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Kumar S Krishna - - 2012
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a graded maximal exercise test is the objective method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake testing is limited to only a few laboratories as it requires trained personnel and strenuous effort by the subject. At the population level, submaximal tests have been developed to ...
Gehlert Sebastian - - 2012
While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³) results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance ...
Lee Somi - - 2011
The fatigue-alleviating effects on mice of Rubus coreanus were investigated by using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, and those administered with the 80% ethanol extract (RCE) of R. coreanus displayed a lower reduction (20%) in swimming time on day 2 than the ...
Kempton Matthew J MJ Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, United Kingdom. - - 2011
It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. ...
Watson Phillip - - 2010
The aim of this study was to quantify changes in brain volume after exercise/heat-induced hypohydration in man. Eight active men completed intermittent exercise in a warm environment, until 2.9% ± 0.1% of body mass was lost. Subjects remained hypohydrated for 2 h after the end of exercise. Brain volume was ...
Horowitz Michal - - 2010
The introduction of molecular biology to thermoregulation was delayed compared with its application in other research fields pertinent to human health and disease. Using principles from molecular biology, we revisited fundamental problems in integrative and environmental physiology and were able to explore new research horizons. Global genomic responses in tandem ...
Krause Mauricio - - 2011
The intracellular heat shock protein 70kDa (iHSP70) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression is induced by different cell stressors, such as heat, metabolite deprivation, redox imbalances and also during physical exercise. The activation of the iHSP70 is sine qua non for the promotion of tissue repair, since ...
Nolte Heinrich W - - 2011
The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water ...
Faerevik Hilde - - 2010
This study was conducted to examine whether the greater rate of heat production through intermittent leg exercise would offset an elevated rate of heat loss and thereby decrease the rate of core cooling during immersion in severe conditions when wearing an insulated immersion suit. On two separate days, seven male ...
Schlader Zachary J - - 2011
This study evaluated exercise modality [i.e. self-paced (SP) or fixed-intensity (FI) exercise] as a modulator of body temperature regulation under uncompensable heat stress. Eight well-trained male cyclists completed (work-matched) FI and SP cycling exercise bouts in a hot (40.6 ± 0.2°C) and dry (relative humidity 23 ± 3%) environment estimated to elicit 70% of ...
Wakabayashi Hitoshi - - 2011
This study investigated the differences in heat dissipation response to intense heat stress during exercise in hot and humid environments between tropical and temperate indigenes with matched physical characteristics. Ten Japanese (JP) and ten Malaysian (MY) males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak ...
Stöhr Eric J - - 2011
Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting (LV twist mechanics) contribute to the maintenance of stroke volume during passive heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LV twist mechanics are related to the magnitude of heat stress and whether performing exercise during heat stress alters this response. We ...
Bandelow S - - 2010
We investigated the cognitive effects of exercising in the heat on the field players of two football teams in a series of three matches. Different rehydration and cooling strategies were used for one of the teams during the last two games. Cognitive functions were measured before, during and immediately after ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2010
Some models of exercise regulation suggest that exercise performance, rather than being solely limited by the attainment of fatigue in one or more physiological systems, is modulated by psychological factors. Extrapolating from such models, exercise capacity and voluntary performance during exercise in hot environments may be governed by a complex ...
Maughan R J - - 2010
Dehydration, if sufficiently severe, impairs both physical and mental performance, and performance decrements are greater in hot environments and in long-lasting exercise. Athletes should begin exercise well hydrated and should drink during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Many athletes are dehydrated to some degree when they begin exercise. ...
Périard Julien D - - 2011
It has been proposed that self-paced exercise in the heat is regulated by an anticipatory reduction in work rate based on the rate of heat storage. However, performance may be impaired by the development of hyperthermia and concomitant rise in cardiovascular strain increasing relative exercise intensity. This study evaluated the ...
Lorenzo Santiago - - 2010
This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (VO2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a ...
Tew Garry A - - 2010
The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2010
Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise ...
Amorim Fabiano T - - 2010
To compare the effectiveness of the rapid thermal exchange device (RTX) in slowing the development of hyperthermia and associated symptoms among hand immersed in water bath (WB), water-perfused vest (WPV), and no cooling condition (NC). Ten subjects performed 4 heat stress trials. The protocol consisted of 2 bouts of treadmill ...
Miners Andrew L - - 2010
Heat illnesses contribute to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in athletic populations. Sunburn increases the risk of various skin carcinomas. This report provides an overview of the etiology, symptomatology, risk identification, prevention, and treatment for heat related illnesses and sunburn. Four cases are presented to illustrate the diagnosis and immediate ...
Kondo Narihiko - - 2010
This review focuses on the characteristics of heat-loss responses during exercise with respect to non-thermal factors. In addition, the effects of physical training on non-thermal heat-loss responses are discussed. When a subject is already sweating the sweating rate increases at the onset of dynamic exercise without changes in core temperature, ...
Gomes Elisa Couto - - 2010
Large urbanized areas, where sports events take place, have a polluted environment and can also reach high temperatures and humidity levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a hot, humid and ozone-polluted (O(3)) environment on (1) performance of an 8 km time trial run, (2) ...
Charkoudian Nisha - - 2010
Human skin blood flow responses to body heating and cooling are essential to the normal processes of physiological thermoregulation. Large increases in skin blood flow provide the necessary augmentation of convective heat loss during environmental heat exposure and/or exercise, just as reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction is key to preventing excessive heat ...
Kodesh Einat - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to heat (acclimation [ACC]) and exercise training (EX) require global changes at all levels of body organization to enhance muscle performance. In this investigation, we combined these stressors and examined physiological and genomic aspects of adaptation in skeletal muscle (soleus). METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups: C ...
Magalhães Flávio de Castro Fde - - 2010
In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% ...
Crandall C G - - 2010
Heat stress, whether passive (i.e. exposure to elevated environmental temperatures) or via exercise, results in pronounced cardiovascular adjustments that are necessary for adequate temperature regulation as well as perfusion of the exercising muscle, heart and brain. The available data suggest that generally during passive heat stress baroreflex control of heart ...
Tokizawa Ken - - 2010
Hypohydration caused by exercise in the heat attenuates autonomic thermoregulation such as sweating and skin blood flow in humans. In contrast, it remains unknown if behavioral thermoregulation is modulated during hypohydration. We assume that thermal unpleasantness could drive the behavioral response, and would also be modulated during hypohydration. Nine healthy ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2010
CONTEXT: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [T(re)] > 39 degrees C). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses ...
Vanos Jennifer K - - 2010
This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of ...
Stapleton Jill - - 2010
We evaluated the effects of an 8-week exercise training program in previously sedentary individuals on whole-body heat balance during exercise at a constant rate of metabolic heat production. Prior to and after 8 weeks of training, ten participants performed 60-min of cycling exercise at a constant rate of heat production ...
Yamane Motoi - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of wind and rain on peripheral heat loss by non-exercising minimally clothed humans in a mildly cold environment. Seven healthy young male subjects wearing only shorts rested in a standing position for 20 min at an ambient temperature of ...
Balthazar Cláudio H - - 2010
To assess the effects of a blockade of central D1- and D2-dopaminergic receptors on metabolic rate, heat balance and running performance, 10 nmol (2 microl) of a solution of the D(1) antagonist SCH-23390 hydrochloride (SCH, n = 6), D2 antagonist eticlopride hydrochloride (Eti, n = 6), or 2 microl of ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2010
Human thermoregulatory control during heat stress has been studied at rest, during exercise and more recently during exercise recovery. Heat balance in the body is maintained by changes in the rate of heat loss via adjustments in skin blood flow and sweating. Independent of thermal control, the actions of nonthermal ...
van Rosendal Simon P - - 2009
Studies have shown that beverages containing glycerol can enhance and maintain hydration status and may improve endurance exercise performance by attenuating adverse physiological changes associated with dehydration. Improvements to performance include increased endurance time to exhaustion by up to 24%, or a 5% increase in power or work. However, some ...
Flouris Andreas D - - 2010
Our objective was to characterise sweat rate responses in a hot environment during rest and subsequent increasing levels of exercise in relation to thermometrically (i.e., rectal, tympanic, mean skin and mean body temperatures) and calorimetrically derived (i.e., change in body heat storage) thermal parameters. Ten healthy males volunteered and entered ...
Osterberg Kristin L - - 2010
Rapid and complete rehydration, or restoration of fluid spaces, is important when acute illness or excessive sweating has compromised hydration status. Many studies have investigated the effects of graded concentrations of sodium and other electrolytes in rehydration solutions; however, no study to date has determined the effect of carbohydrate on ...
Hayes Lawrence D - - 2010
This study examined the effect of exercise- and heat-induced dehydration on strength, jump capacity and neuromuscular function. Twelve recreationally active males completed six resistance exercise bouts (baseline and after each 5 exposure sessions) in an increasing state of hypohydration obtained by repeated heat exposure and exercise sessions (5 periods of ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2010
The purpose of this research was to characterize the movement of ingested water through body fluids, during exercise-heat stress. Deuterium oxide ((2)H(2)O) accumulation in plasma and eccrine sweat was measured at two sites (back and forehead). The exercise of 14 males was controlled via cycle ergometry in a warm environment ...
Merry T L - - 2010
AIM: Hypohydration exacerbates cardiovascular and thermal strain and can impair exercise capacity in temperate and warm conditions. Yet, athletes often dehydrate in exercise, are hypervolaemic and have less cardiovascular sensitivity to acute hypervolaemia. We tested the hypothesis that trained individuals have less cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and performance affect of hypohydration during ...
Horswill C A - - 2009
U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa). Athletes (n=14 males, 24+/-1 y) were recruited and studied based on medical history, age, and position. The reference group ...
Lee Nanette V L - - 2010
This study examined the effect of spironolactone on urinary ([Na(+)](urine)) and sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) when controlling for sweat rate. Fifteen healthy subjects were required to complete two 90-min exercise bouts (three 30-min ordered exercise bouts at 60%, 70%, and 80% of the subjects' age-predicted maximum heart rate) in a ...
Garrett Andrew T - - 2009
The purpose of this work was to investigate adaptation and decay from short-term (5-day) heat acclimation (STHA). Ten moderately trained males (mean +/- SD age 28 +/- 7 years; body mass 74.6 +/- 4.4 kg; VO2peak 4.26 +/- 0.37 l min(-1)) underwent heat acclimation (Acc) for 90-min on 5-days consecutively ...
Buono Michael J - - 2009
We investigated whether the eccrine sweat glands must actively produce sweat during heat acclimation if they are to adapt and increase their capacity to sweat. Eight volunteers received intradermal injections of BOTOX, to prevent neural stimulation and sweat production of the sweat glands during heat acclimation, and saline injections as ...
Lim Chin Leong - - 2009
The effects of increased training (IT) load on plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, and anti-LPS antibodies during exercise in the heat were investigated in 18 male runners, who performed 14 days of normal training (NT) or 14 days of 20% IT load in 2 equal groups. Before (trial ...
Capacchione John F - - 2009
Exertional heat illness, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are complex syndromes with similar pathophysiology. All three are hypermetabolic states that include high demand for adenosine triphosphate, accelerated oxidative, chemical, and mechanical stress of muscle, and uncontrolled increase in intracellular calcium. Although there are no controlled clinical studies to support ...
Pall Martin L - - 2009
Sauna therapy has been used to treat a number of different diseases known or thought to have a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency. It has been interpreted to act in multiple chemical sensitivity by increasing chemical detoxification and excretion but there is no evidence that this is its main mode of action. ...
Horikawa Tastuya - - 2009
Patients with cholinergic urticaria (CU) show a number of small, short-lasting hives when their body core temperature increases, usually during sweating following exercise or bathing. The precise mechanism(s) of hive formation in CU has been unclear except for the involvement of acetylcholine. We recently reported that most CU patients show ...
Lopez Rebecca M - - 2009
Exercise in the heat may predispose an athlete to an exertional heat illness. It is imperative to be knowledgeable on the influence of various nutritional supplements on exercise tolerance and hydration status. Because of the variety of nutritional ergogenic aids that are easily accessible to athletes, medical and health professionals ...
Baker Lindsay B - - 2009
This study compared simultaneous whole body washdown (WBW) and regional skin surface (REG) sweat collections to generate regression equations to predict WBW sweat Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) and K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) from single- and five-site REG sweat patch collections. Athletes (10 men, 10 women) cycled in a plastic chamber for 90 ...
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