Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1087
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Watson Greig - - 2006
CONTEXT: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration. OBJECTIVE: ...
Lim Chin Leong - - 2006
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that can be fatal if not appropriately managed. Although heat stroke has been recognised as a medical condition for centuries, a universally accepted definition of heat stroke is lacking and the pathology of heat stroke is not fully understood. Information derived from autopsy reports ...
Marshall Helen C - - 2006
Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic protein that also is present in the circulation. Extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) is inducible by exercise and is suggested to act as a danger signal to the immune system. The adaptive response of eHsp72 to repeated exercise-heat exposures in humans remains to be ...
Donohue Maura - - 2006
Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysin when incubated on sheep's blood agar (SBA) at both 23 and 37 degrees C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth (TSB) culture filtrate and found to have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an isoelectric point of 3.45. Nigerlysin is ...
Kaseloo P A - - 2006
Diving birds can lose significant body heat to cold water, but costs can be reduced if heat from exercising muscles or the heat increment of feeding (HIF) can substitute for thermogenesis. Potential for substitution depends jointly on the rate of heat loss, the rate of heat produced by exercise, and ...
Castle Paul C - - 2006
We used three techniques of precooling to test the hypothesis that heat strain would be alleviated, muscle temperature (Tmu) would be reduced, and as a result there would be delayed decrements in peak power output (PPO) during exercise in hot, humid conditions. Twelve male team-sport players completed four cycling intermittent ...
Yamauchi Tomoko T Laboratory of Exercise Gerontology, Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University , Nagoya, - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a home-based well-rounded exercise program (WREP) in older adults. Forty sedentary community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n = 23; aged 62-80 yr, average: 69.2 ± 5.2; 12 men and 11 women) or a control ...
Brozmanova Andrea - - 2006
Respiratory and thermoregulatory responses to hyperthermia during isosmotic dehydration/hypovolemia were studied in 17 anaesthetized adult rabbits divided into two groups: normovolemic group (NV; n=10) and hypovolemic group (HV; n=7). Hypovolemia/isosmotic dehydration (a decrease in plasma volume by 16.1+/-1.2%) was induced by furosemide (5 mg kg(-1) i.v.). During hyperthermia (the rise ...
Moesby Lise - - 2005
In the monocytic cell line Mono Mac 6 pyrogens induce interleukin-6 secretion dose dependently. The aim of this study is to examine the interleukin-6 inducing capacity of Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis endospores after moist and dry heat sterilisation. Moist heat sterilisation of B. subtilis endospores for 15 ...
Kavouras Stavros A - - 2006
The impact of rehydration with glycerol on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses during exercise in the heat was studied in eight highly trained male cyclists. Each subject completed three dehydration-rehydration experimental trials that differed only in the rehydration treatment, each separated by 7 days. Before each experimental day, subjects dehydrated to ...
Gordon Christopher J - - 2005
Most toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in laboratory animals maintained under comfortable environmental conditions. Yet, the exposure to environmental toxicants as well as many drugs can occur under stressful environmental conditions during rest or while exercising. The intake and biological efficacy of many toxicants is exacerbated by exposure to ...
Cleary Michelle A - - 2005
Exercise in the heat produces cellular conditions that may leave skeletal muscle susceptible to exercise-induced microdamage. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a clinical model of contraction-induced skeletal muscle injury. To determine whether thermoregulation during exercise heat stress adversely affects muscle injury and the accompanying DOMS. Randomized group test-retest design. Laboratory. ...
Chapin F S FS - - 2005
A major challenge in predicting Earth's future climate state is to understand feedbacks that alter greenhouse-gas forcing. Here we synthesize field data from arctic Alaska, showing that terrestrial changes in summer albedo contribute substantially to recent high-latitude warming trends. Pronounced terrestrial summer warming in arctic Alaska correlates with a lengthening ...
Burniston Deborah A - - 2005
Precipitation samples collected continuously at Point Petre on Lake Ontario from November 1994 through December 1998 were analyzed for total toxaphene (=sum of hexa-, hepta-, octa-, and nonachloro bornanes) and chlorobornane congeners (1997-98 only). Composite triplicate samples were collected during 4-week intervals throughoutthe 4-year study using heated wet-only samplers. These ...
Starkie R L - - 2005
To examine the effect of exercise and heat stress on cytokine production, seven males (77 +/- 2 kg; VO(2peak) = 4.7 +/- 0.4 L min(-1)) completed two (15 degrees C; CON or 35 degrees C; HEAT) 90 min cycling trials at 70% VO(2peak). Blood samples were collected throughout and analysed ...
Carpenter Janet S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of using sternal skin conductance monitoring as a measure of hot flash intensity and hot flash distress. DESIGN: Descriptive, prospective, longitudinal data from the 2-week baseline of a larger hot flash intervention study; 73 breast cancer survivors with daily hot flashes wore a hot flash ...
Saat Mohamed - - 2005
This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of ...
Ng Tania Y T - - 2005
This study attempted to quantify differences in Cd biokinetics from two populations of green mussels (Perna viridis) from two sites (eastern and western) in Hong Kong with contrasting hydrological conditions. Body Cd concentrations were modeled using a simple biokinetic model coupled with measurements of dissolved Cd concentrations at each site. ...
Klose Markus K - - 2005
Maintaining the competence of locomotor circuitry under stressful conditions can benefit organisms by enabling locomotion to more tolerable microhabitats. We show that prior heat shock protects locomotion and the locomotor central pattern generator of larval Drosophila against subsequent hyperthermic stress. We combined molecular genetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral techniques to investigate ...
Zhang Yousheng - - 2005
Nano and micro ZnO rods and arrays have been synthesized by a simple thermal evaporation approach on a cylindrical shape substrate. Most of the synthesized ZnO products are single crystalline with a hexagonal structure and grow along the [0001] direction. Individual protrusive ZnO rods and well-aligned arrays are two typical ...
Zuur J K - - 2006
Total laryngectomy results in a permanent disconnection of the upper and lower airways and inevitably leads to chronic pulmonary complaints like frequent involuntary coughing, increased sputum production and repeated daily forced expectoration to clean the airway. Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs), applied in an attempt to compensate for the lost ...
Vimieiro-Gomes A C - - 2005
Centrally stimulated sweat rate produced by graded exercise until exhaustion was compared to the local sweat rate induced by pilocarpine, often used as a sweating index for healthy individuals. Nine young male volunteers (22 +/- 4 years) were studied in temperate environment in two situations: at rest and during progressive ...
Saat Mohamed - - 2005
The effect of low-intensity exercise in the heat on thermoregulation and certain biochemical changes in temperate and tropical subjects under poorly and well-hydrated states was examined. Two VO2max matched groups of subjects consisting of 8 Japanese (JS) and 8 Malaysians (MS) participated in this study under two conditions: poorly-hydrated (no ...
Mayer John M - - 2005
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Restorative exercise and palliative modalities are frequently used together for the treatment of acute low back pain. However, little is known about the effects of combining these treatments. PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combining continuous low-level heat wrap therapy with directional preference-based exercise on the functional ability ...
Grahn Dennis A - - 2005
In situations where the accumulation of internal heat limits physical performance, enhanced heat extraction from the body should improve performance capacity. The combined application of local subatmospheric pressure (35-45 mmHg) to an entire hand (to increase blood volume) and a heat sink (18-22 degrees C) to the palmar surface were ...
Baker Lindsay B - - 2005
PURPOSE: This study compared the voluntary fluid intake behavior of older men and women (54-70 yr) when provided cold, palatable beverages and ample opportunity to drink between repeated bouts of exercise in the heat. METHODS: Thirteen men and 14 women performed four bouts of 15-min cycling at 65% VO2peak followed ...
Schlereth Tanja - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine (ACh) activates both sudomotor fibers and primary afferent nociceptors. This leads to sudomotor and vasodilator axon reflexes, which can be diminished, for example, in neuropathies. In some neuropathies, however, there is increased axon reflex sweating, a response pattern that has never been observed for vasodilator flares. OBJECTIVES: To ...
Watson Phillip - - 2005
Nine healthy endurance-trained males were recruited to examine the effect of a dual dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor on performance, thermoregulation and the hormonal responses to exercise. Subjects performed four trials, ingesting either a placebo (pla) or 2 x 300 mg bupropion (bup), prior to exercise in temperate (18 degrees C) or ...
Haman François - - 2005
The effects of changes in shivering intensity on the relative contributions of plasma glucose, muscle glycogen, lipids and proteins to total heat production are unclear in humans. The goals of this study were: (1) to determine whether plasma glucose starts playing a more prominent role as shivering intensifies, (2) to ...
Tomioka Noriko - - 2005
We have, by using newly developed ratemeters, attempted to examine the effects of exercise intensity, posture, pressure on the skin of the back, and ambient hyperthermic conditions (approximately 30 degrees C) on the 5-s handgrip exercise-mediated responses of active palmar sweating in humans. Thirty-five right-handed male (n=5) and female (n=30) ...
Shibasaki Manabu - - 2005
Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) decreases during isometric handgrip exercise in heat stressed individuals, and we hypothesized that central command is involved in this response. Seven subjects performed 2 min of isometric handgrip exercise (35% of maximal voluntary contraction) followed by postexercise ischaemia in normothermia and during heat stress (increase in ...
Lin I-Hung - - 2005
Some surgeries, a tracheostomy and oral surgeries in particular, have a higher risk of fire. Often it can occur when leaking flammable gas contacts an ignition heat source. Fire during a tracheostomy can sometimes be seen to produce different degrees of insult to the patient. The essential components of a ...
Saunders A G - - 2005
AIM: The purposes of this study were to determine (i) the effects of different facing air velocities on body temperature and heat storage during exercise in hot environmental conditions and (ii) the effects of ingesting fluids at two different rates on thermoregulation during exercise in hot conditions with higher air ...
Day T K - - 2005
During operations in subtropical areas over the summer months of 2001 and 2003 the authors audited 80 patients with heat-related illness, with the intention of defining the nature and distribution of the underlying pathophysiology. Haematological, biochemical and clinical data were gathered prospectively and patients allocated to diagnostic categories on the ...
Meloni C - - 2005
AIMS: All convective hemodiafiltration techniques require a replacement fluid, which must have an adequate electrolytic composition and must be sterile and pyrogen-free. Using an integrated adsorption cartridge, the ultrafiltrate can be "regenerated" and used as a replacement fluid (hemo-filtrate reinfusion; HFR). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ...
Kuwahara Tomoko - - 2005
We evaluated the effects of the menstrual cycle and physical training on heat loss (sweating and cutaneous vasodilation) responses during moderate exercise in a temperate environment. Ten untrained (group U) and seven endurance-trained (group T) women (maximal O2 uptake of 36.7+/-1.1 vs. 49.4+/-1.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; P<0.05) performed a cycling exercise ...
Webborn N - - 2005
Athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI), and in particular tetraplegia, have an increased risk of heat strain and consequently heat illness relative to able-bodied individuals. Strategies that reduce the heat strain during exercise in a hot environment may reduce the risk of heat illness. To test the hypotheses that precooling ...
McCord Gregg R - - 2005
The dramatic increase in skin blood flow and sweating observed during heat stress is mediated by poorly understood sympathetic cholinergic mechanisms. One theory suggests that a single sympathetic cholinergic nerve mediates cutaneous active vasodilation (AVD) and sweating via cotransmission of separate neurotransmitters, because AVD and sweating track temporally and directionally ...
Davis Scott L - - 2005
This investigation tested the hypothesis that cholinergic sweat function of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) (MS-Con; n = 10) is diminished relative to matched healthy control subjects (Con; n = 10). In addition, cholinergic sweat function was determined before and after 15 wk of aerobic training in a subgroup of ...
Maughan R J - - 2005
There are few data in the published literature on sweat loss and drinking behaviour in athletes training in a cool environment. Sweat loss and fluid intake were measured in 17 first-team members of an elite soccer team training for 90 min in a cool (5 degrees C, 81% relative humidity) ...
Houghton Belinda L - - 2005
PURPOSE: Oral contraceptives influence the regulation of cutaneous vascular tone, and both estrogen and progesterone have been shown to affect nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation. We tested the hypothesis that cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) during passive heating would be lower in women taking oral contraceptives with higher progestational bioactivity compared with ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2005
Although endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones affect numerous physiological processes, the interactions of reproductive hormones, chronic exercise training, and heat acclimation are unknown. This investigation evaluated the responses and adaptations of 36 inactive females [age 21 +/- 3 (SD) yr] as they undertook a 7- to 8-wk program [heat acclimation ...
Appleton K M - - 2005
It has previously been suggested that the perceived pleasantness of a food item in any situation may be directly related to the physiological usefulness of that item to the consumer in that situation. This study investigated changes in the perceived pleasantness of fluids before and after fluid loss through exercise-an ...
Elez-Martínez Pedro - - 2004
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often associated with the spoilage of fruit juices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) treatment on the survival of S. cerevisiae suspended in orange juice. Commercial heat-sterilized orange juice was inoculated with S. cerevisiae (CECT 1319) (10(8) ...
Lambert G Patrick - - 2004
Reduced splanchnic blood flow and hyperthermia during exercise-heat stress can produce gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction and increased gastrointestinal permeability. This may allow endotoxin to enter the internal environment, causing local and systemic immune responses. These responses may be involved in the cause and outcome of exertional heatstroke. Countermeasures may reduce gastrointestinal ...
Maltais Désirée - - 2004
PURPOSE: When metabolic rate during arm-cranking in the heat is equated between children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and matched controls (CON), there are no relevant intergroup differences in heat strain. The metabolic rate, however, is known to be higher in CP during treadmill walking. The purpose of this ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to quantify the variability and stability of 1st morning body mass (BM) fluctuations during daily exercise in the heat while following traditional fluid intake guidance. Data from 65 men were examined retrospectively. BM fluctuations were monitored over 4 to 15 consecutive days. Group daily ...
Maughan Ron - - 2004
Exercise in the heat poses a formidable challenge to the body's ability to control its internal environment due to the high rates of metabolic heat production and heat gain by physical transfer from the environment. In an attempt to restrict the rise in core temperature, an increased rate of sweat ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2004
The serotonin system may contribute to reduced human performance when hypohydrated in the heat. This study determined whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation could sustain exercise and cognitive performance in the heat (40 degrees C dry bulb, 20% relative humidity) when hypohydrated by 4% of body mass. Seven heat-acclimated men ...
Morgan R M - - 2004
AIM: To determine whether acute exercise-heat-induced dehydration affects sweat composition, eight males cycled for 2 h at 39.5 +/- 1.6% VO2peak on two separate occasions in a hot-humid environment (38.0 +/- 0.0 degrees C, 60.0 +/- 0.1% relative humidity). METHODS: During exercise, subjects ingested either no fluid (dehydration) or a ...
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