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Results 451 - 500 of 793
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Fink G - - 1994
BACKGROUND: Theophylline is a well known bronchodilator which has been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases. In patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease whose cardiopulmonary performance is limited by their ventilatory capacity the administration of theophylline may improve exercise performance. METHODS: A ...
Palange P - - 1994
INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is considered a useful procedure in the evaluation of circulatory, ventilatory, or mixed origin of reduced exercise tolerance. Our study was designed to compare CPX and a standard clinical-instrumental approach in the evaluation of patients with cardiopulmonary disorders. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients (31 male, 26 female; ...
Huang Y C - - 1994
Previous approaches to the measurements of pulmonary diffusing capacity (DL) and pulmonary capillary blood flow (QC) utilized either the rebreathing or the single inhalation technique in conjunction with radioisotope gas and mass spectrometry. In the present study, we utilized a newly developed rapid infrared analyzer in conjunction with the slow ...
Bermon S - - 1994
Non smoking, male professional firemen-divers (n = 20) underwent two pulmonary function tests (PFT) separated by 8-9 years. Measured data were compared to European Coal Steel Community recommended reference values to permit cross-sectional and then longitudinal studies. Higher vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1; both ...
Bauer J A - - 1994
Nitric oxide (NO) is present in the exhaled breath of humans and experimental animals, but its physiologic role and cellular source(s) remain to be determined. Possible sites of origin are pulmonary endothelial cells and/or resident macrophages. Here we have tested the hypothesis that changes in cardiovascular status can alter the ...
Brudin L - - 1994
Arterial PO2 measurement during exercise is an important part in the evaluation of pulmonary disease but requires an intra-arterial cannula. However, in clinical work it would be preferable to assess PO2 non-invasively. To evaluate such a technique, simultaneous measurements of transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) and arterial PO2 (PaO2), sampled from an ...
Pothoff G - - 1994
It is known that pulmonary function is impaired during the course of HIV infection even in early stages. In order to estimate the resulting reduction of exercise capacity, different groups of HIV patients were investigated. Group 1 consisted of 20 patients without a history of respiratory disease and without actual ...
Bolliger C T - - 1994
We compared the value of exercise testing and measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics (PH) in the pre-operative assessment of 5 patients (mean age: 64 years, 3 men) with clinical stage I or II bronchogenic carcinoma and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. They were considered at high risk due to poor pulmonary ...
Podszus T - - 1994
The clinical and haemodynamic effects of 12 weeks of treatment with torasemide, 5 mg/day, were measured in 24 men aged 51-60 years with symptoms of mild, chronic, congestive heart failure. Clinical status was assessed by NYHA functional class and haemodynamic effects were measured at rest and during supine bicycle exercise ...
Paridon S M - - 1993
Although long-term evaluations of patients after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection have generally shown them to be clinically asymptomatic, assessment of their cardiovascular and pulmonary systems have been limited. Residual cardiopulmonary abnormalities undetected at rest may result in impaired function during exercise. To evaluate this hypothesis 9 patients ...
Schaffartzik W - - 1993
During exercise (especially in hypoxia), the alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference increases. This impairment of pulmonary gas exchange is caused partly by diffusion disequilibrium, but it has also been shown that an exercise-induced increase in ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality develops. Possible explanations of increased VA/Q mismatch include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, reduced gas ...
Collins L C - - 1993
We examined 21 miners by means of standard chest radiography, high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT), pulmonary function tests, and resting arterial blood gas levels. Using the ILO/UC classification of pneumoconiosis, 7 miners had category 1/0 or 2/1 simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). By HRCT, nodules were identified in 12 miners; 4 ...
Orenstein D M - - 1993
To evaluate the reliability of noninvasive oximeters during exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we studied 9 patients during exercise tests, using 3 devices (Hewlett-Packard 47201A, Biox-Ohmeda 3700, Nellcor 100), comparing oximetry readings with arterial blood co-oximetry. Fifty samples from preexercise, exercise, and recovery were collected; and paired measurements ...
Sudduth C D - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanisms for exercise impairment in symptomatic patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using breath-by-breath expired-gas analysis with incremental exercise testing. DESIGN: Prospective, open trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen consecutive patients with SSc seen at the Medical University Hospital (a tertiary referral center) with complaints of exercise intolerance ...
Freeman W - - 1993
We have compared the maximal and endurance exercise capacities in 22 (15 male) adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a resting oxygen saturation (SaO2) > or = 90%, with age and sex matched controls (CON). The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart-rate were lower for the CF group whereas the ...
Mulloy E - - 1993
The effects of theophylline on pulmonary function and gas exchange during rest, sleep, and exercise were assessed in 10 patients with severe but stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; median FEV1, 31% of predicted). The study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, and crossover in design, with each study period ...
Wakayama K - - 1993
We investigated the relationship between exercise capacity or exercise-induced hypoxaemia and the severity of pulmonary emphysema in 20 patients with pulmonary emphysema. The patients underwent pulmonary function tests, high resolution computed tomography and incremental treadmill exercise testing. Computed tomography scans were obtained at four levels in the lungs, and emphysema ...
Manohar M - - 1993
Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is a common occurrence in race horses. Although blood in cases of EIPH has been suspected to originate from the bronchial circulation, which receives approximately 1% of the left ventricular output, physiological evidence has recently emerged to indicate that the pulmonary circulation, which receives the entire ...
Pappas G P - - 1993
By using the beryllium-specific blood lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT) as a screening tool, it is possible to identify beryllium disease before clinical symptoms or radiographic abnormalities develop. Little is known about the early pulmonary physiologic abnormalities in granulomatous lung diseases. We compared two groups: (1) "surveillance-identified" early beryllium disease patients, ...
Hanel B - - 1993
Pulmonary diffusion capacity has been observed to be reduced by approximately 14% 2h after 4-6 min of maximal exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if the decrease in pulmonary diffusion capacity also occurs when the duration of exercise intensity is shorter or when the exercise intensity is ...
Imbriani M - - 1993
We have considered the opportunity of using some inert vapours (2-3 Dimethylbutane, 2 Methylpentane, n-Hexane) to measure the pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc). The measurements were performed by means of a gas chromatograph connected with a mass spectrometer. The alpha values (Bunsen absorption coefficients) measured by a constant pressure method ...
Kearon C - - 1993
The factors contributing to reduced work capacity (disability) in adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis are poorly understood. We performed a cross-sectional study using multivariate analysis to identify the individual and additive influence of spinal deformity, pulmonary impairment, and muscular function on work capacity in 79 subjects with idiopathic scoliosis (angle of ...
Winslow T M - - 1993
Although pulmonary hypertension is a well-described manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, there are few data regarding the pulmonary artery pressure response to exercise. We hypothesized that exercise capacity was reduced and that the pulmonary artery pressure response to exercise was abnormal in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. To test these ...
Tucker K J - - 1993
The pulmonary artery pressure response to exercise has been used as an index of cardiac reserve and frequently mirrors diastolic conditions. To define this response after orthotopic heart transplantation, we exercised 27 subjects on supine bicycle ergonometers. Stroke volume and pulmonary artery pressure were monitored with contrast-enhanced Doppler imaging. Study ...
Nir A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess whether there is deterioration of aerobic capacity over time after the Fontan operation in individual patients. BACKGROUND: We previously observed that maximal aerobic capacity after the Fontan operation was lower in older patients than in younger patients. It was unclear whether ...
Whyte M K - - 1993
The majority of patients with intrapulmonary right-to-left shunting due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations-exhibit good maximum exercise capacity (> 70% predicted) despite profound arterial oxygen desaturation. We studied seven such patients to assess tissue oxygen delivery during steady-state exercise. From rest to exercise [50 +/- 7 (SE) W] arterial saturation fell ...
Vollmar B - - 1993
We tested the hypothesis that pulmonary hypertension and thromboxane A2 release after heparin neutralization by protamine are mediated by oxygen free radicals. Forty-five pigs in five groups were studied during general anesthesia. Group I animals received 250 IU heparin followed by 100 mg protamine after 15 min. Group II and ...
Newman J H - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to measure hemodynamic and transvascular filtration changes in the lung during strenuous exercise in sheep. The specific goals were (1) to determine the nature of the reduction in pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) after its initial peak rise with onset of exercise; (2) to use ...
Epstein S K - - 1993
Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by limited exercise capacity as a result of changes in pulmonary mechanics, abnormal gas exchange, altered cardiac function, respiratory muscle dysfunction, nutritional factors, and dyspnea. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a safe, effective method for objectively studying exercise performance and may be carried out ...
Kirvela O - - 1993
The effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) with high lipid content were studied in 18 cystic fibrosis patients in this pilot investigation. The patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first 4-mo period, group 1 received PN and group 2 received routine therapy. During the second 4-mo ...
Haggerty M C - - 1993
Dyspnea, ineffective secretion clearance, and the potential for exacerbation are three common problems of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Assessment and management of these problems are important in the overall care of this population. Teaching patients breathing exercises and secretion clearance techniques and referring them to comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation ...
Kraemer M D - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the relations among exercise capacity and pulmonary, peripheral vascular, cardiac and neurohormonal factors in patients with chronic heart failure. BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of exercise intolerance in heart failure have not been fully clarified. Previous studies have indicated that peripheral factors such as regional ...
Jenssen B M - - 1993
Treatment with the surface-active agent Pluronic F-68, shown to modulate the hemodynamic effects of venous air emboli (VAE) in dogs, may be useful for treatment of VAE in divers. We report on the effects of injections of Pluronic F-68 on responses to continuous air infusion in swine. Pretreatment made no ...
Wada O - - 1993
Whether excessive ventilatory response to exercise is related to the maldistribution of pulmonary blood flow was examined in 23 patients with chronic heart failure and nine age-matched normal subjects. With the use of technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin, the resting distribution of pulmonary blood flow was assessed by the scintigraphic counts ...
Miller J I JI - - 1993
From July 1, 1974, to December 31, 1990, 2340 patients who underwent pulmonary resection were evaluated by comprehensive analysis of pulmonary function. Pulmonary function test criteria for resection were (1) pneumonectomy: forced expiratory volume in 1 second greater than 2 L; forced expiratory flow rate from 25% to 75% greater ...
Romano A M - - 1993
Since dyspnoea on exertion is very often the first symptom of precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), either from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) or from idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH), these patients are often first examined in a pulmonary function laboratory. We carried out a retrospective study (1987-1992) on pulmonary function in ...
Minami M - - 1993
A 13-year-old female patient with a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) of 24 percent shunt fraction (SF) underwent resection of segments 8 and 9 of the left lower lobe. Three months after the operation, the shunt became insignificant and PaO2 was normalized. In terms of the maximum work rate, maximum VO2 ...
Brassard J M - - 1993
A case of congenital, unilateral absence of a left pulmonary artery is described in a patient presenting with exertional dyspnea. Data from cardiopulmonary exercise testing suggest that the mechanism of dyspnea is secondary to a paradoxic elevation of the physiologic dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) during exercise.
Caillaud C - - 1993
Highly trained athletes (HT) have been found to show arterial hypoxaemia during strenuous exercise. A lack of compensatory hyperpnoea and/or a limitation of pulmonary diffusion by pulmonary interstitial oedema have been suggested as causes, but the exact role of each is not clear. It is known, however, that interstitial pulmonary ...
Groves B M - - 1993
Elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in high-altitude residents may be a maladaptive response to chronic hypoxia. If so, well-adapted populations would be expected to have pulmonary arterial pressures that are similar to sea-level values. Five normal male 22-yr-old lifelong residents of > or = 3,600 m who were of Tibetan descent ...
Rasmussen J - - 1992
Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DICO), together with spirometric variables, arterial oxygen tension (paO2) and cardiac output were determined before and at intervals after maximal arm cranking, treadmill running and ergometer rowing. Independent of the type of exercise, D1CO increased immediately post-exercise from a median 13.6 (range 7.3-16.3) to 15.1 (9.3-19.6) mmol ...
Yeoh T K - - 1992
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term cardiopulmonary function of heart transplant patients who received disproportionately sized allografts for varying levels of pulmonary vascular resistance. Resting hemodynamics and oxygen uptake during exercise were recorded at 1 year after transplantation in 52 patients. No differences in resting heart ...
Andersen S J - - 1992
Forty-one consecutive patients with the symptom 'exertional dyspnoea' were referred to the Department of Clinical Physiology for evaluation. Pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the most common diagnoses but other diagnoses were also represented. Some patients had no clinical diagnosis or radiological signs. All patients underwent exercise testing ...
Shaker R - - 1992
The effects of aging, tachypnea, bolus volume, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the coordination of swallowing with the phases of respiration were studied by concurrent respirography and submental surface electromyography. Study findings showed that in young healthy volunteers, during rest, there is preferential coupling of subconscious swallowing with the ...
Whyte M K - - 1992
BACKGROUND: Current treatment of patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations requires serial embolisations by means of steel coils or balloons. Measurement of right to left shunt is the most specific index of response to treatment. A new method of measuring shunt has been developed that is less invasive than traditional methods. ...
Lands L C - - 1992
1. Maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis is influenced by both pulmonary and nutritional factors: lung disease by limiting maximal achievable ventilation, and malnutrition through a loss of muscle mass. The associated reduction in everyday activities may result in peripheral muscle deconditioning. 2. We studied 14 stable patients with cystic ...
Pape H C - - 1992
Stabilization of femoral shaft fractures is a controversial issue in the management of patients with multiple trauma. Intramedullary nailing usually is preferred primarily; in recent years, however, pulmonary complications (e.g., ARDS) have been reported that were attributed to the reaming procedure. To study the effects of different nailing methods in ...
Norgård G - - 1992
Long-term haemodynamic results and exercise capacity were studied in 34 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (24 men and 10 women) repaired 10.0 +/- 4.9 (mean +/- SD) years previously and compared to 34 healthy matched controls. All subjects were studied by resting spirometry, echocardiography and a symptom limited treadmill exercise ...
Sietsema K E - - 1992
Exercise intolerance and exertional dyspnea are common complaints in patients with sarcoidosis. Although in many cases these complaints are attributable to restrictive or obstructive lung mechanics or inefficiency of pulmonary gas exchange, other processes also may contribute to impairment in exercise function and may not be readily detected or distinguished ...
Martin T W - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The measurement of arterial blood gases, P(A-a)O2 and VD/VT, during cycle ergometry is the "gold standard" for the assessment of pulmonary gas exchange. However, some patients are unable to perform cycle ergometry because of other medical problems. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether arm crank exercise could be used to ...
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