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Results 351 - 400 of 795
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Anholm J D - - 1999
Pulmonary function abnormalities after exercise are suggestive of pulmonary edema; however, radiographic evidence is lacking. Well-trained cyclists were studied to determine whether there is radiographic evidence of pulmonary edema after endurance exercise (cycling distance 5.3-131.5 km) at altitude. Chest radiographs obtained before exercise were coded for later interpretation. Films obtained ...
Art, Tatiana
Pulmonary function tests, bronchoalveolar lavages, and venous blood samplings were performed 24 hours before and one hour after a standardized strenous treadmill exercise test on six horses suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in clinical remission. Pulmonary function test consisted of the measurement of the mechanics of breathing and ...
Cantor J O - - 1999
This paper reviews recent evidence of the effect of intratracheal hyaluronan (HA) to limit the induction of experimental emphysema in hamsters. Experimental emphysema was induced by both neutrophil and pancreatic elastase instilled intratracheally. Emphysema was quantified anatomically by measurement of alveolar mean linear intercept. Hyaluronidase, instilled intratracheally, enhanced the induction ...
Beaty M M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare laryngoscopically observed changes in the larynx during exercise in persons with exercise-induced laryngomalacia (EIL) with changes in asymptomatic control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical study using a standardized exercise protocol. METHODS: Subjects exercised on an incremental ergometer: videotaped recordings of the larynx were obtained through the entire exercise; ...
Cline C C - - 1999
Chest wall-restrictive loading reduces a person's ability to expand the chest wall during inhalation and results in decrements in lung capacities, resting pulmonary function, and ultimately, exercise performance. Chest wall restriction is observed in some forms of skeletal and pulmonary diseases (e.g., scoliosis) as well as in occupational situations (e.g., ...
Garofano R P - - 1999
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a useful noninvasive tool to assess physiological changes associated with exercise. Developing noninvasive methods to assess the severity of cardiopulmonary disorders, as well as the response to therapeutic interventions, is useful in conditions, such as primary pulmonary hypertension, in which invasive procedures carry significant risks. The ...
Borst M M - - 1999
BACKGROUND: In cor pulmonale associated with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disturbances of pulmonary microcirculation may contribute significantly to hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and exercise intolerance. OBJECTIVE: It was tested whether reduction of blood viscosity induced by repetitive hemodilution might improve pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygen uptake. METHODS: Seven patients with ...
McKenzie D C - - 1999
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of repeated heavy exercise on postexercise pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL) and the development of exercise induced arterial hypoxemia (EIH). METHODS: 13 endurance-trained, male athletes (age = 27+/-3 yr, height = 179.6+/-5.0 cm, weight = 71.8+/-6.9 kg, VO2max = 67.0+/-3.6 ...
Nagao M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the heterogeneous distribution of a carbon particle radioaerosol in the lungs of patients with pulmonary emphysema using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fractal analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ventilation SPECT was performed on 19 patients with pulmonary emphysema, seven patients with ...
Kubo K - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To clarify the effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on pulmonary hemodynamics in severe emphysema and to evaluate the role of pulmonary circulation in the increased exercise performance after LVRS. DESIGN: In eight male patients with severe emphysema, we measured pulmonary artery (Ppa) and occlusion (Pop) pressures ...
Reindl I - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic heart failure show impairment of ventilatory efficiency, defined as the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide output. It is caused by ventilation of excess physiologic dead space. We hypothesized a role of active vasoconstriction in the increase of physiologic dead space, presumed to lead to alveolar ...
Murariu C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship of resting pulmonary function to maximal exercise power output (Wmax) in obstructive lung disease (OLD). SETTING: University Hospital Pulmonary Function Laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-five patients with OLD (6 with asthma and 19 with COPD). METHODS: Measurement of pulmonary lung function, resting arterial blood gases, and maximal ...
Oswald-Mammosser M - - 1998
Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has become an extended surgery for emphysema in order to improve the dyspnea of severely affected patients. Because resection of lung areas may reduce the vascular bed, which is an important factor of pulmonary hypertension in emphysematous patients, especially during exercise, the aim of our ...
Archer S L - - 1998
Dexfenfluramine and fenfluramine greatly increase the risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PHT). The mechanism of anorexigen-associated PHT (AA-PHT) and the reason PHT occurs in a minority of people exposed are unknown. Anorexigens are weak pulmonary vasoconstrictors, but they become potent when synthesis of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) is ...
Epstein S K - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To study the response to symptom-limited exercise in patients with the hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). DESIGN: The response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) was studied in 5 patients with HPS and compared with 10 case control (normoxemic, NC) cirrhotics (matched for age, gender, etiology and severity of liver disease, tobacco ...
Markovitz G H - - 1998
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) limits exercise capacity through a variety of complex and intriguing mechanisms, including ventilatory limitation, diffusion impairment, and ventilation-perfusion derangement. Resting pulmonary function testing seldom explains the symptoms nor defines the specific pathophysiology of the individual patient. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can elucidate the relative contributions of these ...
Gaine S P - - 1998
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease characterised by raised pulmonary vascular resistance, which results in diminished right-heart function due to increased right ventricular afterload. PPH occurs most commonly in young and middle-aged women; mean survival from onset of symptoms is 2-3 years. The aetiology of PPH is unknown, ...
Hachenberg T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Induction of CO2-pneumoperitoneum may have significant effects on systemic and pulmonary haemodynamics. We hypothesized that intrathoracic (ITBV) and pulmonary blood volume (PBV) are affected during intra-abdominal CO2-insufflation, which may be pronounced by positional changes of the patient. METHODS: Sixteen anaesthetized patients were studied before, during and after CO2-pneumoperitoneum for ...
Reybrouck T - - 1998
The purpose of this study was to analyse the ventilatory efficiency for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the assessment of exercise tolerance in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Two groups of patients were studied. One group consisted of 37 patients with normal pulmonary artery pressure who underwent surgical closure of a left-to-right ...
Mannix E T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a well recognized tool for the functional assessment of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disorders. The exercise response of asthmatics has been well characterized but the exercise response of patients with occupational asthma is less well understood. In this report we describe the clinical ...
Manohar M - - 1998
The present study was carried out to examine the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the right atrial as well as on the pulmonary arterial, capillary, and venous blood pressures of horses during rest and exercise performed at maximal heart rate (HRmax). Experiments were ...
Rhodes J - - 1998
Data from exercise tests, echocardiograms, and lung perfusion scans were analyzed to determine whether the excessive minute ventilation (VE) often encountered among patients with tetralogy of Fallot is due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch secondary to branch pulmonary artery stenoses. Patients with branch PA stenoses had lower peak oxygen consumptions and higher ...
Hopkins S R - - 1998
During short-term maximal exercise, horses have impaired pulmonary gas exchange, manifested by diffusion limitation and arterial hypoxemia, without marked ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality. Whether gas exchange deteriorates progressively during prolonged submaximal exercise has not been investigated. Six thoroughbred horses performed treadmill exercise at approximately 60% of maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion ...
Ville N - - 1998
To test whether orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) patients with low pulmonary diffusion capacity have a greater limitation to exercise than OHT patients with normal pulmonary diffusion capacity, we investigated cardiorespiratory responses and blood gases in two groups of OHT patients, one with low (LdG) and the other with normal pulmonary ...
Medinger A E - - 1998
Interpretation of symptom-limited exercise testing requires analysis of a large body of simultaneously recorded cardiopulmonary data. Karlman Wasserman has recommended an algorithmic approach to interpretation (WA) that leads to a dichotomous choice between pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment. An alternative algorithm published by William Eschenbacher (EA) provides for concurrent assessment of ...
Zeballos R J - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare arterial blood gas (ABG) and pulmonary gas exchange variables (alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference [P(A-a)O2] and physiologic dead space to tidal volume ratio [VD/VT]) measured during incremental exercise test (IET) and constant work (CW) exercise at a matched oxygen uptake (VO2). DESIGN: A comparison of IET and ...
Yamamoto T - - 1998
We evaluated arterial and mixed venous oxygen desaturation during symptom-limited exercise in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Patients were divided into five groups according to disease: [chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE), chronic bronchitis (CB), pulmonary tuberculosis sequalae (TB-seq), fibrosing lung disease (FLD), and pulmonary vascular disease (PVD)]. There were no significant ...
Sheel A W - - 1998
We investigated the time course of changes in post-exercise pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), membrane diffusing capacity (DM), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in highly trained (HT), moderately trained (MT) and untrained (UT) male subjects (n = 8/group). Subjects were assigned to groups based on their aerobic ...
Steinacker J M - - 1998
Subjects with a history of high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) have increased pulmonary artery pressure and more ventilation-perfusion (V'A/Q') inhomogeneity with hypoxia and exercise. We used noninvasive methods to determine whether there are differences in the pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL,CO) and cardiac output (Q') during exercise, indicative of ...
Higenbottam T W - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To compare prostacyclin with an analogue, iloprost, in treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension. PATIENTS: Eight patients with severe pulmonary hypertension: primary in five, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in three. METHODS: All patients underwent right heart catheterisation. Mean (SEM) right atrial pressure was 9.9 (2.2) mm Hg, mean pulmonary artery pressure ...
Miyamura M - - 1998
This study was performed to test the hypothesis that potassium concentration in arterialized blood may be closely related to maximal pulmonary ventilation (V.Emax) obtained at exhaustion during maximal exercise in man. Eleven healthy men performed bicycle exercise with incremental loading at 60 rpm until exhaustion. Pulmonary ventilation (V.E), oxygen uptake ...
Bolliger C T - - 1998
Advances in operative technique and perioperative care have considerably reduced surgical morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resections. Various single and combined parameters of functional operability have been proposed to assess the surgical risk. Pulmonary function tests adequately assess the pulmonary risk, and baseline or stress electrocardiography, echocardiography and nuclear cardiac ...
Güell R - - 1998
The aim of this study was to translate the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) into Spanish and to test its measurement properties. The study was performed in 60 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) mean+/-SD 35+/-14% of reference value). A rigorous process of forward ...
Kribbs S B - - 1997
Elevated plasma levels of endothelin (ET) have been reported to accompany the development of heart failure (HF), and therefore, this potent vasoconstrictive peptide has been postulated to contribute to the altered pulmonary hemodynamics that occur in this disease process. The overall goal of this study was to examine more carefully ...
Lin M C - - 1997
A multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation program was conducted for 13 outpatients (mean age 66 +/- 6.7 yr) with moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Changes in pulmonary function and blood gas data were not significant. Exercise capability, including 6-minute walking distance (WkD6), maximal work load (WkLmax), endurance time, and maximum heart ...
Köseo─člu F - - 1997
The effects of exercise training, as a part of a pulmonary rehabilitation program, on pulmonary function tests and exercise tolerance have not been clarified in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study compares the results of pulmonary function test parameters and exercise tolerance in individuals with and without PD. It ...
Melendez J A - - 1997
A test designed to separate those undergoing thoracic surgery without complications and those with complications must be both highly specific and sensitive. Clearly, the difference between patients at opposite ends of the population curves is easy to identify. Spirometry can be helpful for screening, although it is not a very ...
Mink B D - - 1997
Exercise cannot reverse the physiologic and structural deficits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it can reduce disability by improving endurance, breathing efficiency, and dyspnea tolerance, especially in severely impaired patients. An exercise prescription should begin with an assessment of cardiac risk and exercise capacity. Initial workloads should be light, ...
Chan T C - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the "hobble" or "hog-tie" restraint position results in clinically relevant respiratory dysfunction. METHODS: This was an experimental, crossover, controlled trial at a university-based pulmonary function laboratory involving 15 healthy men ages 18 through 40 years. Subjects were excluded for a positive urine toxicology screen, body ...
Jørgensen L H - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying the excessive ventilatory response to exercise in patients with cardiac failure are still not fully understood. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms behind exercise hyperpnea in patients with exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: In 18 patients, aged 57-82 years, all with atherosclerotic lumbar ...
Roger N - - 1997
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may develop hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension when exercising. To investigate whether inhaled nitric oxide (NO), a selective pulmonary vasodilator, modifies the changes induced by exercise in pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange in COPD, we studied nine patients (FEV1, = 39 +/- 2% predicted), ...
Brasileiro F C - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the onset of exercise-induced interstitial pulmonary edema in cardiac patients by high-resolution CT (HRCT). DESIGN: Prospective, normal controlled. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty subjects divided into three groups: group 1--10 outpatients with chronic congestive heart failure (CCHF), New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I; group 2--10 outpatients with CCHF, NYHA ...
MacIntyre N R - - 1997
The measurement of co uptake (VCO and DLCO) from alveolar gas is a unique way to noninvasively assess pulmonary vascular function, specifically the functional volume of the pulmonary capillary bed. Proper interpretation of results, however, needs to account for inherent assumptions regarding co distribution and timing procedures. Moreover, reasonable airway ...
Kurabayashi H - - 1997
Respiratory function and arterial blood gas were examined before and after a two-month exercise program performed in a pool filled with hot spring water in 22 patients (70.9 +/- 9.1 years of age) with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12 cases of bronchial asthma and 10 cases of pulmonary emphysema) ...
Weidner T G - - 1997
Upper respiratory illness (URI) may cause more frequent acute disability among athletes than all other diseases combined. The purposes of this study were to determine the impact of a rhinovirus-caused URI on resting pulmonary function submaximal exercise responses and on maximal exercise functional capacity. Twenty-four men and 21 women (18-29 ...
Helber U - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cardiopulmonary exercise capacity and ventilatory function in adults with atrial septal defect (ASD) preoperatively and 4 months and 10 years postoperatively. BACKGROUND: Only few data are available on cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance after ASD closure, but detailed knowledge might be helpful ...
Hinderliter A L - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Right heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in primary pulmonary hypertension. In a recent prospective, randomized study of severely symptomatic patients, treatment with prostacyclin (epoprostenol) produced improvements in hemodynamics, quality of life, and survival. This article describes the echocardiographic characteristics of participants in this trial; ...
Durongpisitkul K - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to measure the cardiorespiratory responses to exercise and to identify the perioperative determinants of exercise performance in children, adolescents and young adults who underwent the modified Fontan operation. BACKGROUND: Several studies of the cardiorespiratory responses to exercise after the Fontan operation have demonstrated subnormal maximal oxygen ...
Mills P C - - 1997
The athletic ability of the horse is facilitated by vital physiological adaptations to high-intensity exercise, including a thin (but strong) pulmonary blood-gas barrier, a large pulmonary functional reserve capacity and a consequent maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) far higher than in other species. A high pulmonary artery pressure also serves to ...
Moorcroft A J - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional studies in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have shown that exercise capacity is correlated with pulmonary function and body mass. We have examined whether the same relationships are seen longitudinally in adults with CF. DESIGN: Subjects who first performed progressive maximal cycle ergometry between 1986 and 1989 ...
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