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Results 201 - 250 of 1087
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Roemer E - - 2008
The effects of the addition of ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette (EHC) prototype on smoke composition and toxicity were quantified and the underlying mechanisms investigated. Smoke from EHC prototypes with and without AMP and from conventional cigarettes, i.e. the University of Kentucky Standard ...
Machado-Moreira Christiano A - - 2008
Thermal sweating from the human torso accounts for about half of the whole-body sweat secretion, yet its intra-segmental distribution has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to provide a detailed description of the distribution of eccrine sweating within the torso during passively-induced (water-perfusion garment: ...
Machado-Moreira Christiano A - - 2008
The importance of the head in dissipating body heat under hot conditions is well recognised, although very little is known about local differences in sweat secretion across the surface of the head. In this study, we focused on the intra-segmental distribution of head sweating. Ten healthy males were exposed to ...
Rowland Thomas - - 2008
Children possess certain physiological and anatomic characteristics that have traditionally been considered to impair thermoregulatory responses to exercise in the heat: low exercise economy, high ratio of body surface area to mass, diminished sweating capacity, and less cardiac output at the same work load compared with adults. Consequently, children have ...
Bishop David - - 2009
This study examined the effects of active warm up on thermoregulatory responses and intermittent-sprint cycle performance in hot conditions (35.5+/-0.6 degrees C, RH 48.7+/-3.4%). Eight trained males performed a 36-min, intermittent-sprint test (IST) after no (WUP 0), 10-min (WUP 10) or 20-min warm up (WUP 20). The IST contained 2-min ...
Montain Scott J - - 2007
CONTEXT: Uncertainty exists regarding the effect of sustained sweating on sweat mineral-element composition. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of multiple hours of exercise-heat stress on sweat mineral concentrations. METHODS: Seven heat-acclimated subjects (6 males, 1 female) completed 5 x 60 min of treadmill exercise (1.56 m/s, 2% grade) with 20 ...
Lovvorn J R - - 2007
For diving endotherms, modelling costs of locomotion as a function of prey dispersion requires estimates of the costs of diving to different depths. One approach is to estimate the physical costs of locomotion (Pmech) with biomechanical models and to convert those estimates to chemical energy needs by an aerobic efficiency ...
Wilson Robbie S - - 2007
The mating system of eastern mosquito fish (Gambusia holbrooki) is dominated by male sexual coercion, where all matings are forced and females never appear to cooperate and actively avoid all attempts. Previous research has shown that male G. holbrooki offer a model system for examining the benefits of reversible thermal ...
Hu Zhenhu - - 2008
Radio-frequency (RF)-based dielectric heating was used in the alkali (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Due to the unique features of RF heating (i.e., volumetric heat transfer, deep heat penetration of the samples, etc.), switchgrass could be treated on a large scale, high solid content, and uniform ...
Brotherhood John R - - 2008
Heat stress arising from the thermal environment is of concern to sports medicine and to sports administration because of the perceived risk of heat casualties, in particular heat stroke. Many sports organizations recommend environmental indices such as the WBGT for assessing risk and setting environmental limits for training and competition. ...
McClung James P - - 2008
The induction of cellular acquired thermal tolerance (ATT) during heat acclimation (HA) in humans is not well described. This study determined whether exercise-HA modifies the human heat shock protein (HSP)72 and HSP90 responses and whether changes are correlated with physiological adaptations to HA. Using a 10-day HA protocol comprising daily ...
Murray Bob - - 2007
There is a rich scientific literature regarding hydration status and physical function that began in the late 1800s, although the relationship was likely apparent centuries before that. A decrease in body water from normal levels (often referred to as dehydration or hypohydration) provokes changes in cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, metabolic, and central ...
Lin Yan-Fu - - 2008
Runaway reactions by methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) are an important issue in Asia, due to its unstable structure and extensive heat release during upset situations. This study employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to draw the experimental data for MEKPO 31 mass% and with acetone 99 mass% on three types ...
Weller Andrew S - - 2007
Compared with the induction of heat acclimation (HA), studies investigating the decay and re-induction of HA (RA) are relatively sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, 16 semi-nude men were acclimated to dry-heat by undertaking an exercise protocol in a hot chamber (dry-bulb temperature 46.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C; relative ...
González-Alonso José - - 2008
Exercise in the heat can pose a severe challenge to human cardiovascular control, and thus the provision of oxygen to exercising muscles and vital organs, because of enhanced thermoregulatory demand for skin blood flow coupled with dehydration and hyperthermia. Cardiovascular strain, typified by reductions in cardiac output, skin and locomotor ...
Sihoe Alan D L - - 2007
We report the case of a physically fit young man who presented with severe, life-threatening heat stroke after running a 10 km road race. He had previously received bilateral thoracic sympathectomy for axillary hyperhidrosis at another hospital, and was known to have upper body and limb anhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy can ...
Watkins Austen M - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Acute bouts of heat stress and exercise have been shown to independently increase heat shock protein levels; however, the combination of these two stressors on HSP-72 expression in human skeletal muscle has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a bout of ...
Hargreaves Mark - - 2008
Exercise in the heat results in major alterations in cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, metabolic and neuromuscular function. Hyperthermia appears to be the key determinant of exercise performance in the heat. Thus, strategies that attenuate the rise in core temperature contribute to enhanced exercise performance. These include heat acclimatization, pre-exercise cooling and fluid ...
Maxwell Neil S - - 2008
This study compared two intensities of active recovery on intermittent sprint exercise performance and the development of heat strain in hot, humid conditions. Eight male game players completed four Cycling Intermittent Sprint Protocols (CISP) consisting of twenty 2-min periods, each including 10-s passive rest, 5-s maximal sprint against a resistance ...
Tilkens Michael J - - 2007
Numerous studies have discussed the influence of thermoregulation on hominin body shape concluding, in accordance with Allen's rule, that the presence of relatively short limbs on both extant as well as extinct hominin populations offers an advantage for survival in cold climates by reducing the limb's surface area to volume ...
Rikke Brad A - - 2007
Numerous physiological and molecular changes accompany dietary restriction (DR), which has been a major impediment to elucidating the causal basis underlying DR's many health benefits. Two major metabolic responses to DR that potentially underlie many of these changes are the body temperature (T(b)) and body weight (BW) responses. These responses ...
Kosmulski Marek - - 2007
The electrokinetic potential of powders dispersed in concentrated solutions of salts can be determined by electroacoustic methods when the ESA (electrokinetic sonic amplitude) signal of electrolyte is properly corrected for. We propose an alternative solution to the problem of electroacoustic measurements at high ionic strengths; that is, the composition of ...
Whitham Martin - - 2007
The contribution of heat and exercise related stress to the release of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) is currently unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the combined and independent effects of heat and exercise on the extracellular (e)HSP72 response. Eleven moderately trained male volunteers [means +/- ...
Murray Bob - - 2007
This article summarizes a case of ischemic colitis suffered by a triathlete during an Ironman competition. Exercise results in a significant reduction in splanchnic blood flow to help maintain cardiovascular function. When dehydration and heat stress accompany exercise, blood flow to the splanchnic vasculature is further reduced, increasing the risk ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2007
Recovery from dynamic exercise results in significant perturbations of thermoregulatory control. These perturbations evoke a prolonged elevation in core body temperature and a concomitant decrease in sweating, skin blood flow, and skin temperature to pre-exercise baseline values within the early stages of recovery. Cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are critical responses ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2007
Over the past decade, research interest has risen on the direct effects of temperature on exercise capacity and tolerance, particular in the heat. Two major paradigms have been proposed for how hyperthermia may contribute to voluntary fatigue during exercise in the heat. One suggests that voluntary exhaustion occurs upon the ...
Wright Glenn A - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects creatine (Cr) loading may have on thermoregulatory responses during intermittent sprint exercise in a hot/humid environment. Ten physically active, heat-acclimatized men performed 2 familiarization sessions of an exercise test consisting of a 30-minute low-intensity warm-up followed by 6 x 10 ...
Moran Daniel S - - 2007
CONTEXT: Individuals in the population who are not able to sustain heat and whose body temperature will start rising earlier and at a higher rate than that of others, under the same conditions, are defined as "heat intolerant." OBJECTIVES: The applicability of the heat tolerance test (HTT) in identifying individuals' ...
Carter Robert R - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: We report our observations on one soldier with abnormal hyperthermia during exercise in the heat compared with prior exercise and following acute local (non-febrile) infection. Also, we report on 994 heat stroke hospitalizations in the U.S. Army. It is known that prior infection is a risk factor for heat ...
Coris Eric Emmanuel - - 2007
Heat illness is the third leading cause of death in athletics and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in exercising athletes. Once faced with a case of heat related illness, severe or mild, the health care professional is often faced with the question of when to reactivate the athlete ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2007
Exertional heat exhaustion (HEX) is the most common form of heat illness experienced by athletes, laborers, and military personnel. Both dehydration stemming from a water and/or salt deficiency and a high ambient temperature must exist for HEX to occur. In the field, appropriate therapy can reduce recovery time. This manuscript ...
de Castro E Paula L A - - 2007
Exposure of oocytes to elevated temperature (i.e. heat shock) during maturation can reduce fertilization rate and development of the resultant embryos. Given the possible role of free radicals in actions of heat shock on cellular function, we tested the hypothesis that a high oxygen environment exacerbates the magnitude of deleterious ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2007
Dietitians, exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, and other sports medicine personnel commonly recommend that exercising adults and athletes refrain from caffeine use because it is a diuretic, and it may exacerbate dehydration and hyperthermia. This review, contrary to popular beliefs, proposes that caffeine consumption does not result in the following: (a) ...
Yamanaka Yoshitaka - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Local heating of non-glabrous skin increases skin blood flow (SkBF) in two phases: the initial peak (P1) is mediated by sensory axon reflex, and the plateau phase (P2) is thought to be mediated by local production of substances including nitric oxide. We evaluated P1 and P2 responses in subacute ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2007
Sweat prediction equations are often used outside their boundaries to estimate fluid requirements and generate guidance. The limitations associated with these generalized predictions have not been characterized. The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the accuracy of a widely used sweat prediction equation (SHAP) when widening it's boundaries ...
Noakes Timothy David - - 2008
This article proposes a novel framework classification for the heat illnesses. It argues that heat stroke is the only described condition that is truly a "heat illness" since it is the only condition in which there is clear evidence for a pathological elevation of the core body temperature. If this ...
Pietrzak William S - - 2007
Heating bioabsorbable plates above T(g) allows for temporary softening to facilitate adaptation to bone. This can, however, transiently alter the mechanical properties, a better understanding of which would provide further insight into the use of these polymers. Two types of unoriented L-lactide/glycolide copolymer wafer specimens (82:18 and 95:5 molar ratios) ...
Davis Scott L - - 2007
The aim of this investigation was to identify the consequences of skin grafting on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in split-thickness grafted skin during indirect whole-body heating 5 to 9 months after surgery. In addition, thermoregulatory function was examined at donor skin sites on a separate day. Skin blood flow and ...
Demchak Timothy J - - 2007
CONTEXT: Ultrasound heating rates are known to differ between various manufacturers; it is unknown whether this difference exists within a manufacturer. OBJECTIVE: Determine if intramuscular heating differences exist between transducers from the same manufacturer. STUDY DESIGN: 3 x 10 repeated measures. Independent variables were Transducer (A, B, and C) and ...
Bishop David - - 2007
PURPOSE: Team sports contain high-intensity sprints separated by active recovery (AR) and passive recovery (PR). The beneficial effects of AR on repeated-sprint performance, for short exercise duration, in thermoneutral environments, are well known. However, team sports are often performed in hot environments for prolonged periods. Therefore, the aim was to ...
Allen Michael J - - 2007
Because no scientific literature exists regarding endodontic pathfinders, the aim of this study was to compare such instruments. Ten different pathfinder-type files were analyzed with respect to dimensional characteristics, pitch, and rigidity; efficiency, wear, and distortion were assessed by using an in vitro simulation exercise. SEM cross-sections and tip images ...
Wanner Samuel P - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) muscarinic cholinoceptors in heat balance and central fatigue during treadmill exercise (24 m min(-1), 5% inclination). The animals were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) and fitted with bilateral cannulae into the ...
- - 2007
Exertional heat illness can affect athletes during high-intensity or long-duration exercise and result in withdrawal from activity or collapse during or soon after activity. These maladies include exercise associated muscle cramping, heat exhaustion, or exertional heatstroke. While certain individuals are more prone to collapse from exhaustion in the heat (i.e., ...
Kenefick R W - - 2007
This study examined the effects of rehydration (Rehy) with fluids of varying tonicities and routes of administration after exercise-induced hypohydration on exercise performance, fluid regulatory hormone responses, and cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain during subsequent exercise in the heat. On four occasions, eight men performed an exercise-dehydration protocol of approximately 185 ...
Appenzeller Brice M R - - 2007
In the present work, we assessed the suitability of sodium and potassium physiologically present in sweat, as internal reference allowing to re-calculate the corresponding volume of sweat collected on a PharmChek Patch. A method using capillary electrophoresis with indirect ultra-violet detection was developed for the determination of sodium and potassium ...
- - 2007
This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at ...
Brace Christopher L - - 2007
To evaluate the performance of a 17-gauge triaxial antenna at microwave ablation in an in vivo porcine liver model. This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Thirteen female domestic pigs (mean weight, 45 kg) were used. Ablations were performed with a prototype microwave ablation system ...
Low David A - - 2007
We tested the hypothesis that local heating-induced nitric oxide (NO) production attenuates cutaneous vasoconstrictor responsiveness. Eleven subjects (6 men, 5 women) had four microdialysis membranes placed in forearm skin. Two membranes were perfused with 10 mM of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) and two with Ringer solution (control), and all sites were locally ...
Xu Guihua - - 2007
This paper reports the effects of heat treatment on huyou (Citrus paradisi Changshanhuyou) peel in terms of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array (PDA) detector was used in this study for the analysis of phenolic acids (divided into four fractions: free, ester, ...
Prímola-Gomes Thales N - - 2007
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stimulation of the central cholinergic pathway on the regulation of post-exercise tail heat loss in rats. Either 2.0microL of 25x10(-3)M physostigmine (Phy) or 0.15M NaCl solution (Sal) were injected into the right lateral cerebral ventricle of both resting (n=8) ...
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