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Slattery Katie May KM 1Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, Faculty of Health, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; 2Human Exercise Performance Laboratory, School of Medical Science, University of Adelaide, Australia; 3Applied Sports Science and Exercise Testing Laboratory, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, - - 2014
This investigation examined the ergogenic effect of short-term oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation and the associated changes in redox balance and inflammation during intense training. A double blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover design was used to assess 9 days of oral NAC supplementation (1200 mg/day) in 10 well-trained triathletes. For each supplement ...
Silva Renato A S RA aCatholic University of Brasilia (UCB), Brasília, Brazil. bExercise Psychophysiology Group School of Arts, Sciences and Humanity, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, Brazil cSchool of Physical Education, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, - - 2014
This study verified if a prior five repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, eleven trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-min after 4 sets of 5RM ...
Bridge Craig A CA Sport and Exercise Research Group, Department of Sport and Physical Activity, Wilson Centre, Edge Hill University, St Helens Road, Ormskirk, L39 4QP, UK, - - 2014
Taekwondo has evolved into a modern-day Olympic combat sport. The physical and physiological demands of modern-day taekwondo competition require athletes to be competent in several aspects of fitness. This review critically explores the physical and physiological characteristics of taekwondo athletes and presents implications for training and research. International taekwondo athletes ...
Giles Luisa V LV 1School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada 2Department of Kinesiology, University of the Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada 3Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada 4School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada 5Division of Sports Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, - - 2014
Outdoor exercisers are frequently exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) that contains particulate matter (PM) air pollution. How the respiratory and metabolic responses to exercise are affected by DE exposure, and how these responses change with exercise intensity, is unknown. Determine the respiratory and metabolic responses to low- and high-intensity cycling ...
Cross Troy J TJ 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 3School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, - - 2014
The slow component of O2 uptake (V˙O2sc) represents a progressive decline in work efficiency during strenuous, constant work rate cycling. While the majority of this 'excess' O2 uptake can be explained by factors intrinsic to the exercising muscles, it has been proposed that respiratory muscle work rate may also contribute ...
Da Boit Mariasole M 1University of - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VO2 kinetics would be speeded to a greater extent following repeated sprint training (RST), compared to continuous endurance training (ET), in the transition from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise. Twenty-three recreationally-active subjects were randomly assigned to complete six sessions of ...
Joyce Sarah S Griffith University Sports Science, Gold Coast campus, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222, - - 2014
To determine if gender and/or the use of oral contraceptives alter cycling performance with exercise-induced muscle damage (EiMD). Nine male adults (MEN), nine normally menstruating female adults (WomenNM), and nine female adults using oral contraceptives (WomenOC) participated. Gas exchange and time to exhaustion were measured during continuous cycling performed at ...
Vogt Michael M 1Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, - - 2014
The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, ...
Gimenez Manuel M From INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), ex-Unité 14, Faculté de Médecine, BP 184, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France (MG, EML, EP); Cátedra de Matemáticas e Informática, Campus Universitario de Tafira 35017-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain (PS); Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Departamentos de Rehabilitación y de Fisioterapia Respiratoria-Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain (MG, NM); and Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (JRB).At the time of this study, Manuel Gimenez was affiliated with INSERM, Nancy, France, and is now Adjunct Professor at the Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Dr. Negrín, Departamentos de Rehabilitación y de Fisioterapia Respiratoria-35010 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to analyze subjective, physical, and physiologic responses to a standardized incremental 30-min two-step stool test to create an individualized 45-min maximally intensive two-step stool endurance exercise regimen for home training. This is a longitudinal study on 26 consecutively referred male smokers aged 39-66 yrs. ...
Halson Shona L SL 1AIS Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, PO Box 176, Belconnen, ACT, Australia 2School of Medicine, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia 3Appleton Institute for Behavioural Science, Central Queensland University, Adelaide, Australia 4Sport Performance Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New - - 2014
Cold water immersion may be beneficial for acute recovery from exercise, but it may impair long-term performance by attenuating the stimuli responsible for adaptation to training. We compared effects of cold water immersion and passive rest on cycling performance during a simulated cycling grand tour. Thirty-four male endurance-trained competitive cyclists ...
Gam Sharon S School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, - - 2014
There is evidence that carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance as well as muscle force production and sprint performance. Whether the oral administration of non-carbohydrate tastants also affects exercise performance is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing and ingesting a bitter ...
Burns Keith J KJ Department of Exercise Physiology, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, - - 2014
Although difficult to coordinate, single-leg cycling allows for greater muscle-specific exercise capacity and subsequently greater stimulus for metabolic and vascular adaptations compared to typical double-leg cycling. The purpose of this investigation was to compare metabolic, cardiovascular and perceptual responses of double-leg cycling to single-leg cycling with and without the use ...
Chopek Jeremy W JW University of Manitoba, Physiology, 409-745 Bannatyne Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3E 0J9, 2047893770 ; - - 2014
Activity based interventions such as locomotor training or passive cycling have a positive influence on the spinal circuitry and recovery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). The use of quipazine in combination with exercise training has demonstrated a greater functional recovery compared to exercise training alone. However, the influence of ...
Lim Harry B T HB 1School of Sport and Education, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UNITED KINGDOM; and 2Performance Enhancement Institute, Singapore Sports School, - - 2014
Synchronizing movement to a musical beat may reduce the metabolic cost of exercise, but findings to date have been equivocal. Our aim was to examine the degree to which the synchronous application of music moderates the metabolic demands of a cycle ergometer task. Twenty-three recreationally active men made two laboratory ...
Vernillo Gianluca G Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy, - - 2014
To examine the effects of the world's most challenging mountain ultra-marathon (Tor des Géants(®) 2012) on the energy cost of three types of locomotion (cycling, level and uphill running) and running kinematics. Before (pre-) and immediately after (post-) the competition, a group of ten male experienced ultra-marathon runners performed in ...
Kunorozva Lovemore L a Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science , University of Cape Town , Cape Town , South - - 2014
Abstract A recent study found that South African endurance athletes are likely to be morning-types and carry the PER3(5) allele, which has been associated with a preference for mornings. The aim of this study was to measure the response of morning-type cyclists to a standardised bout of exercise performed at ...
Coudrat Laure L a Centre de Recherches sur le Sport et le Mouvement (CeRSM), UFR STAPS , Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Defense , Nanterre , - - 2014
Abstract This study investigated the interaction between emotion-eliciting pictures and power output during a repetitive supra-maximal task on a cycle ergometre. Twelve male participants (mean (±SD) age, height and weight: 28.58 ± 3.23 years, 1.78 ± 0.05 m and 82.41 ± 13.29 kg) performed 5 repeated sprint tests on a ...
Mieras Molly E ME School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological and psychological responses to laboratory versus outdoor cycling. Twelve recreationally trained male cyclists participated in an initial descriptive testing session, and two experimental trials consisting of one laboratory and one outdoor session, in a randomized order. Participants were given a ...
Hansen Ernst A EA Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, - - 2014
In the present study we investigated changes in voluntary rhythmic leg movement frequency (freely chosen cycling cadence) and rhythmic movement pattern (tangential pedal force profile) after fatiguing hip flexion and hip extension exercises. Nine healthy individuals performed ergometer cycling at freely chosen cadence and at a cadence of 1 Hz ...
Corbett J J Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, - - 2014
This study aimed to examine thermoregulation in different clothing assemblies during a representative cycling exercise protocol. Six men undertook cycling exercise simulating representative thermal exchange challenges while wearing low (LOW), intermediate (INT1 and INT2), or high (HI) amounts of clothing. Exercise was conducted at 14.5 °C, 46.8% relative humidity and included ...
Crampton D D Department of Physiology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, - - 2014
Sprint (high-intensity) exercise performance is reduced when immediately preceded by cold water immersion (CWI). We aimed to investigate whether this performance effect could be attenuated by combining an active recovery (arm exercise) with hip-level CWI, and whether this attenuation may be related to an effect on core temperature (Tcore ). ...
Peñailillo Luis L Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia, - - 2014
This study compared concentric cycling (CONC) and two bouts of eccentric cycling (ECC1, ECC2) for substrate utilisation and resting energy expenditure (REE). Ten men (28 ± 8 years) performed each cycling bout for 30 min at 60 % of maximal concentric power output, with 2 weeks between bouts. Fat and carbohydrate (CHO) utilisation were assessed during ...
Meyns Pieter P Motor Control Laboratory, Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Tervuursevest 101, Box 1501, 3001, Heverlee, Belgium, - - 2014
The most commonly used propulsion method for handcycling is moving the arms symmetrically. Previous studies indicated that during outdoor handcycling symmetrical arm movements are more efficient. During locomotor movements, however, arm movements are performed asymmetrically in combination with leg movements. We questioned which combination of arm and leg movements is ...
McGarr Gregory W - - 2014
Improvements in fitness from a brief period of physical training may elicit sufficient physiological adaptations to decrease thermal strain during exercise in the heat. This study tested heat adaptation from short-term endurance (ET) and sprint-interval (SIT) training in moderately fit individuals. The ET group (n = 8) cycled at 65% ...
Kristoffersen Morten M Department of Sports and Physical Education, Bergen University College Bergen, - - 2014
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of low cadence training at moderate intensity on aerobic capacity, cycling performance, gross efficiency, freely chosen cadence, and leg strength in veteran cyclists. Method: Twenty-two well trained veteran cyclists [age: 47 ± 6 years, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 57.9 ...
Jubeau Marc M INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France ; Université de Lyon, Saint-Etienne, France ; MIP, Nantes, - - 2014
Maximal central motor drive is known to decrease during prolonged exercise although it remains to be determined whether a supraspinal deficit exists, and if so, when it appears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate corticospinal excitability and muscle voluntary activation before, during and after a 4-h cycling exercise. ...
Stebbins Charles L CL Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California , Davis, CA, - - 2014
We determined if high cadences, during a prolonged cycling protocol with varying intensities (similar to race situations) decrease performance compared to cycling at a lower, more energetically optimal, cadence. Eight healthy, competitive male road cyclists (35 ± 2 yr) cycled for 180 min at either 80 or 100 rpm (randomized) ...
Jones Benjamin B Centre for Sports and Exercise Science, University of Essex, 42 Highams Road, Hockley, Essex, SS5 4DF, UK, - - 2014
In most team sports, intermittent high intensity sprint efforts combined with short recovery periods have been identified as a key factor of physical performance; the ability to repeat these efforts at a sustained level is of great importance. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proposed as a tool to monitor muscle ...
Trinity Joel D JD Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA. - - 2014
This investigation sought to determine if supplementation with polyphenol antioxidant (PA) improves exercise performance in the heat (31.5 °C, 55% RH) by altering the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses to exercise. Twelve endurance trained athletes ingested PA or placebo (PLAC) for 7 days. Consecutive days of exercise testing were performed at ...
Cai Lu L Collaborative Innovation Center for Geo-Hazards and Eco-Environment in Three Gorges Area, Hubei Province, Yichang, PR - - 2014
The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish) subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and ...
Rohlmann Antonius A Julius Wolff Institute, Charitè - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, - - 2014
Cycling on an ergometer is an effective exercise for improving fitness. However, people with back problems or previous spinal surgery are often not aware of whether cycling could be harmful for them. To date, little information exists about spinal loads during cycling. A telemeterized vertebral body replacement allows in vivo ...
Christian Ryan J RJ Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, College of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University Melbourne, VIC, Australia ; Aspetar - Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital Doha, - - 2014
Purpose: We explored the effects of the sense of effort and accompanying perceptions of peripheral discomfort on self-selected cycle power output under two different inspired O2 fractions. Methods: On separate days, eight trained males cycled for 5 min at a constant subjective effort (sense of effort of '3' on a ...
Racinais Sebastien S Research and Education Centre, Aspetar, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital Doha, - - 2014
The aim of this study was to locate the breakpoints of cerebral and muscle oxygenation and muscle electrical activity during a ramp exercise in reference to the first and second ventilatory thresholds. Twenty-five cyclists completed a maximal ramp test on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of ...
Beidleman Beth A BA Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Kansas St., Bldg 42, Natick, MA 01760, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ ...
Robinson Edward H EH 4th Institute of Exercise Physiology & Wellness, University of Central Florida, 4000, Orlando, FL 32816, USA ; College of Education & Human Performance, 12494 University Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816, - - 2014
Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point ...
Tempest Gavin D GD School of Health Sciences, The Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, - - 2014
The dose-response effects of the intensity of exercise upon the potential regulation (through top-down processes) of affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses in the prefrontal cortex during an incremental exercise protocol have not been explored. This study examined the functional capacity of the prefrontal cortex (reflected by haemodynamics using near infrared spectroscopy) and ...
Duncan Michael J MJ Sport and Exercise Applied Research Group, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5HB, UK. - - 2014
The aim of this study was exploratory and sought to examine the effect on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and mood state responses in primary school children of moderate intensity cycling whilst viewing a green environment compared to exercise alone. Following ethics approval and parental informed consent, 14 children ...
Grant Marie Clare MC Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, Exercise Science Research Laboratory, School of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton ML3 OJB, UK ; Division of Sport and Exercise Sciences, School of Social & Health Sciences, Abertay University, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, - - 2014
It has been reported previously that the upper body musculature is continually active during high intensity cycle ergometry. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent Wingate (WAnT) performance. Eleven recreationally active males (20.8 ± 2.2 yrs; 77.7 ± 12.0 kg; 1.79 ± ...
Jeong In Cheol IC Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, - - 2014
Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to investigate activity of autonomous nervous system. Previous studies demonstrated potential of analysis of short-term sequences of heart rate data in a time domain for continuous monitoring of levels of physiological stress however the value of HRV parameters in ...
Learmonth Yvonne C YC College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (YCL, LP, RMM, NGM); Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA (YCL); AKM-STATS, Statistical Consultants, Glasgow, Scotland, UK (AKM); Multiple Sclerosis Service, NHS Ayrshire and Arran, Scotland, UK (PM, LM); and School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland, UK - - 2014
This pilot study was conducted to determine whether a 15-minute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise would affect symptoms (pain and fatigue) and function (Timed 25-Foot Walk test [T25FW] and Timed Up and Go test [TUG]) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to compare ...
Thompson Kevin G KG University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2013
Dietary inorganic nitrate supplementation causes physiological effects which may enhance exercise tolerance. However it is not known whether nitrate might alter cognitive function during exercise. In a double-blind, cross-over study, sixteen subjects ingested either nitrate-rich beetroot juice or a placebo and completed a continuous cycle exercise test involving 20minute stages ...
McCormack William P WP Institute of Exercise Physiology and Wellness, University of Central Florida, Orlando, - - 2013
The purpose of this investigation was to determine which physiological assessments best predicted high intensity running performance during a women's collegiate soccer game. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among physiological performance measures including muscle architecture on soccer performance (distance covered, HIR, and sprints during the game) during ...
Peacock Corey A CA Exercise and Sports Science, Nova Southeastern University, 3301 College Avenue, Parker 164, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33314, USA, - - 2013
With a substantial increase in diagnosed Parkinson's disease, it is of great importance to examine tolerance and physical measures of evolving exercise interventions. Of particular importance, a multifaceted exercise intervention combining active-assisted cycling and resistance training to older adults diagnosed with Parkinson's disease is being assessed. Fourteen older adults diagnosed ...
Muyor José M JM Faculty of Education Sciences, Nursing and Physiotherapy. Laboratory of Kinesiology, Biomechanics and Ergonomics (KIBIOMER Lab), University of Almería, Almería. - - 2013
1) to determine the intensity of an indoor cycling session; 2) to know the correlation between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales (Borg and OMNI) and % heart rate reserve (%HRR) with categories; and 3) to evaluate the validity of RPE scales (Borg and OMNI) with respect to the ...
Alves de Camargo Anderson A Postgraduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Universidade Nove de Julho - UNINOVE, São Paulo, - - 2013
To analyze the reliability, validity, and the determinants of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in adults with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Cross-sectional study SETTING: Outpatient clinic from a tertiary university hospital PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-five subjects (26 male) underwent, on different days, the cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and two ISWTs, 30 min ...
Kuo Yu-Lun YL Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, - - 2013
To explore the experiences of people with prediabetes who engage in exercise, from the initiation of exercise to the discontinuation or continuation of exercise. People with prediabetes are the high-risk group for developing type 2 diabetes. Engaging in exercise is an important health behaviour to prevent or delay this. However, ...
Yu Fang F University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, - - 2013
Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD ...
Ciavaglia Casey E - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences in physiological responses to weight-bearing (walking) and weight-supported (cycle) exercise influence dyspnoea perception in obese COPD patients where such discrepancies are likely exaggerated.We compared metabolic, ventilatory and perceptual responses during incremental treadmill and cycle exercise using a matched linearized rise ...
Hiura Mikio - - 2013
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) during dynamic exercise has never been examined quantitatively using positron emission tomography (PET). This study investigated changes in CBF that occur over the course of a moderate, steady-state cycling exercise. Global and regional CBF (gCBF and rCBF, respectively) were measured using oxygen-15-labeled water (H2(15)O) and PET ...
Holm Siri M - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological responses to treadmill and cycle cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in male and female COPD patients. Fifty five patients [28 males (FEV1=58.2±19.5% predicted), and 27 females (FEV1=65.3±16.6% predicted)] completed a treadmill and a cycle CPET in random order on two separate ...
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