condition ...
Irwin Melinda L - - 2009
Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important ...
Nicklas Barbara J - - 2009
Exercise intensity may affect the selective loss of abdominal adipose tissue. This study showed whether aerobic exercise intensity affects the loss of abdominal fat and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors under conditions of equal energy deficit in women with abdominal obesity. This was a randomized trial in 112 overweight ...
Vieira V J - - 2009
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine (1) if 10 months of cardiovascular exercise training (Cardio) reduces CRP in a group of older adults, (2) if such a reduction is related to improvements in trunk fat, fitness, and/or psychosocial variables, and (3) ...
Wallman Karen - - 2009
We examined the effects of an 8-week exercise intervention on aerobic fitness, android and gynoid fat mass, and blood lipids in overweight and obese participants. Twenty-four sedentary participants (average BMI = 30 +/- 2 kg/m(2); 18 females, 6 males) were randomized into either interval training and diet education (INT group), ...
Shelmadine Brian - - 2009
This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 x 10-RM) 4 times/wk for 28 ...
Koga Ririko - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Visceral adiposity is an essential component of metabolic syndrome. Reduction of excessive visceral fat prevents metabolic syndrome and improves atherosclerotic diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and physical exercise during the training-education period that predict visceral adiposity regain during the follow-up period. METHODS: One hundred one moderately ...
Bouhlel Ezzedine - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on parameters of insulin resistance in trained athletes at rest and after aerobic exercise. METHODS: Nine male rugby players (age 19 +/- 2 yr, height 1.78 +/- 0.74 m) were tested 3 times: 1 week before observance of Ramadan (C), at the ...
Ucok Kagan - - 2009
Obesity is a strong risk factor for the development and progression of sleep apnea. Responses to exercise by patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are clinically relevant to reducing body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to clarify the aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacities and their possible ...
Jung W - - 2009
To investigate the influence of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on fat and carbohydrate oxidation during prolonged arm cranking exercise in persons with spinal cord injury. Six male paraplegic subjects (PS, Ll-Th3, 46.3+/-6.6 years) and seven able-bodied subjects (AB, 43.1+/-4.6 years) were volunteered to participate in the present study. The subjects were ...
Bergouignan Audrey - - 2009
Obesity and diabetes are characterized by the incapacity to use fat as fuel. We hypothesized that this reduced fat oxidation is secondary to a sedentary lifestyle. We investigated the effect of a 2-month bed rest on the dietary oleate and palmitate trafficking in lean women (control group, n = 8) ...
Aucouturier Julien - - 2009
We aimed to examine the interchangeability of techniques used to assess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximal aerobic power (MAP) employed to express the maximal fat oxidation point in obese children and adolescents. Rate of fat oxidation were measured in 24 obese subjects (13.0 +/- 2.4 years; Body Mass Index ...
Daza A - - 2009
In a first experiment one group of pigs was maintained in free-range conditions according to the traditional way in a Mediterranean forest (exercised-1) and another group was housed individually and received acorns (sedentary-1). In a second experiment two groups of pigs were fed a mixed diet for the whole experimental ...
Vella Chantal A - - 2009
Overweight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic changes at rest. Whether these changes are mirrored during exercise is uncertain. We compared cardiac output (Q) and stroke volume (SV) in 12 overweight (OW) and 12 normal weight (NW) adults at rest and during exercise. Participants were assessed for body composition, peak ...
MacEneaney, Owen
Elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL) is associated with impaired endothelial function, an increase in adhesion molecule expression and inflammation. Acute exercise reduces PPL in adults. No studies have examined the effect of acute exercise on PPL in normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) adolescents. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of an ...
Irving Brian A - - 2008
The metabolic syndrome is a complex clustering of metabolic defects associated with physical inactivity, abdominal adiposity, and aging. To examine the effects of exercise training intensity on abdominal visceral fat (AVF) and body composition in obese women with the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-seven middle-aged obese women (mean +/- SD; age = ...
Bouassida A - - 2010
Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones; that are both associated with health status and glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. Moreover, acute and chronic exercises affect body composition, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is thus interesting to evaluate the effects of physical exercise and ...
Kim Maeng-Kyu - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on ventricular epicardial fat thickness in obese men and to investigate the relationship of the change in epicardial fat thickness to changes in abdominal fat tissue following exercise training. Twenty-four obese middle-aged men [age, 49.4 +/- 9.6 ...
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