Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1112
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Armstrong Lawrence E - - 2002
The role of the central nervous system (CNS) in the control of human heat acclimation (HA) and HA adaptations at the ultrastructural and biochemical level are not well described, although empirical evidence demonstrates that the hypothalamus adjusts thermoregulation subsequent to 8-14 days of exercise in a hot environment. Therefore, numerous ...
Patterson M J - - 2002
To determine whether induced metabolic alkalosis affects sweat composition, 10 males cycled for 90 min at 62.5 +/- 1.3% peak oxygen uptake, on two separate occasions. Subjects ingested either empty capsules (placebo) or capsules containing NaHCO3- (0.3 g kg-1 body mass; six equal doses) over a 2-h period, which commenced ...
Launay Jean-Claude - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: A survival sojourn in a tropical climate exposes subjects to 2 main constraints: food restriction and tropical climatic conditions. We hypothesized that such a sojourn could modify anthropological characteristics and thermoregulatory responses to heat and cold on return. METHODS: Eight European male subjects were submitted to a sweating test ...
Abrams L S - - 2001
The objectives of this randomized, open-label, three-period, incomplete block design study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of norelgestromin (NGMN) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) delivered by the contraceptive patch, Ortho Evra/Evra, and to evaluate patch adhesion under conditions of heat, humidity, and exercise. During each treatment period, 30 healthy women wore ...
Cian C - - 2001
This study investigated the effects of heat exposure, exercise-induced dehydration and fluid ingestion on cognitive performance. Seven healthy men, unacclimatized to heat, were kept euhydrated or were dehydrated by controlled passive exposure to heat (H, two sessions) or by treadmill exercise (E, two sessions) up to a weight loss of ...
Nadler S F - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of superficial heat on the fatigue cascade of the upper trapezius muscle in subjects with myofascial pain and matched normal controls. DESIGN: In a prospective randomized block crossover pilot study, eight female subjects, ages 20-35 yr, with upper trapezius muscle trigger points and eight matched ...
Krustrup P - - 2001
1. The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. 2. ...
Saunders P U - - 2001
To investigate the influence of heat stress on the regulation of skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism, six active, but not specifically trained, men performed 5 min of cycling at a power output eliciting 70% maximal O2 uptake in either 20 degrees C (Con) or 40 degrees C (Heat) after 20 min ...
Arcas J - - 2001
Topiramate (TPM) is an antiepileptic agent, first licensed in the United Kingdom in 1994, that is used in the treatment of patients with refractory seizure disorders. TPM is a monosaccharide d-fructose derivate, with sulfamate function, and so far, few adverse side effects have been reported. We describe three patients with ...
Mitlöhner F M - - 2001
One hundred twelve crossbred feedlot heifers were used in two experiments to assess the impact of heat stress and its relief by shade and(or) water misting on behavior, physiology, performance, and carcass traits. Treatments were 1) no shading or misting (CONT); 2) only misting (MIST); 3) only shading (SHADE); and ...
Grünenfelder J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Studies showed that the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) by whole-body hyperthermia or warming of the heart is associated with protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this study is to determine a time-related response of HSP70 expression through topical cardiac warming with correlation to cytokine production. ...
Hsieh C - - 2001
Although thermoregulatory sweat testing is commonly used to assess the autonomic nervous system, the power of this stimulus to induce sweating has not been studied. In 8 healthy male subjects, the authors quantitated sweat rates, core temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure during clinical thermoregulatory sweat testing, a separate exercise ...
Shibasaki M - - 2001
1. Isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise increases sweat rate and arterial blood pressure, and both remain elevated during post-exercise ischaemia. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the elevation in arterial blood pressure during post-exercise ischaemia contributes to the increase in sweating. 2. In normothermia and during whole-body heating, ...
Montain S J - - 2001
Exercise-related hyponatremia is an infrequent but potentially life-threatening accompaniment of prolonged exercise. This condition results from sodium losses in sweat, excessive water intake, or both. We review the risk factors for development of this condition and discuss evidence that there is a population at increased risk of hyponatremia during prolonged ...
Volek J S - - 2001
PURPOSE: This investigation was designed to examine the influence of creatine (Cr) supplementation on acute cardiovascular, renal, temperature, and fluid-regulatory hormonal responses to exercise for 35 min in the heat. METHODS: Twenty healthy men were matched and then randomly assigned to consume 0.3 g.kg(-1) Cr monohydrate (N = 10) or ...
Devlin L H - - 2001
The effects of exercise-induced hypohydration on the motor skill performance of cricket bowling was examined in seven medium-fast bowlers who performed a random order of two experimental trials. Trials consisted of a bowling test (36 deliveries; PREBOWL) in a thermoneutral (16+/-2 degrees C) environment followed by approximately 1 hr of ...
Forsthoff A - - 2001
For International Standard ISO 7933 (Hot environments-analytical determination and interpretation of thermal stress using calculation of required sweat rate. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1989) it has been questioned whether the heat stress index "required sweat rate" is applicable in environments where mean radiant temperature (t(r)) exceeds dry air temperature ...
Maresh C M - - 2001
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of a brief period (20 min) of intravenous (IV) fluid rehydration and oral (ORAL) rehydration on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thirst, and thermal sensation (TS) during exercise in the heat. METHODS: After dehydration (-4% of body weight), eight ...
Smith C D - - 2001
A 40-year-old man awoke with exuberant sustained sweating of the entire left side of the body, which became intermittent over the next few days. MRI indicated a single linear hyperintensity in the right posterior hypothalamus, diminishing on a repeat scan. He continues to have episodes of left unilateral sweating precipitated ...
Kondo N - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) ...
Levitus S - - 2001
We compared the temporal variability of the heat content of the world ocean, of the global atmosphere, and of components of Earth's cryosphere during the latter half of the 20th century. Each component has increased its heat content (the atmosphere and the ocean) or exhibited melting (the cryosphere). The estimated ...
Leiper J B - - 2001
Total body water (TBW) and water turnover rates (WTR) of six competitive male cyclists (CG) and six age-matched sedentary men (SG) were determined using deuterium oxide dilution and elimination. During the 7 day study, individuals in the CG cycled daily outside on average 50 (range 12-146) km at an average ...
Levine L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare thermoregulatory and subjective responses of 12 test subjects (10 male, 2 female) wearing 5 different Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST) prototype and 3 different currently fielded control chemical/ biological (CB) protective overgarments. METHODS: The overgarments were compared while subjects ...
Young A J - - 2001
Cold exposure facilitates body heat loss which can reduce body temperature, unless mitigated by enhanced heat conservation or increased heat production. When behavioral strategies inadequately defend body temperature, vasomotor and thermogenic responses are elicited, both of which are modulated if not mediated by sympathetic nervous activation. Both exercise and shivering ...
Wu T - - 2001
Antibodies against heat shock or stress proteins (Hsps) have been reported in a number of diseases in which they may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease or may be of use for prognosis. Heat-induced diseases, such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke, are frequent in hot ...
Gill N - - 2001
In order to compare the effectiveness of a daily to an intermittent acclimation protocol, 14 competitive rowers (mean +/- SD VO2peak = 48 +/- 7 ml x kg x min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a consecutive (10 consecutive days) or intermittent acclimation group (10 sessions over 3 weeks). For ...
McLellan T M - - 2001
When protective clothing is worn that restricts evaporative heat loss, it is not valid to assume that the higher sweat rates associated with improvements in aerobic fitness will increase heat tolerance. An initial study compared thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to both compensable and uncompensable heat stress before and after 8 ...
Liang Y F - - 2001
Excitation and sensitization to heat of nociceptors by bradykinin (BK) were examined using an isolated rat skin-saphenous nerve preparation. A total of 52 C-fibres was tested: 42 were mechano-heat sensitive (CMH) and 40% of them were excited and sensitized to heat by BK superfusion (10-5 M, 5 min) of their ...
Gutierrez E - - 2001
The paper presents the results of heat treatment in three cases of anorexia nervosa (AN), in which marked overactivity and/or strenuous exercising were prominent clinical features. Heat was supplied in three ways: continuous exposure to a warm environment, wearing a thermal waistcoat, and sauna baths in an infrared cabin. The ...
Scheett T P - - 2001
On two occasions, 8 male subjects completed a dehydration protocol, immediately followed by a 180-min rehydration protocol, then a subsequent exercise bout. During each dehydration session, subjects lost 3.1 +/- 0.4% body weight (BW) following discontinuous exercise in the heat (40 degreesC, 33% rh). During the first 30 min of ...
Gölfert F - - 2001
The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on microvesicles was examined in rat astrocytes by video-enhanced microscopy in combination with a perfusable cell chamber. The EMF effect was compared with the effect of heat shock (HS) and with a combination of them both. The velocity of microvesicles was ...
Frank A - - 2001
We studied the sympatho-vagal balance during acclimation to heat in eight healthy individuals. The subjects, dressed in shorts and tennis shoes, underwent a 10 d procedure of acclimation. Daily exposure lasted 115 min--5 min rest followed by 2 bouts of 50 min exercise (walking on a treadmill at a work ...
Rehrer N J - - 2001
It is well known that fluid and electrolyte balance are critical to optimal exercise performance and, moreover, health maintenance. Most research conducted on extreme sporting endeavour (>3 hours) is based on case studies and studies involving small numbers of individuals. Ultra-endurance sportsmen and women typically do not meet their fluid ...
Shirreffs S M - - 2001
Post-exercise restoration of fluid balance after sweat-induced hypohydration avoids the detrimental effects of a body water deficit on physiological function and subsequent exercise performance. For effective restoration of fluid balance, the consumption of a volume of fluid in excess of the sweat loss and replacement of electrolyte, particularly sodium, losses ...
Febbraio M A - - 2001
Much of the research that has examined the interaction between metabolism and exercise has been conducted in comfortable ambient conditions. It is clear, however, that environmental temperature, particularly extreme heat, is a major practical issue one must consider when examining muscle energy metabolism. When exercise is conducted in very high ...
Cadarette B S - - 2001
This study evaluated physiological heat strain from two developmental toxic agent protective systems compared with the standard Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit during exercise-heat stress. Eight subjects (six men, two women) completed three experimental trials, at 38 degrees C, 30% rh, wearing: 1) Self Contained Toxic Environment Protective Outfit (STEPO) ...
Cheuvront S N - - 2001
The extreme physical endurance demands and varied environmental settings of marathon footraces have provided a unique opportunity to study the limits of human thermoregulation for more than a century. High post-race rectal temperatures (Tre) are commonly and consistently documented in marathon runners, yet a clear divergence of thought surrounds the ...
Holthusen H - - 2000
Hyperalgesia on intradermal capsaicin application can be attenuated by systemic application of local anesthetics. We tested whether low doses of local anesthetics applied pre- or post-traumatically can reduce heat trauma-induced primary and secondary hyperalgesia in humans. Six healthy volunteers consented to the randomized, double-blind, and cross-over designed study. In each ...
Moehrle M - - 2000
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. It is known that tap water and saltwater baths have a photosensitizing capacity in subsequent UV irradiation of the skin. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of ...
Latzka W A - - 2000
Hyperhydration or increasing body water content above normal (euhydration) level was thought to have some benefit during exercise heat-stress; however, attempts to overdrink have been minimized by a rapid diuretic response. The perception that hyperhydration might be beneficial for exercise performance and for thermoregulation arose from the adverse consequences of ...
McLellan T M - - 2000
This study used partitional calorimetry to determine the influence of fluid replacement on heat storage during uncompensable heat stress. Eight males performed either light (L; level treadmill walking at 0.97 m x s(-1) (3.5 km x h(-1)) or heavy (H; 1.33 m x s(-1) (4.8 km x h(-1)) at a ...
Crafts-Brandner S J - - 2000
Experiments were conducted to determine the relative contributions of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC 4.1.1.39) activation state vis-a-vis Rubisco activase and metabolite levels to the inhibition of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) photosynthesis by heat stress. Exposure of leaf tissue in the light to temperatures of 40 or 45 degrees C decreased ...
Casa D J - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine if intravenous fluid rehydration, versus oral rehydration, during a brief period (20 min) differentially affects plasma ACTH, cortisol, and norepinephrine concentrations during subsequent exhaustive exercise in the heat. Following dehydration (DHY) to Eth 4% of body weight, 8 nonacclimated highly trained males ...
McCutcheon L J - - 2000
Sweating responses were examined in five horses during a standardized exercise test (SET) in hot conditions (32-34 degrees C, 45-55% relative humidity) during 8 wk of exercise training (5 days/wk) in moderate conditions (19-21 degrees C, 45-55% relative humidity). SETs consisting of 7 km at 50% maximal O(2) consumption, determined ...
Geor R J - - 2000
The effect of humid heat acclimation on thermoregulatory responses to humid and dry exercise-heat stress was studied in six exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses. Horses were heat acclimated by performing moderate-intensity exercise for 21 days in heat and humidity (HH) [34.2-35.7 degrees C; 84-86% relative humidity (RH); wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) ...
Purvis A J - - 2000
In soccer, goalkeepers routinely wear gloves that may restrict heat loss from the hands and cause thermal discomfort. In order to alleviate this problem phase control materials (PCMs) have been incorporated into gloves to reduce heat load inside the glove, thereby maintaining a comfortable temperature. The aim of this study ...
Zuo L - - 2000
Skeletal muscles are exposed to increased temperatures during intense exercise, particularly in high environmental temperatures. We hypothesized that heat may directly stimulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in diaphragm (one kind of skeletal muscle) and thus potentially play a role in contractile and metabolic activity. Laser scan confocal microscopy ...
Febbraio M A - - 2000
It has been suggested that exercise performance in the heat is limited by the degree of hyperthermia, which, in some circumstances, compromises cardiovascular function and/or the central nervous system. However, this review presents evidence that a temperature-induced dysfunction to skeletal muscle contraction may contribute to a reduction in performance during ...
Flinn S D - - 2000
A 20-year-old military recruit suffered a generalized tonic-clonic seizure following 9 hours of moderate activity in a hot, humid environment. He had drunk at least 5.8 L of plain water before the seizure, and laboratory studies revealed that his serum sodium concentration was 113 mmol/L. Overconsumption of fluids during exercise ...
Noakes T D - - 2000
The strength of modern medicine is its relentless quest for an elusive perfection. That quest requires that we examine our errors even more closely than our successes. It is for this reason that the case report of Flinn and Sherer ("Seizure After Exercise in the Heat: Recognizing Life-Threatening Hyponatremia," page ...
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