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Results 251 - 300 of 1087
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Bruce-Low S S - - 2007
Fire fighter breathing apparatus instructors (BAIs) must possess the ability to respond to both the extrinsic stress of a high temperature environment and the intrinsic stress from wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), repeatedly and regularly, whilst training recruits in live fire training exercises (LFTEs). There ...
Rowland T - - 2007
The goal of this study was to identify factors which limit exercise endurance in hot ambient conditions in prepubertal boys. Eight healthy non-acclimatized, highly physically active prepubertal boys performed steady load cycling at approximately 65 % peak VO (2) to exhaustion in both cool (19.6 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 66.4 ...
Glogau Richard G - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to demonstrate that botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) can be delivered to targeted skin sites with topical application for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis. METHODS: This randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study enrolled 12 patients with primary axillary hyperhidrosis with greater than 50 mg of sweat produced ...
Ganio Matthew S - - 2007
Studies related to fundamental hydration issues have required clinicians to re-examine certain practices and concepts. The ingestion of substances such as creatine, caffeine, and glycerol has been questioned in regards to safety and hydration status. Reports of overdrinking (hyponatremia) also have brought into question the practices of drinking appropriate fluid ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2007
Traditionally, exercise in the heat has been assumed to be primarily limited by cardiovascular constraints. However, an evolutionary perspective suggests that psychological safeguards should also protect individuals prior to catastrophic hyperthermia, and exposure to hot environments or elevated body temperature may directly attenuate central drive for exercise even well before ...
Noakes Timothy D - - 2007
Early human ancestors evolved hunting in the midday heat on the dry African savannah and developed favourable biological adaptations that permit prolonged running in the heat. These physiological adaptations must have included the capacity to sweat profusely to maintain a low body temperature when running for 4-6 hours in dry ...
Horowitz Michal - - 2007
The fundamental functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperoning and cellular repair. There is little literature on the association between the numerous functions of HSPs and systemic integrative responses, particularly those controlled by the central nervous system. This chapter focuses on the role played by members of the ...
Sonna Larry A - - 2007
Microarray analysis of gene expression at the level of RNA has generated new insights into the relationship between cellular responses to acute heat shock in vitro, exercise, and exertional heat illness. Here we discuss the systemic physiology of exertional hyperthermia and exertional heat illness, and compare the results of several ...
Siegel Arthur J - - 2007
Exercise-associated hyponatraemia (EAH) is an acute-onset imbalance in the tonicity of extracellular fluids during or after endurance exercise which results in a blood sodium concentration <135 mmol/L. Both excessive fluid intake and a concurrent decrease in urine formation contribute to this rapid-onset, predominantly dilutional, decrease in serum sodium, which can ...
Meyer F - - 2007
The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) ...
Wendt Daniël - - 2007
As a result of the inefficiency of metabolic transfer, >75% of the energy that is generated by skeletal muscle substrate oxidation is liberated as heat. During exercise, several powerful physiological mechanisms of heat loss are activated to prevent an excessive rise in body core temperature. However, a hot and humid ...
Maughan Ron J - - 2007
The marathon poses a considerable physical challenge for athletes of all levels. When combined with high heat and humidity, not only is performance potentially compromised, but health and well-being are also at risk. There are well recognised effects of heat and hydration status on the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory systems that ...
Kenefick Robert W - - 2007
This article reviews causes of marathon collapse related to physical exhaustion, heat exhaustion and dehydration. During severe exercise-heat stress (high skin and core temperatures), cardiac output can decrease below levels observed during exercise in temperate conditions. This reduced cardiac output and vasodilated skin and muscle can make it difficult to ...
Huber Roman - - 2007
Hot compresses on the right upper abdomen are used as support for patients with liver diseases in Germany. The study was designed to determine, whether they affect hepatic blood flow. Single dose kinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were studied in 13 healthy subjects with or without hot compresses on the ...
Angilletta Michael J MJ - - 2007
Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We ...
Tobina Takuro T Graduate School of Education, Hokkaido University, ; Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University , - - 2007
Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) gene Insertion / Deletion (I/D) polymorphism is associated with exercise trainability and exercise induced left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it is unclear whether this polymorphism influences exercise trainability in the elderly, and the electrocardiological alterations by exercise training is unknown among the genotypes. We herein investigated ...
Kenefick Robert W - - 2006
PURPOSE: This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat. METHODS: Eight males (21.4 +/- 0.7 yr; 176.2 +/- 1.6 cm; 75.2 +/- 3.7 kg; 63.7 +/- 3.6 mL.kg.min ...
Reilly Thomas - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise causes body temperature to rise and the resulting heat stored becomes a factor limiting exercise performance in hot conditions. Loss of heat by evaporative processes leads to hypohydration which itself can eventually impair performance. This review focuses on thermoregulatory and behavioural processes during sustained exercise in ...
Taylor Nigel A S - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Little is known regarding local differences in foot sweat secretion. Since such information is important to our understanding of sweat gland control for thermoregulatory modeling and for the design of footwear we explored this topic. METHODS: Local sweat rates were investigated across core temperatures from 37-39 degrees C, achieved ...
Yoshida Tetsuya - - 2006
To clarify whether the resting background effects (genomic) or exercise-related action (non-genomic) of aldosterone (ALD) is primarily affected to an individual variation in the sweat Na+ concentration ([Na+]sweat), we analyzed the cross-sectional relationship between [Na+]sweat and the plasma ALD concentration during rest and exercise in a hot environment. Eleven college-aged ...
O'Connor Robert E - - 2006
Exercise-induced hyponatremia is most commonly associated with prolonged exertion during sustained, high-intensity endurance activities such as marathons or triathlons. In most cases, exercise-induced hyponatremia is attributable to excess free water intake, which fails to replete the sometimes massive sodium losses that result from sweating. The risk of hyponatremia can be ...
Leite Laura H R - - 2006
The effect of central angiotensin AT1-receptor blockade on thermoregulation in rats during exercise on a treadmill (18 m/min, 5% inclination) was investigated. Core (Tb) and skin tail temperatures were measured in rats while they were exercising until fatigue after injection of 2 microl of losartan (Los; 20 nmol, n = ...
Carter Robert R - - 2006
Hypohydration is associated with orthostatic intolerance; however, little is known about cerebrovascular mechanisms responsible. This study examined whether hypohydration reduces cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in response to an orthostatic challenge. Eight subjects completed four orthostatic challenges (temperate conditions) twice before (Pre-EU and Pre-Hyp) and following recovery from passive heat ...
Kanu Abu B - - 2006
Studies with a new technique, active membrane-differential mobility spectrometry, with aqueous standards of benzene and phenol are described. The atmospheric pressure photo-ionisation chemistries of benzene and phenol in the presence of oxygen are similar in that benzene forms phenol radicals that subsequently react to yield diphenylether and 4-phenoxyphenol products. Further ...
Mendez-Villanueva Alberto - - 2006
The activity profile of men's competitive surfing was investigated during an international contest. Forty-two male surfers were filmed during 42 elimination heats. Surfers' activities were classified into 1 of 4 distinct categories (paddling, wave riding, stationary, and miscellaneous). The surfers were paddling and stationary 51% (25-70%) and 42% (23-72%) of ...
Kalkowsky Bernhard - - 2006
As the percentage of shifts in hot working conditions in German Coal mines had increased to more than 50% during the last decade, a study was carried out to record the physiological strain of miners. Thirty-eight miners participated during 125 shifts. Heart rate and rectal temperature were measured continuously. Sweat ...
Rozsasi Ajnacska - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in total respiratory heat loss during use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) in tracheotomized patients. METHODS: Tracheal humidity and temperature were measured before the application and during use of the HME (plastic foam impregnated with CaCl2), and total ...
Fanghänel Jörg - - 2006
A new calorimetric method has been developed to follow the time course of slow conformational changes during the refolding of denatured proteins. The method is based on the ability of isothermal titration calorimeters (ITC) to detect small amounts of heat continuously over a minute to an hour time range without ...
Kamijo Yoshi-ichiro - - 2006
The purposes of this review are to show pathophysiological mechanisms for heat illness during working in a hot environment and accordingly provide some preventive considerations from a viewpoint of body fluid homeostasis. The incidence of the heat illness is closely associated with body temperature regulation, which is much affected by ...
Walsberg Glenn E - - 2006
We previously demonstrated that the relationship between respiratory gas exchange and metabolic heat production is unexpectedly variable and that conventional approaches to estimating energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry can incorporate large errors. Prior studies, however, comparing direct and indirect calorimetry of animals focused only on endothermic organisms. Given that endothermy ...
Yang Huiping - - 2006
Tetraploid induction by inhibiting mitosis I with heat shock (32, 35, and 38 degrees C), cold shock (1, 4, and 7 degrees C), and nocodazole (0.02 to 1.6 mg/L) was investigated in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria. All treatments were applied to fertilized eggs about 5 min before the first ...
Krogstad A L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Focal hyperhidrosis is an embarrassing condition that can have a significant negative impact on patient quality of life. It is characterized by excessive sweating affecting a variety of areas, including the palms. Little is known about the daily pattern of sweating in patients with palmar hyperhidrosis. OBJECTIVES: To compare ...
Sharp Rick L - - 2006
This paper provides a review of recent literature concerning the interactive effects of sodium and fluid ingestion in maintaining fluid homeostasis during and following exposure to heat and exercise. Heavy sweating during exercise combined with heat exposure commonly produces fluid deficits corresponding to 1-8% loss in body mass. Thus, a ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2006
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of hypohydration and moderate hyperthermia (core temperature elevation) on anaerobic exercise performance in a temperate environment. METHODS: Eight active males completed two passive heat exposure trials (180 min, 45 degrees C, 50% rh) with (EUH) and without (HYP) fluid replacement. A single 15-s Wingate ...
Rivera-Brown A M - - 2006
This study compared physiological responses associated with exercise tolerance in girls (G) and women (W) of similar fitness and heat acclimatization level during exercise in a hot and humid outdoor environment (33.4 degrees C and 55.1 % RH; WBGT = 29.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Nine pre-menarcheal G (age = ...
Magalhães Flávio de Castro Fde - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sweat loss response during short-term heat acclimation in tropical natives. Six healthy young male subjects, inhabitants of a tropical region, were heat acclimated by means of nine days of one-hour heat-exercise treatments (40+/-0 degrees C and 32+/-1% relative humidity; 50% ...
Daanen H A - - 2006
The maximal power that muscles can generate is reduced at low muscle temperatures. However, in prolonged heavy exercise in the heat, a high core temperature may be the factor limiting performance. Precooling has been shown to delay the attainment of hyperthermia. It is still unclear if the whole body should ...
Shibasaki Manabu - - 2006
In humans, evaporative heat loss from eccrine sweat glands is critical for thermoregulation during exercise and/or exposure to hot environmental conditions, particularly when environmental temperature is greater than skin temperature. Since the time of the ancient Greeks, the significance of sweating has been recognized, whereas our understanding of the mechanisms ...
Serwah N - - 2006
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the combined effects of hydration and exercise heat stress on choice reaction time. On three separate occasions eight male subjects performed cycle exercise at approximately 70% of peak power output in warm, humid conditions (31 degrees C, 63% relative humidity) for a ...
Yamazaki Fumio - - 2006
To elucidate the influence of heat stress on cutaneous vascular response in the lower extremities during orthostatic stress, a head-up tilt (HUT) test at angles of 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees for 4 min each was conducted under normothermic control conditions followed by whole-body heat stress ...
Selkirk G A - - 2006
This study examined different fluid replacement quantities during intermittent work while wearing firefighting protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus in the heat (35 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Twelve firefighters walked at 4.5 km per h with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule ...
Tucker Ross - - 2006
The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of exercise intensity in hot environments when exercise is performed at a predetermined, fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Eight cyclists performed cycling trials at 15 degrees C (COOL), 25 degrees C (NORM) and 35 degrees C (HOT) ...
Mohr Magni - - 2006
This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306+/-22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. ...
Shakila R Jeya - - 2006
The stability of chloramphenicol residues in white shrimp (Penaeus indicus) subjected to cooking (100 degrees C) for 10, 20 and 30 min (C1, C2 and C3) as well as retorting (121 degrees C) for 10 and 15 min (R1 and R2) was studied by a microbial assay method using Photobacterium ...
Montain S J - - 2006
The development of symptomatic hyponatraemia consequent on participation in marathon and ultraendurance races has led to questions about its aetiology and prevention. To evaluate: (a) the assertion that sweat sodium losses cannot contribute to the development of hyponatraemia during endurance exercise; (b) the adequacy of fluid replacement recommendations issued by ...
Quod Marc J - - 2006
With the general acceptance that high ambient temperature and humidity have a detrimental effect on performance, the topic of whole-body cooling and sport performance has received considerable attention from sport scientists, particularly in the lead up to the relatively hot Olympic games of 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, and 2004 ...
Godek Sandra Fowkes - - 2006
CONTEXT: Thermal responses of average-sized male subjects (mass of approximately 70 kg) may not accurately reflect the rate of heat storage in larger athletes with greater muscle mass. OBJECTIVE: To determine if core temperature (T(c)) is different in National Football League linemen and backs and if T(c) is related to ...
Fischer Daniela - - 2006
Little is known about the structure and function of oligosaccharides in cyanobacteria. In this study, a new class of saccharides from Nostoc was identified by MS and NMR techniques, consisting of alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]n-beta-D-fructofuranosides ranging from the trisaccharide (n = 1) to decasaccharide (n = 8). In Nostoc ellipsosporum the cell content ...
Price Michael J - - 2006
The increased participation in wheelchair sports in conjunction with environmental challenges posed by the most recent Paralympic venues has stimulated interest into the study of thermoregulation of wheelchair users. This area is particularly pertinent for the spinal cord injured as there is a loss of vasomotor and sudomotor effectors below ...
Ronco C - - 2006
To perform CFPD, a two way access must be available in order to allow continuous inflow and outflow of the solution. This is most likely achieved with a double lumen peritoneal catheter. To design a double lumen catheter does not necessarily mean to increase the size of the tube or ...
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