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Results 201 - 250 of 793
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Manohar Murli - - 2005
The present study examined whether Thoroughbred horses performing strenuous exercise exhibit intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting that may contribute to the observed arterial hypoxemia. Experiments were carried out on seven healthy, exercise-trained Thoroughbreds at rest, maximal exercise (galloping at 14 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade for 120 s), and submaximal exertion ...
Apostolopoulou S C - - 2005
To evaluate the clinical, exercise, and haemodynamic effects of chronic oral administration of the non-selective endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan on patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to congenital heart disease (CHD). Prospective non-randomised open clinical study. Cardiology tertiary referral centre. 21 patients with a mean (SEM) age of 22 ...
Ohno Shoji - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether or not the newly revised classification of the severity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) is appropriate with respect to quality of life (QOL). METHODS: The association between the subscale of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and pulmonary function or serum marker was analyzed ...
Reeves John T - - 2005
Increasing pulmonary arterial (Ppa) and wedge (Pw) pressures at high flow (Q) during exercise could distend the thin-walled vessels. A mechanical descriptor of vascular distension, the distensibility (alpha, fractional diameter change/mmHg pressure), has been reported to be approximately 0.02 for isolated large and small arteries, i.e., a 2% change in ...
Yetman Anji T - - 2005
This study sought to assess the safety of cardiopulmonary stress testing in 40 children with pulmonary arterial hypertension and to compare exercise responses in this patient cohort with those of a healthy control population. Patients with pulmonary hypertension had significant impairment in aerobic capacity, with a peak oxygen consumption of ...
McKenzie D C - - 2005
To determine whether intense, prolonged activity can induce transient pulmonary edema, eight highly trained male cyclists (mean +/- S.D.: age, 26.9 +/- 3.0 years; height, 179.9 +/- 5.7 cm; weight, 76.1 +/- 6.5 kg) performed a 45-min endurance cycle test (ECT). V(O2,max) was determined (4.84 +/- 0.4 L min(-1), 63.7 ...
Myers J - - 2005
A growing body of literature has underscored the value of ventilatory gas exchange techniques during exercise testing (commonly termed cardiopulmonary exercise testing) and their applications in the management of patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Once limited to the domain of research physiologists and pulmonary medicine, the test is now ...
Sasayama Shigetake - - 2005
Endothelin (ET)-1 has a pathogenic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent clinical studies carried out in Western populations showed that blockade of the ET receptors by bosentan improves pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity. In the present study, the efficacy of bosentan was assessed in Japanese patients with PAH. Because ...
Aubert John-David - - 2005
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe disease usually diagnosed by echocardiography and further confirmed by right heart catheterisation. Follow-up under treatment consists in assessment of clinical signs, various types of exercise testing and repeated echocardiograms. Several molecules which can be measured in the blood or sometimes in other biological ...
Soni Rajeev - - 2005
This study evaluates the physiological responses to giant bullectomy. A 42-year-old female with bilateral giant bullae presented with dyspnoea and exercise limitation. At baseline and 3 months after bullectomy she had tests of lung function; exercise capacity via a symptom-limited cycle test and a 6-min walk test (6MWT). Quality of ...
Saha Asim - - 2005
In the backdrop of conflicting reports (some studies reported adverse outcomes of biomass fuel use whereas few studies reported absence of any association between adverse health effect and fuel use, may be due to presence of large number of confounding variables) on the respiratory health effects of biomass fuel use, ...
Paramothayan N S - - 2005
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is progressive, resulting in right ventricular failure. Pulmonary hypertension can be idiopathic or associated with other conditions. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation, and can be given orally, subcutaneously, intravenously or inhaled via a nebuliser. To determine the efficacy of prostacyclin or ...
Agostoni Piergiuseppe - - 2005
AIMS: To evaluate whether anti-aldosteronic treatment influences lung diffusion (DLCO) in chronic heart failure (HF) patients. Spironolactone improves clinical conditions and prognosis in chronic HF and reduces connective tissue matrix turnover; DLCO abnormalities in chronic HF are related to increase in fibrosis and connective tissue derangement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty ...
Lonsdorfer-Wolf Evelyne - - 2004
PURPOSE: Endurance training is an important component of rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In our study, we investigated the pulmonary hemodynamics' adaptation during a high-intensity intermittent exercise in such patients. METHODS: Eight patients underwent a 30-min exercise, alternating a 4-min work set at their first ventilatory ...
Hamutcu Refika - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving therapy for neonates with intractable respiratory failure, but the long-term pulmonary outcome is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the long-term pulmonary sequelae of these children. STUDY DESIGN: We studied 50 children at 11.1 +/- 1.1 years (mean +/- SD) who had ...
Strömvall-Larsson Eva - - 2004
Desaturation during exercise in the Fontan type of circulation may be due to known right-to-left shunts in some patients, while in others there are no obvious signs of shunts. AIM: To evaluate the gas exchange and exercise capacity in patients with Fontan circulation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with the ...
Strassburg A - - 2004
Chronic bronchitis is a frequent underlying disease in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is unclear to what extent an impaired or exaggerated innate immune response contributes to disease manifestations and severity. To assess the role of neutrophil activation and recruitment during acute pneumonic episodes, peripheral polymorphonulcear neutrophil (PMN) activation, chemotactic activity, ...
Blaber Andrew P - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of pulmonary function and autonomic cardiovascular control after an ultramarathon and their relation to performance. Eight entrants to the Canadian National Championship 100-km running race participated in the study. Pulmonary function and 30-s maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV30s) tests were conducted ...
Christensen C C - - 2004
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has traditionally been explained as an effect of hypoxaemia. Recently, other mechanisms, such as arterial remodelling caused by inflammation, have been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise-induced PH (EIPH) could occur without concurrent hypoxaemia, ...
Stickland Michael K - - 2004
In young, healthy people the alveolar-arterial P(O(2)) difference (A-aDO(2)) is small at rest, but frequently increases during exercise. Previously, investigators have focused on ventilation/perfusion mismatch and diffusion abnormalities to explain the impairment in gas exchange, as significant physiological intra-pulmonary shunt has not been found. The aim of this study was ...
Stickland Michael K - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to simultaneously examine left-ventricular (LV) function and pulmonary gas exchange during prolonged constant-rate cycling in an attempt to explain the exercise-induced impairment in gas exchange. Eleven competitive cyclists rode their racing bicycles on a computerized cycle trainer at 25 W below the lactate threshold ...
Krones Carsten - - 2004
By antiapoptotic effects and the induction of the heat-shock response, zinc is supposed to be a promising means of therapy during sepsis. As zinc also stimulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, its administration during the proinflammatory stage of septic shock might have adverse effects. Therefore, this study analyzes the influence ...
Ong K-C - - 2004
The aim of this study was to investigate pulmonary function and exercise capacity in a group of survivors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). At 3 months after hospital discharge, 46 survivors of SARS underwent the following evaluation: spirometry, static lung volumes and carbon monoxide transfer factor (TL,CO). In ...
Malhotra S - - 2004
We report a case of primary pulmonary hypertension who benefited from oral Sildenafil therapy. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor which acts as a pulmonary vasodilator, led to an improved clinical condition, exercise performance and haemodynamic parameters which were maintained at 6 months of follow up. Larger trials are ...
Nyberg A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key mediator of fibrinolysis. Matching of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation is a critical denominator of oxygenation in acute lung injury (ALI). This study investigates pulmonary venoarterial plasma tPA gradients in association with acute ALI induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and endotoxinemia (ETX). METHODS: ...
Kanazawa Hiroshi - - 2004
The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) DD genotype is associated with exaggerated pulmonary hypertension and disturbance in tissue oxygenation during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to examine the acute effects of nifedipine administration in pulmonary haemodynamics and oxygen delivery during exercise in COPD patients ...
Barros Walder G P - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary gas exchange impairment (GEI) is a common consequence of intrathoracic sarcoidosis presenting with important therapeutic and prognostic implications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of clinical, radiographic and functional variables in predicting GEI during moderate exercise at the estimated lactate threshold (theta(L)) in patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: Fifty-four outpatients ...
Sadaniantz Ara - - 2004
To date, the usage of exercise echocardiography in patients with pulmonary or congenital heart disease has been limited despite its potential for broader applications in different clinical scenarios. Exercise echocardiography can be utilized to determine the extent of pulmonary vascular damage in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by demonstrating ...
Barker Michael - - 2004
DNase can reduce viscosity and facilitate expectoration of airway secretions in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We evaluated its effect on exercise performance in relation to resting pulmonary function. Fifteen sputum-producing CF patients (aged 9-28 years; FEV1 22-83% predicted) performed spirometry, body plethysmography, nitrogen washout, and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing ...
Hoeper Marius M - - 2004
To date, randomized controlled clinical trials performed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been relatively short-term studies involving mainly patients with advanced disease. The primary end points in these trials have addressed exercise capacity, usually by using the 6-min walk test. Although this approach is still warranted in future trials ...
Lamberto Christine - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Resting pulmonary diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is known to be the best predictor of arterial desaturation during exercise in patients with sarcoidosis. However, the relative contribution of each of the two components of DLCO-alveolar membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc)-remains ...
Peacock A - - 2004
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare disease of poor prognosis. Despite its rarity >1,000 patients have been randomised in placebo-controlled trials using novel therapies, including prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists and, most recently, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Nearly all of these trials have used exercise capacity, measured by the unencouraged 6-min ...
Ohuchi H - - 2004
The objective of this study was evaluate the relationships between abnormal pulmonary circulation, lung function, and respiratory response during exercise in Fontan patients. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed in 101 Fontan patients and 122 controls. A small vital capacity (VC) with a high residual volume-to-total lung capacity ...
Deboeck G - - 2004
Exercise capacity is reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension and in chronic left heart failure, but it is not known whether the cardiopulmonary exercise testing profile is different in the two conditions at the same severity of functional limitation. Nineteen patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and 19 with chronic heart failure ...
Eldridge Marlowe W - - 2004
We hypothesized that increasing exercise intensity recruits dormant arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunts, which may contribute to the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen difference seen with exercise. Twenty-three healthy volunteers (13 men and 10 women, aged 23-48 yr) with normal lung function and a wide range of fitness (mean maximal oxygen uptake = 126% ...
Dainese Raffaella - - 2004
PURPOSE: To determine the effects of mild physical activity on intestinal gas transit and clearance. METHODS: In 8 healthy adults, a gas mixture was infused continuously into the jejunum (12 mL/min) for 120 minutes with simultaneous duodenal lipid perfusion (1 kcal/min). Gas evacuation, perception of abdominal sensations (on a scale ...
Cheng Christopher P - - 2004
Diagnostic testing in patients with congenital heart disease is usually performed supine and at rest, conditions not representative of their typical hemodynamics. Upright exercise measurements of blood flow may prove valuable in the assessment of these patients, but data in normal subjects are first required. With the use of a ...
Sahin Gün┼čah - - 2004
Pulmonary function is altered in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) owing mainly to the restriction of chest wall involvement (limited chest expansion). The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and BASFI score in patients with AS. Twenty-three ...
Costes F - - 2004
Decreased spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which could lead to the onset of cardiovascular events, has been demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. This study evaluates the effects of an exercise training programme on BRS. Twenty-one chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (mean+/-SD age 62+/-9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in ...
Olfert I Mark - - 2004
Women may experience greater pulmonary gas exchange impairment during exercise than men. To test this we used the multiple inert gas elimination technique to study eight women and seven men matched for age, height and (O(2) max) ( approximately 48 ml x kg(-1) min(-1)) during normoxic and hypoxic (inspired P(O(2))= ...
Malek Moh H - - 2004
PURPOSE: The purpose of this case study was to examine the effect of pectus excavatum before and after surgical correction on ventilatory and cardiorespiratory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise. METHODS: The patient was a 30-yr-old longshoreman who had mild pectus excavatum since infancy that became worse during his adolescent ...
Nagaya Noritoshi - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent pulmonary vasodilator peptide. However, whether intratracheal delivery of aerosolized AM has beneficial effects in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of AM inhalation on pulmonary hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS ...
Grote Ludger - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study addressed the hypothesis that cardiovascular reactivity during graded bicycle exercise is influenced by a coexisting sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD). METHODS: Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during graded exercise (110 W and maximal load) in 1,149 patients of a Sleep Disorders Center. The ...
Markowitz Deborah H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Given the recent development of newer and less-invasive treatments for pulmonary hypertension, and the long wait for lung transplantation, early and correct diagnosis of this condition is increasingly important. The purpose of this study was to determine and improve the accuracy of a non-invasive, cardiopulmonary exercise-testing algorithm for detecting ...
Sheel A William - - 2004
Respiratory exercise physiology research has historically focused on male subjects. In the last 20 years, important physiological and functional differences have been noted between the male and female response to dynamic exercise where sex differences have been reported for most of the major determinants of exercise capacity. Female participation in ...
West John B - - 2004
Pulmonary capillaries have a dilemma. Their walls must be extremely thin for efficient gas exchange, but be immensely strong to resist the mechanical stresses that develop during heavy exercise. Elite human athletes at maximal exercise develop changes in the structure of the capillary wall as evidenced by red blood cells ...
Sugisaki Kota - - 2003
A 58-year-old man with a 15-year history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was hospitalized for rapid progression of muscle weakness to bilateral foot drop. Although laboratory data revealed high titers of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (489 EU), the patient was diagnosed as polyarteritis nodosa limited to the lower portions of the ...
Schibler A - - 2003
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of treatment with recombinant growth hormone (rGH) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Twenty patients with CF (aged 10-23 years) were randomised to age and sex matched treatment and control groups. The treatment group received daily subcutaneous injections of 1 IU/kg/wk rGH ...
Lonsdorfer-Wolf Evelyne - - 2003
PURPOSE: It has been suggested that an intermittent work exercise test (IWET) is as efficient but better tolerated than continuous exercise for rehabilitation. Although systemic and pulmonary cardiovascular adjustments have been investigated for continuous exercise, it has not been done for IWET with exercise bouts near maximal work rate. METHODS: ...
Adachi Hitoshi - - 2003
It is controversial whether or not pulmonary nitric oxide (NO) production, reflected in the end-tidal alveolar NO concentration, is diminished in patients with heart failure. Since pulmonary perfusion is regulated by NO production, decreased NO production in the pulmonary vasculature is assumed to result in diminished lung perfusion and further ...
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