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Miners Andrew L - - 2010
Heat illnesses contribute to significant morbidity and occasional mortality in athletic populations. Sunburn increases the risk of various skin carcinomas. This report provides an overview of the etiology, symptomatology, risk identification, prevention, and treatment for heat related illnesses and sunburn. Four cases are presented to illustrate the diagnosis and immediate ...
Kondo Narihiko - - 2010
This review focuses on the characteristics of heat-loss responses during exercise with respect to non-thermal factors. In addition, the effects of physical training on non-thermal heat-loss responses are discussed. When a subject is already sweating the sweating rate increases at the onset of dynamic exercise without changes in core temperature, ...
Gomes Elisa Couto - - 2010
Large urbanized areas, where sports events take place, have a polluted environment and can also reach high temperatures and humidity levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a hot, humid and ozone-polluted (O(3)) environment on (1) performance of an 8 km time trial run, (2) ...
Charkoudian Nisha - - 2010
Human skin blood flow responses to body heating and cooling are essential to the normal processes of physiological thermoregulation. Large increases in skin blood flow provide the necessary augmentation of convective heat loss during environmental heat exposure and/or exercise, just as reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction is key to preventing excessive heat ...
Kodesh Einat - - 2010
INTRODUCTION: Adaptation to heat (acclimation [ACC]) and exercise training (EX) require global changes at all levels of body organization to enhance muscle performance. In this investigation, we combined these stressors and examined physiological and genomic aspects of adaptation in skeletal muscle (soleus). METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups: C ...
Magalhães Flávio de Castro Fde - - 2010
In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% ...
Crandall C G - - 2010
Heat stress, whether passive (i.e. exposure to elevated environmental temperatures) or via exercise, results in pronounced cardiovascular adjustments that are necessary for adequate temperature regulation as well as perfusion of the exercising muscle, heart and brain. The available data suggest that generally during passive heat stress baroreflex control of heart ...
Tokizawa Ken - - 2010
Hypohydration caused by exercise in the heat attenuates autonomic thermoregulation such as sweating and skin blood flow in humans. In contrast, it remains unknown if behavioral thermoregulation is modulated during hypohydration. We assume that thermal unpleasantness could drive the behavioral response, and would also be modulated during hypohydration. Nine healthy ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2010
CONTEXT: In hot environments, the American football uniform predisposes athletes to exertional heat exhaustion or exercise-induced hyperthermia at the threshold for heat stroke (rectal temperature [T(re)] > 39 degrees C). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the differential effects of 2 American football uniform configurations on exercise, thermal, cardiovascular, hematologic, and perceptual responses ...
Vanos Jennifer K - - 2010
This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of ...
Stapleton Jill - - 2010
We evaluated the effects of an 8-week exercise training program in previously sedentary individuals on whole-body heat balance during exercise at a constant rate of metabolic heat production. Prior to and after 8 weeks of training, ten participants performed 60-min of cycling exercise at a constant rate of heat production ...
Yamane Motoi - - 2010
The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of wind and rain on peripheral heat loss by non-exercising minimally clothed humans in a mildly cold environment. Seven healthy young male subjects wearing only shorts rested in a standing position for 20 min at an ambient temperature of ...
Balthazar Cláudio H - - 2010
To assess the effects of a blockade of central D1- and D2-dopaminergic receptors on metabolic rate, heat balance and running performance, 10 nmol (2 microl) of a solution of the D(1) antagonist SCH-23390 hydrochloride (SCH, n = 6), D2 antagonist eticlopride hydrochloride (Eti, n = 6), or 2 microl of ...
Kenny Glen P - - 2010
Human thermoregulatory control during heat stress has been studied at rest, during exercise and more recently during exercise recovery. Heat balance in the body is maintained by changes in the rate of heat loss via adjustments in skin blood flow and sweating. Independent of thermal control, the actions of nonthermal ...
van Rosendal Simon P - - 2009
Studies have shown that beverages containing glycerol can enhance and maintain hydration status and may improve endurance exercise performance by attenuating adverse physiological changes associated with dehydration. Improvements to performance include increased endurance time to exhaustion by up to 24%, or a 5% increase in power or work. However, some ...
Flouris Andreas D - - 2010
Our objective was to characterise sweat rate responses in a hot environment during rest and subsequent increasing levels of exercise in relation to thermometrically (i.e., rectal, tympanic, mean skin and mean body temperatures) and calorimetrically derived (i.e., change in body heat storage) thermal parameters. Ten healthy males volunteered and entered ...
Osterberg Kristin L - - 2010
Rapid and complete rehydration, or restoration of fluid spaces, is important when acute illness or excessive sweating has compromised hydration status. Many studies have investigated the effects of graded concentrations of sodium and other electrolytes in rehydration solutions; however, no study to date has determined the effect of carbohydrate on ...
Hayes Lawrence D - - 2010
This study examined the effect of exercise- and heat-induced dehydration on strength, jump capacity and neuromuscular function. Twelve recreationally active males completed six resistance exercise bouts (baseline and after each 5 exposure sessions) in an increasing state of hypohydration obtained by repeated heat exposure and exercise sessions (5 periods of ...
Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2010
The purpose of this research was to characterize the movement of ingested water through body fluids, during exercise-heat stress. Deuterium oxide ((2)H(2)O) accumulation in plasma and eccrine sweat was measured at two sites (back and forehead). The exercise of 14 males was controlled via cycle ergometry in a warm environment ...
Merry T L - - 2010
AIM: Hypohydration exacerbates cardiovascular and thermal strain and can impair exercise capacity in temperate and warm conditions. Yet, athletes often dehydrate in exercise, are hypervolaemic and have less cardiovascular sensitivity to acute hypervolaemia. We tested the hypothesis that trained individuals have less cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and performance affect of hypohydration during ...
Horswill C A - - 2009
U. S. football players with a history of heat cramps were evaluated for the effect of physical training, sodium intake, and loss of sweat sodium on whole blood sodium concentration (BNa). Athletes (n=14 males, 24+/-1 y) were recruited and studied based on medical history, age, and position. The reference group ...
Lee Nanette V L - - 2010
This study examined the effect of spironolactone on urinary ([Na(+)](urine)) and sweat sodium concentration ([Na(+)](sweat)) when controlling for sweat rate. Fifteen healthy subjects were required to complete two 90-min exercise bouts (three 30-min ordered exercise bouts at 60%, 70%, and 80% of the subjects' age-predicted maximum heart rate) in a ...
Garrett Andrew T - - 2009
The purpose of this work was to investigate adaptation and decay from short-term (5-day) heat acclimation (STHA). Ten moderately trained males (mean +/- SD age 28 +/- 7 years; body mass 74.6 +/- 4.4 kg; VO2peak 4.26 +/- 0.37 l min(-1)) underwent heat acclimation (Acc) for 90-min on 5-days consecutively ...
Buono Michael J - - 2009
We investigated whether the eccrine sweat glands must actively produce sweat during heat acclimation if they are to adapt and increase their capacity to sweat. Eight volunteers received intradermal injections of BOTOX, to prevent neural stimulation and sweat production of the sweat glands during heat acclimation, and saline injections as ...
Lim Chin Leong - - 2009
The effects of increased training (IT) load on plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proinflammatory cytokines, and anti-LPS antibodies during exercise in the heat were investigated in 18 male runners, who performed 14 days of normal training (NT) or 14 days of 20% IT load in 2 equal groups. Before (trial ...
Capacchione John F - - 2009
Exertional heat illness, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are complex syndromes with similar pathophysiology. All three are hypermetabolic states that include high demand for adenosine triphosphate, accelerated oxidative, chemical, and mechanical stress of muscle, and uncontrolled increase in intracellular calcium. Although there are no controlled clinical studies to support ...
Pall Martin L - - 2009
Sauna therapy has been used to treat a number of different diseases known or thought to have a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency. It has been interpreted to act in multiple chemical sensitivity by increasing chemical detoxification and excretion but there is no evidence that this is its main mode of action. ...
Horikawa Tastuya - - 2009
Patients with cholinergic urticaria (CU) show a number of small, short-lasting hives when their body core temperature increases, usually during sweating following exercise or bathing. The precise mechanism(s) of hive formation in CU has been unclear except for the involvement of acetylcholine. We recently reported that most CU patients show ...
Lopez Rebecca M - - 2009
Exercise in the heat may predispose an athlete to an exertional heat illness. It is imperative to be knowledgeable on the influence of various nutritional supplements on exercise tolerance and hydration status. Because of the variety of nutritional ergogenic aids that are easily accessible to athletes, medical and health professionals ...
Baker Lindsay B - - 2009
This study compared simultaneous whole body washdown (WBW) and regional skin surface (REG) sweat collections to generate regression equations to predict WBW sweat Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]) and K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) from single- and five-site REG sweat patch collections. Athletes (10 men, 10 women) cycled in a plastic chamber for 90 ...
Kenefick Robert W - - 2009
The impact of prior heat stress on subsequent aerobic exercise-heat performance has not been studied. PURPOSE: To determine whether prior heat stress degrades subsequent aerobic exercise performance in the heat. METHODS: Eighteen nonheat acclimated males were trained (four practice trials) on an aerobic exercise performance test in 22 degrees C ...
Scheinin Lisa - - 2009
Sickle cell trait, which affects approximately 8% of American blacks, is generally felt to be a benign condition. Exercise-related collapse in persons with sickle cell trait is a rare but serious complication. It occurs most often in military recruits and deconditioned athletes undergoing intense physical training, but can also occur ...
Rodrigues Alex G - - 2009
To investigate the influence of the central cholinergic system on thermoregulation and brain serotonin concentration during exercise; 2 microl of physostigmine (5x10 M) or saline solution was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of running rats. At fatigue, brains were quickly removed and serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in ...
Maxwell Neil S - - 2009
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of hypohydration on physiological strain and intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat (35.5 +/- 0.6 degrees C, 48.7 +/- 3.4% relative humidity). METHODS: Eight unacclimatized males (age 23.4 +/- 6.2 y, height 1.78 +/- 0.04 m, mass 76.8 +/- 7.7 kg) undertook three trials, ...
Anastasiou Costas A - - 2009
Sodium replacement during prolonged exercise in the heat may be critically important to maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and muscle contractility. To examine the effectiveness of sodium-containing sports drinks in preventing hyponatremia and muscle cramping during prolonged exercise in the heat. Randomized crossover study. Thirteen active men. Participants completed 4 ...
Lopez Rebecca M - - 2009
To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional ...
Del Coso Juan - - 2009
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of caffeine ingestion on thermoregulation and fluid-electrolyte losses during prolonged exercise in the heat. METHODS: Seven endurance-trained ( .VO2max = 61 +/- 8 mL.kg.min) heat-acclimated cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% .VO2max in a hot-dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity) on six occasions: ...
Bergeron Michael F - - 2009
One of the biggest challenges facing numerous young athletes is attempting to perform safely and effectively in the heat. An even greater performance challenge and risk for incurring exertional heat injury is encountered when a young athlete has to compete multiple times on the same day, with only a short ...
Beckmann L - - 2009
During physical exercise body muscles are activated and heat is generated. In intensive physical activity, heat will be released by sweating to protect the body of overheating. Sweating and convection implies a water loss which can lead to dehydration. To avoid health problems as a result of dehydration, the body ...
Wingo Jonathan E - - 2009
Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) increases in response to local skin heating. Although attenuation of vasoconstrictor responsiveness due to local heating has been demonstrated, the mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation remains unclear. Nitric oxide has been shown to at least partially contribute to this response, but other mechanisms also may be ...
Crandall Craig G - - 2008
In healthy, noninjured, individuals, passive (i.e., nonexercising) whole-body heating has the potential to cause significant cardiovascular stress that may be second only to the cardiovascular stress associated with exercise. For example, such a heat stress can increase heart rate to well over 100 beats min(-1) with cardiac output increasing upward ...
Hwang Kyung-Mi - - 2008
The kind of salt used in doenjang preparation is one of the most important factors that affect the chemopreventive activities of doenjang. Bamboo salt (BS) is known to exert various therapeutic effects on several diseases. In this study, antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of methanol extracts of doenjang made with either ...
Bergeron Michael F - - 2009
A short recovery period between same-day competitions is common practice in organized youth sports. We hypothesized that young athletes will experience an increase in physiological strain and perceptual discomfort during a second identical exercise bout in the heat, with 1 h (21 degrees C) between bouts, even with ample hydration. ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2009
Nutritional adenosine receptor antagonists can enhance endurance exercise performance in temperate environments, but their efficacy during heat stress is not well understood. This double-blinded, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of an acute dose of caffeine or quercetin on endurance exercise performance during compensable heat stress (40 degrees C, 20-30% rh). ...
Gagnon Daniel - - 2009
We examined differences in dynamic heat balance between males and females during intermittent exercise. Six males (M) and six females (F) performed three 30-min bouts of exercise (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3) at a constant rate of metabolic heat production (M - W) of approximately 500 W separated by three 15-min periods ...
Shirreffs Susan M - - 2009
Sweat evaporation can be a key thermoregulatory mechanism and it causes a loss of water from all compartments of the body. Hypohydration can also develop with restricted fluid intake or with intake of diuretics. Hypohydration can affect physical and/or mental performance and/or have implications for dietary recommendations. A variety of ...
Machado-Moreira Christiano A - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: It is generally accepted that the palmar (volar) and dorsal surfaces of human hands display different sudomotor responses to mental or thermal stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that, during thermal stimulation, secretion from the dorsal surfaces would always exceed that from the volar aspect of the hand. METHODS: Sweat ...
Mora-Rodriguez Ricardo - - 2008
PURPOSE: To compare the thermoregulatory responses between constant (CON) and variable-intensity exercise (VAR) in a dry-hot environment (36 degrees C, 29% relative humidity, and 2.5 m x s(-1) airflow). METHODS: In a random order, seven endurance-trained, heat-acclimated subjects cycled either at 60% VO2max (CON) or alternating 1.5 min at 90% ...
Maughan Ronald J - - 2008
Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and to consume sufficient amounts of appropriate fluids during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Available evidence suggests that many athletes begin exercise already dehydrated to some degree, and although most fail to drink enough to match sweat losses, some drink ...
Chen Yu - - 2009
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) cause the intestines to become inflamed (red and swollen) and typically include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Heat shock protein (Hsp)70, which exhibits greater expression in the intestines of patients with IBD, may act to protect the intestine against this inflammatory insult. However, most procedures for ...
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