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Fineschi Vittorio - - 2013
The association between synthetic androgen (SA) abuse and sudden cardiac death is often cited in literature; in this respect, to date there are little data on the effects of chronic administration of supraphysiological doses of SA on tonic cardiac autonomic control. Marques Neto et al., in their interesting paper, show ...
Koch A E - - 2013
Hyperoxia can induce acute neurotoxicity with generalized seizures. Hyperoxia-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) might be protective. It is unclear whether dynamic exercise during hyperoxia can overcome CBFV-reduction and thus possibly increase the risk of neurotoxicity. We studied CBFV with both-sided transcranial Doppler with fixed transducer-position and heart ...
Rokamp Kim Z - - 2013
Variation in genes encoding the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may influence cardiac output (Q). The G46A (Gly16Arg) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with β2-mediated vasodilation but the effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on Q has not been studied. Five SNPs within ADRB2 (G46A, C79G, C491T, ...
Vaughan David - - 2013
The presence of a silencing sequence (the I-allele) in the gene for the upstream regulator of blood flow, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), is associated with superior endurance performance and its trainability. We tested in a retrospective study with 36 Caucasian men of Swiss descent whether carriers of the ACE I-allele ...
Thomassen Martin M Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Section of Integrated Physiology, University of Copenhagen, August Krogh Building, Universitetsparken 13, 2. sal, 2100 Copenhagen, - - 2013
The aim of the present study was to examine fibre type-specific Na(+)-K(+) pump subunit expression and exercise-induced alterations in phospholemman (FXYD1) phosphorylation in humans. Segments of human skeletal muscle fibres were dissected and fibre typed, and protein expression was determined by Western blotting. The protein expression of the Na(+)-K(+) pump ...
Niederseer David - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine urges physicians to translate results from clinical trials to their patients. This, however, can only work, if real world patients are represented in clinical trials. METHODS: We searched the literature on chronic heart failure (1950-2/2011) for studies designed to detect effects on mortality (mortality studies, MS) and ...
Takada Shingo - - 2013
Introduction: NAD(P)H oxidase-induced oxidative stress is at least in part involved with the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. NAD(P)H oxidase can be activated by the activation of renin-angiotensin system. Objective: We investigated whether angiotensin II receptor blocker can improve exercise capacity ...
Lancioni Giulio E - - 2013
Objective: Assessing the effectiveness of technology-aided programs to help three children with multiple disabilities exercise adaptive head or leg-foot and hands responses independently. Method: The response selected for the two children included in Study I was head rotation (i.e. movements of at least 25 degrees to the left that could ...
Gasanin Edis - - 2013
Combination of ACE-inhibitors with angiotensin-II type 1 receptor antagonists could provide better blockade of RAAS system compared with monotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects at rest and during exercise of Candesartan cilexetil as add-on therapy to ACE-inhibitors in patients with heart failure NYHA ...
New Karl J - - 2013
BACKGROUND The metabolic vasodilator mediating postexercise hypotension (PEH) is poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests an exercise-induced reliance on pro-oxidant-stimulated vasodilation in normotensive young human subjects, but the role in the prehypertensive state is not known. METHODS Nine prehypertensives (mean arterial pressure (MAP), 106±5mm Hg; 50 ± 10 years old) performed ...
Gay-Jordi Gemma - - 2013
Recently it has been shown that long-term intensive exercise practice is able to induce myocardial fibrosis in an animal model. Angiotensin II is a profibrotic hormone that could be involved in the cardiac remodeling resulting from endurance exercise. This study examined the antifibrotic effect of losartan, an angiotensin II type ...
Lee Jung-Ok - - 2013
Lindera obtusiloba is a medicinal herb traditionally used in Asia for improvement of blood circulation, treatment of inflammation, and prevention of liver damage. A previous study has shown that an ethanolic extract of Lindera obtusiloba stems (LOE) has vasoprotective and antihypertensive effects. The possibility that Lindera obtusiloba improves endothelial function ...
de Souza Jéssica Cardoso - - 2013
The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of an acute resistance training (RT) session and insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rate (HR). The sample consisted of 27 sedentary women (33.3 ± ...
Mota Márcio Rabelo - - 2013
This study investigated the chronic effect of blood pressure (BP) and post-exercise hypotension (PEH) during resistance training (RT) and its relation with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in hypertensive elderly women. Participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (EG) with exercise and a control group ...
Tsutaki Arata - - 2013
Low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as an endurance exercise model. This study aimed to test whether low-frequency NMES increases the phosphorylation of anabolic signaling molecules and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy, as seen with high-frequency NMES. Using Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 bout of exercise (with dissection done immediately (Post0) ...
Barkley Sherry A - - 2013
Adherence to independent exercise is an essential outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), yet limited theory-based interventions to improve adherence exist. This study tested the effects of an intervention based on Bandura's conceptualization of self-efficacy. The self-efficacy coaching intervention (SCI), a supplement to standard care, was designed to increase self-efficacy for ...
Swank Chad C Baylor Institute for Rehabilitation, Dallas, TX, USA (CS); and School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University, Dallas, TX, USA (MT, - - 2013
The aims of this study were to explore the feasibility of structured aerobic exercise followed by a period of unstructured physical activity and determine the impact of such exercise on cognition, mood, and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A convenience sample of 9 individuals with relapsing-remitting ...
Neto Silvio Rodrigues Marques - - 2012
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the combined effects of exercise and antagonists of the angiotensin II and aldosterone receptors on cardiac autonomic regulation and ventricular repolarisation in rats chronically treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND), a synthetic androgen. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: sedentary, trained, ...
Smith April R AR Department of Psychology, Miami University, 90 N. Patterson Dr., Oxford, OH 45056, United States. - - 2013
We conducted four studies to examine the relationship between over-exercise and suicidality. Study 1 investigated whether over-exercise predicted suicidal behavior after controlling for other eating disorder behaviors in a patient sample of 204 women (144 with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Bulimia Nervosa [BN]). Study ...
Marzorati Mauro M Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, CNR, Segrate Milano, Italy. - - 2012
Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has recently became available for patients with glycogen storage disease type II. Previous studies have demonstrated clinical efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy, however, data on physiological variables related to exercise tolerance are scarce. Four glycogen storage disease type II late-onset patients (45 ± 6 years) performed ...
Gregg Marion A MA - - 2012
To evaluate differences in physical readiness and obesity in worksites with inherent limitations in exercise availability, utilizing data from U.S. Navy personnel assigned to submarines. Cross-sectional study utilizing height, weight, and Physical Readiness Test (PRT) scores of 26,341 individuals assigned to small submarines (SS), large submarines (LS), and aircraft carriers ...
Singer Adam J - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise is thought to be protective against coronary artery disease. As a result, some physicians believe that the likelihood of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with acute chest pain is reduced in those who exercise regularly. We studied the association between self-reported frequency of exercising and the ...
Kim Jong-Hee JH Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, - - 2013
We examined the effects of mild therapeutic exercise during a period of inactivity on size and contractile functions of myosin heavy chain (MHC) type I (n = 204) and type II (n = 419) single fibers from the medial gastrocnemius in three age groups. Young adult (5-12 mo), middle-aged (24-31 ...
Zwerink Marlies - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Exercise training programmes for patients with COPD are effective in improving exercise capacity. The few trials that have investigated the effects of exercise programmes on daily physical activity show contradictory results. AIM: To investigate the relation between daily physical activity level and exercise capacity in patients with COPD using ...
Kruse L M LM Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8233, St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2012
Rigorous rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is necessary for a successful surgical outcome. A large number of clinical trials continue to assess aspects of this rehabilitation process. Prior systematic reviews evaluated fifty-four Level-I and II clinical trials published through 2005. Eighty-five articles from 2006 to 2010 were identified ...
Balemans Astrid C J - - 2012
PURPOSE: Purpose: To compare the maximal aerobic and anaerobic exercise responses of children with cerebral palsy (CP) by level of motor impairment and in comparison with those of typically developing children (TD). METHODS: Seventy children with CP, with varying levels of motor impairment (Gross Motor Function Classification System, [GMFCS I-III]) ...
Cermak Naomi M - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Satellite cells (SCs) are of key importance in skeletal muscle tissue growth, repair and regeneration. A single bout of high-force eccentric exercise has been demonstrated to increase mixed muscle satellite cell (SC) content following 1-7 d of post-exercise recovery. However, little is known about fiber type specific changes in ...
da Costa Rebelo Rui Manuel - - 2012
In the present study it was hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise favours a pro-fibrotic phenotype and promotes adverse remodelling in hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in an angiotensin II-dependent manner. To test this, female SHRs at the age of 1 year were started to perform free running wheel exercise. ...
Park Yoonjung - - 2012
Skeletal muscle vascular resistance during physical exertion is higher with old age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 1) aging enhances angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced vasoconstriction; 2) the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α contributes to alterations in ANG II-mediated vasoconstriction with aging; 3) exercise training attenuates ...
Guimarães Gislaine G - - 2012
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in the cardiac and vascular remodeling associated with cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin (Ang) II/AT(1) axis is known to promote cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition. In contrast, Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis opposes Ang II effects in the heart producing anti-trophic and anti-fibrotic effects. Exercise training is known to ...
Kumar S Krishna - - 2012
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during a graded maximal exercise test is the objective method to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake testing is limited to only a few laboratories as it requires trained personnel and strenuous effort by the subject. At the population level, submaximal tests have been developed to ...
Gehlert Sebastian - - 2012
While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³) results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance ...
Lee Somi - - 2011
The fatigue-alleviating effects on mice of Rubus coreanus were investigated by using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, and those administered with the 80% ethanol extract (RCE) of R. coreanus displayed a lower reduction (20%) in swimming time on day 2 than the ...
Kempton Matthew J MJ Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, United Kingdom. - - 2011
It was recently observed that dehydration causes shrinkage of brain tissue and an associated increase in ventricular volume. Negative effects of dehydration on cognitive performance have been shown in some but not all studies, and it has also been reported that an increased perceived effort may be required following dehydration. ...
Watson Phillip - - 2010
The aim of this study was to quantify changes in brain volume after exercise/heat-induced hypohydration in man. Eight active men completed intermittent exercise in a warm environment, until 2.9% ± 0.1% of body mass was lost. Subjects remained hypohydrated for 2 h after the end of exercise. Brain volume was ...
Horowitz Michal - - 2010
The introduction of molecular biology to thermoregulation was delayed compared with its application in other research fields pertinent to human health and disease. Using principles from molecular biology, we revisited fundamental problems in integrative and environmental physiology and were able to explore new research horizons. Global genomic responses in tandem ...
Krause Mauricio - - 2011
The intracellular heat shock protein 70kDa (iHSP70) is a universal marker of stress protein whose expression is induced by different cell stressors, such as heat, metabolite deprivation, redox imbalances and also during physical exercise. The activation of the iHSP70 is sine qua non for the promotion of tissue repair, since ...
Nolte Heinrich W - - 2011
The extent to which humans need to replace fluid losses during exercise remains contentious despite years of focused research. The primary objective was to evaluate ad libitum drinking on hydration status to determine whether body mass loss can be used as an accurate surrogate for changes in total body water ...
Faerevik Hilde - - 2010
This study was conducted to examine whether the greater rate of heat production through intermittent leg exercise would offset an elevated rate of heat loss and thereby decrease the rate of core cooling during immersion in severe conditions when wearing an insulated immersion suit. On two separate days, seven male ...
Schlader Zachary J - - 2011
This study evaluated exercise modality [i.e. self-paced (SP) or fixed-intensity (FI) exercise] as a modulator of body temperature regulation under uncompensable heat stress. Eight well-trained male cyclists completed (work-matched) FI and SP cycling exercise bouts in a hot (40.6 ± 0.2°C) and dry (relative humidity 23 ± 3%) environment estimated to elicit 70% of ...
Wakabayashi Hitoshi - - 2011
This study investigated the differences in heat dissipation response to intense heat stress during exercise in hot and humid environments between tropical and temperate indigenes with matched physical characteristics. Ten Japanese (JP) and ten Malaysian (MY) males participated in this study. Subjects performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak ...
Stöhr Eric J - - 2011
Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting (LV twist mechanics) contribute to the maintenance of stroke volume during passive heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LV twist mechanics are related to the magnitude of heat stress and whether performing exercise during heat stress alters this response. We ...
Bandelow S - - 2010
We investigated the cognitive effects of exercising in the heat on the field players of two football teams in a series of three matches. Different rehydration and cooling strategies were used for one of the teams during the last two games. Cognitive functions were measured before, during and immediately after ...
Cheung Stephen S - - 2010
Some models of exercise regulation suggest that exercise performance, rather than being solely limited by the attainment of fatigue in one or more physiological systems, is modulated by psychological factors. Extrapolating from such models, exercise capacity and voluntary performance during exercise in hot environments may be governed by a complex ...
Maughan R J - - 2010
Dehydration, if sufficiently severe, impairs both physical and mental performance, and performance decrements are greater in hot environments and in long-lasting exercise. Athletes should begin exercise well hydrated and should drink during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Many athletes are dehydrated to some degree when they begin exercise. ...
Périard Julien D - - 2011
It has been proposed that self-paced exercise in the heat is regulated by an anticipatory reduction in work rate based on the rate of heat storage. However, performance may be impaired by the development of hyperthermia and concomitant rise in cardiovascular strain increasing relative exercise intensity. This study evaluated the ...
Lorenzo Santiago - - 2010
This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (VO2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a ...
Tew Garry A - - 2010
The impact of skin blood flow changes on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived measures of muscle oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) and blood volume has not been fully established. We measured SmO(2) and total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) responses of the right vastus lateralis during rest and dynamic knee extension exercise in ten young, healthy ...
Cheuvront Samuel N - - 2010
Environmental heat stress can challenge the limits of human cardiovascular and temperature regulation, body fluid balance, and thus aerobic performance. This minireview proposes that the cardiovascular adjustments accompanying high skin temperatures (T(sk)), alone or in combination with high core body temperatures (T(c)), provide a primary explanation for impaired aerobic exercise ...
Amorim Fabiano T - - 2010
To compare the effectiveness of the rapid thermal exchange device (RTX) in slowing the development of hyperthermia and associated symptoms among hand immersed in water bath (WB), water-perfused vest (WPV), and no cooling condition (NC). Ten subjects performed 4 heat stress trials. The protocol consisted of 2 bouts of treadmill ...
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