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Mannix Edward T ET Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Occupational Medicine, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. - - 2004
Adult athletes have a higher prevalence (11%-50%) of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) than the population at large (7%-11%): reports describing EIB/AHR in adolescent athletes are scant. 1) a minimum AHR prevalence of 20% would be revealed in a group of high school athletes; 2) demographic data would ...
Tardieu-Berger Magaly - - 2004
The purpose of our study was to compare time to exhaustion ( t(lim)) and time spent at a high level of oxygen uptake (V(.)O(2)) during two high-intensity short intermittent exercises (30 s-30 s) realized with or without series. Eleven young endurance-trained athletes [16.6 (0.4) years] took part in three field ...
Bossone Eduardo - - 2004
BACKGROUND: High-performance ice hockey requires unique strength and endurance, which are facilitated by training. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cardiovascular response to training and competition at rest and during recumbent bicycle echocardiography Doppler exercise in 26 elite ice hockey players, and to compare the results with those of 14 healthy, active, ...
Campbell Wayne W - - 2004
In this review article, nutritional considerations of the aging athlete are discussed. The focuses of the review include energy, carbohydrate, protein, selected vitamins and minerals, and fluids. Age-associated changes in body composition, resting energy expenditure, and volume and intensity of training, may decrease the need for dietary energy and the ...
Kilic Mehmet - - 2004
The hematological effects of oral supplementation of zinc to training athletes are reported in the present study. A total of 30 subjects between 16 and 22 yr of age volunteered to participate in a 4-wk study. They were equally divided into three groups. Group 1 acted as resting controls receiving ...
Whyte G P - - 2004
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of physical training upon cardiac structure and function, and identify physiologic upper limits in female athletes. Meta-analytical techniques were applied to 13 published echocardiographic studies examining cardiac structure and function in female athletes. The study group included 890 athletes ...
Heck Amy L AL Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas 77030, - - 2004
Recent advances in human performance research have revealed new insight into the many factors that influence how an individual responds to exercise training. Response to exercise interventions is often highly variable among individuals, however, and exercise response may be mediated in large part by variation in genes and nutrition and ...
Maron Barry J - - 2004
A group of relatively uncommon but important genetic cardiovascular diseases (GCVDs) are associated with increased risk for sudden cardiac death during exercise, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, long-QT syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. These conditions, characterized by diverse phenotypic expression and genetic substrates, account for a substantial proportion of ...
Franklin Barry A - - 2004
Despite the passage of time, masters athletes are still capable of incredible performances. Nevertheless, overuse injuries are the most common challenge in this escalating cohort. The incidence of exertion-related cardiovascular events is also greater among older athletes, especially men, highlighting the importance of a thorough preparticipation medical evaluation before entry ...
Angeli A - - 2004
Physical exercise is a type of allostatic load for several endocrine systems, notably the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Athletes undergoing a strenuous training schedule can develop a significant decrease in performance associated with systemic symptoms or signs: the overtraining syndrome (OTS). This is a stress-related condition that consists of alteration of ...
Durand F - - 2004
Some highly trained endurance athletes develop an exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) at least partially due to a hemodynamic factor with a potential stress failure on pulmonary capillaries. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a pulmonary vasodilatator and its release during exercise could be reduced with endurance training. We hypothesized that athletes exhibiting ...
Campbell Ian G - - 2004
The aims of this study were to examine and compare selected physiological and metabolic responses of wheelchair athletes in two paraplegic racing classes [T3: n = 8 (lesion levels T1-T7; paraplegics); T4: n = 9 (lesion levels below T7; paraplegics)] to prolonged exercise. In addition, we describe the responses of ...
Galloway S D R - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The equivocal findings in the literature on efficacy of massage makes it difficult to assess the requirement for, or justify the use of, specialist massage personnel at major athletics events. However, the use of massage by athletes during training and competition remains popular. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the amount of ...
Stovitz Steven D - - 2004
Are the ethics of athletes complex? Consider that an elite bicyclist might inject himself with hormones to increase his exercise capacity,but if his opponent falls, then that same hormone-abusing athlete will likely stop until his opponent has regained control. This article reviews key concepts from the philosophy of sport. Using ...
Parmelee-Peters Katrina - - 2004
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and its associated symptoms are common among athletes. In the athlete, GER increases with intensity of exercise, is more common with endurance sports, and worse with postprandial exercise. GER has symptoms that overlap with other upper gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. Symptoms of GER can be difficult to distinguish ...
Wakayama Hiroaki - - 2004
In this study, a questionnaire to assess achievement orientation in sport for Japanese athletes was developed. We created the questionnaire by picking items from free descriptions of Japanese athletes and using factor analysis of the responses in a Japanese sport setting. The subjects were 2,415 athletes (M=16.7 yr., SD=2.7) in ...
Enad Jerome G - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of arthroscopic electrothermal capsulorrhaphy for the treatment of instability in overhand athletes. Electrothermal capsulorrhaphy without labral repair was used to treat 20 symptomatic overhand athletes (15 baseball, 3 softball, and 2 volleyball). Nineteen patients were evaluated at a mean of ...
Herrmann Markus - - 2004
PURPOSE: Mechanical manipulation of the prostate is a generally accepted interfering factor for the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). However, only few studies have focused on common daily mechanical manipulations, such as bicycle riding. Furthermore, physical exercise is also supposed to modulate PSA serum concentration. Long-distance mountain biking is an ...
Rundell Kenneth W - - 2004
STUDY OBJECTIVE: For the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, athletes were required to submit objective evidence of asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) for approval to inhale a beta(2)-agonist. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) was recommended as a laboratory challenge that would identify airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) consistent with EIB. The objective was to ...
Kippelen P - - 2004
High-level endurance training contributes to the development of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction but the effect of moderate endurance training on airway function remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and/or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in moderately endurance-trained athletes. Ninety-five Mediterranean amateur endurance-trained ...
Amtmann John A - - 2004
This study surveyed 28 athletes competing at a regional mixed martial arts (MMA) event. The survey attempted to gather information regarding overall training volume, supplement use, and specific exercises used. The survey return rate was 100% (28/28). Twenty-five out of the 28 athletes supplemented their training with strength training. Overall ...
Mujika Iñigo - - 2004
Some of the physiological changes associated with the taper and their relationship with athletic performance are now known. Since the 1980s a number of studies have examined various physiological responses associated with the cardiorespiratory, metabolic, hormonal, neuromuscular and immunological systems during the pre-event taper across a number of sports. Changes ...
Hsieh Margaret - - 2004
This review focuses on possible pathophysiology of exercise-associated hyponatraemia and its implication on evaluation and treatment of collapsed athletes during endurance events. Rehydration guidelines and field care have traditionally been based on the belief that endurance events create a state of significant fluid deficit in athletes, which must be corrected ...
Varlet-Marie E - - 2004
In a previous paper we determined predictive equations for predicting viscosity parameters with whole body Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) in athletes. We have tried to extend this analysis to a sedentary population. 36 sedentary obese or insulin resistant patients (40.36+/-2.30 years; 85.77+/-3.54 kg; 165.93+/-1.56 cm) were enrolled into this study. Body ...
Abraham Pierre - - 2004
Exercise-induced arterial endofibrosis (EIAE) is now a 20-year-old concept. Initially observed in highly trained cyclists, it has been found in many other male and female endurance athletes. Most stenoses are located on the first centimetres of the external iliac artery but other localisation may be found. The disease is defined ...
van Nieuwenhoven Michiel A - - 2004
Some athletes suffer from exercise-induced gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. We developed a profile of GI parameters in 10 symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic athletes both at rest and during exercise. Exercise included 90 min of cycling and running at 70% of maximal power. We measured oesophageal motility, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, orocaecal ...
Krawiec C J - - 2003
The objectives of the study were to assess: (1) static innominate asymmetry in the sagittal plane, (2) leg length discrepancy (LLD), and (3) the relationship between static innominate rotation and LLD in asymptomatic collegiate athletes. The study was an observational study by design which took place in a University athletic ...
Stockbrugger Barry A - - 2003
The present study examined the factors contributing to performance of a backward overhead medicine ball throw (B-MBT) across 2 types of athletes. Twenty male volleyball players (jump athletes) and 20 wrestlers (nonjump athletes) were evaluated on 4 measures of power, including B-MBT, chest medicine ball throw (C-MBT), countermovement vertical jump ...
Calabrese Pascale - - 2004
Mentally imaged but unexecuted physical activity has been reported to induce a cardiorespiratory change. In order to test whether the previous experience of the performed exercise was a prerequisite to observe these changes, ventilation and heart rate were recorded during mental imagination of a rowing race in four groups of ...
Meeusen R - - 2004
In overtrained athletes, several signs and symptoms have been associated with the imbalance between training and recovery. However, reliable diagnostic markers for distinguishing between well-trained, overreached (OR) and overtrained (OT) athletes are lacking. A hallmark feature of overtraining syndrome (OTS) is the inability to sustain intense exercise and recover for ...
Brennan Fred H FH - - 2003
Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg is a well-described and documented cause of exercise-related pain in recreational, elite, and military athletes. Although this condition is common, the exact underlying mechanisms, those most at risk, long-term effects on muscular strength if unrecognized, and prevention strategies are relatively uncertain. Runners ...
Dietrich Marcelo O - - 2003
Physical activity has been shown to be a beneficial stimulus to the central and peripheral nervous systems. The S100B is a cytokine physiologically produced and released predominantly by astrocytes on the central nervous system (CNS). In order to study the possible influence of a nonimpact exercise on S100B serum levels, ...
Ahad Abdul - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Exercise is one of the most common precipitant of acute asthma encountered in clinical practice. To determine frequency of Exercise-induced Bronchospasm (EIB) in male athletes, who had represented or were aspiring to represent at national and/or international level. Athletes of different departments and institutes, district, provincial and national squad ...
Racette Susan B - - 2003
Nutritional supplements and other ergogenic aids have gained widespread use among professional, amateur, recreational, and student athletes for their potential to enhance athletic performance and provide a competitive edge. Creatine monohydrate is one of the more commonly used and potentially beneficial supplements that currently is viewed to be safe. Supplementation ...
Collins Malcolm - - 2003
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Although the beneficial health effects of regular moderate exercise are well established, there is substantial evidence that the heavy training and racing carried out by endurance athletes can cause skeletal muscle damage. This damage is repaired by satellite cells that can undergo a finite number of cell divisions. In ...
Kaciuba-Uscilko H - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: The effect of decreased physical activity with reduced gravitational stress on activity, sensitivity, and reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is not fully recognized. We hypothesized that the effect is most pronounced in physically active subjects. Thus, basal plasma norepinephrine [NE] and epinephrine [E], and catecholamine responses to ...
Warren M P - - 2003
There has been a substantial increase in women practicing sports over the past 30 yr. While exercise provides many health benefits, there appears to be a unique set of risks associated with intense exercise for the female athlete. The female athlete triad encompasses these risks, including amenorrhea, osteoporosis and eating ...
Myburgh Kathryn H - - 2003
Inter-individual variation in endurance performance capacity is a characteristic, not only of the general population, but also in trained athletes. The ability of sport scientists to predict which athletes amongst an elite group will become world-class is limited. We do not fully understand the interactions between biological factors, training, recovery ...
Sambanis M - - 2003
AIM: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of sports training on the ovarian cycle of athletes of various disciplines, and of non-athletes, their participation and their performance in competition as well as the appearance of symptoms of discomfort pre and during the duration of menstruation. METHODS: ...
Turcotte Hélène - - 2003
This study aimed to look at the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms experienced by athletes and to assess the possible influence on the perception of symptoms of training duration and environment. A group of 698 athletes (107 with diagnosed or self-reported asthma) filled out a questionnaire on their respiratory ...
Grant S - - 2003
The aim of this study was to compare the climbing-specific finger endurance of climbers, rowers and aerobically leg trained athletes. Twenty-seven males aged 21.2 +/- 2.2 years (mean +/- s) volunteered for the study. The participants were intermediate rock climbers (n = 9), rowers (n = 9) and leg trained ...
Peters Edith M - - 2003
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite much current debate regarding central and peripheral neural mechanisms which may be responsible for the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise, maintenance of nutritional and hydration status remains critical for successful participation in ultra-endurance exercise. This review focuses on substrate and fluid homeostasis during ultra-endurance exercise ...
Fountain Nathan B - - 2003
It may seem logical to place restrictions on athletes with epilepsy, but there are no studies to suggest that even contact sports exacerbate seizures, and there is ample evidence that exercise reduces seizure frequency and improves well-being. Thus, sports participation should generally be encouraged for epilepsy patients. The risk-benefit analysis ...
Melis F F Department of Sciences Applied to Biosystems, University of Cagliari, - - 2003
Prolactin blood levels are modulated directly by CNS via the known tubero-infundibular dopaminergic neurons which exert an inhibitory action on lactotrope cells in the hypophysis. Prolactin is devoid of peripheral negative feedback and via lesser known central pathways (e.g., mesolimbic and mesocortical) might be further tuned by means of appropriate ...
Martinez John M - - 2003
Medical coverage of endurance events requires knowledge of conditions that are specific to, or present differently in, endurance athletes. Serious conditions such as hyponatremia and rhabdomyolysis, and heat illnesses such as hypo- and hyperthermia, need to be accurately and quickly separated from more benign conditions such as exercise-associated collapse.
Malcovati Luca - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Strategies based on the use of upper thresholds of hemoglobin or hematocrit to detect blood doping in endurance sports have essentially failed to deter this malpractice. With the aim of establishing a more effective strategy, we analyzed the biological variations of hematologic parameters in professional athletes and ...
Sachtleben Thomas - - 2003
Athletes with hypertension are frequently encountered in clinical settings and during preparticipation examinations. This common condition merits special attention in athletes, as they have particular physiologic and sport-specific demands. Awareness of the pressor response to both isometric and isotonic exercise is valuable in managing hypertensive athletes. Recommendations regarding physical activity ...
Metz John P - - 2003
In athletes with upper respiratory infections (URIs), the question of who plays and who sits can be difficult to answer. Acute exercise suppresses several aspects of the immune system. None of these immunologic changes, however, consistently correlate with the incidence of URIs in athletes. The risk of infection with exercise ...
Stewart Ian B - - 2003
determine the effect of formoterol and salbutamol on the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) of highly trained nonasthmatic athletes with exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). Ten male athletes (age = 27.1 +/- 0.7, [OV0312]O(2max) = 65.2 +/- 2.5 mL.kg-1.min-1, SaO(2min) = 91.0 +/- 2.1%) with minimal bronchial reactivity to aerosols (i.e., negative ...
Speedy Dale B - - 2003
Exercise-associated collapse (EAC) is the most common reason that athletes are treated in the medical tent following an endurance event. The pathophysiology of EAC is postural hypotension that results when the loss of muscle pumping action caused by the cessation of exercise is combined with cutaneous vasodilation. EAC usually occurs ...
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